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Emily Morgan, Roger Levy
We ask whether word order preferences for binomial expressions of the form A and B (e.g. bread and butter) are driven by abstract linguistic knowledge of ordering constraints referencing the semantic, phonological, and lexical properties of the constituent words, or by prior direct experience with the specific items in questions. Using forced-choice and self-paced reading tasks, we demonstrate that online processing of never-before-seen binomials is influenced by abstract knowledge of ordering constraints, which we estimate with a probabilistic model...
October 21, 2016: Cognition
Ranjit Singh, Ranju Bansal
Neuroinflammatory mechanisms mediated by activated glial and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) might contribute neuronal degeneration leading to Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an inflammogen derived from the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, which promotes neuroinflammation and subsequent neurodegeneration. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone have been reported as neuroprotective steroids useful for the treatment of various neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, several 16-arylidene steroidal derivatives have been evaluated as neuroprotective agents in LPS-treated animal models...
October 24, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Thomas F Giustino, Paul J Fitzgerald, Stephen Maren
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear...
2016: PloS One
Mandeep S Tamber, Dimitrios Nikas, Alexandra Beier, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Susan Durham, Paul Klimo, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine Mazzola, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Rachana Tyagi, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines exist on the role of cranial-molding orthosis (helmet) therapy for patients with positional plagiocephaly. OBJECTIVE: To address the clinical question: "Does helmet therapy provide effective treatment for positional plagiocephaly?" and to make treatment recommendations based on the available evidence. METHODS: The US National Library of Medicine Medline database and the Cochrane Library were queried by using MeSH headings and key words relevant to the objective of this systematic review...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Lissa C Baird, Paul Klimo, Ann Marie Flannery, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Catherine Mazzola
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based guidelines are not currently available for the treatment of positional plagiocephaly and, in particular, for the use of physical therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVE: To answer the question: "does physical therapy provide effective treatment for positional plagiocephaly?" Treatment recommendations are created based on the available evidence. METHODS: The PubMed and the Cochrane Library were queried using MeSH headings and key words relevant to the objective of this systematic review...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Paul Klimo, Patrick Ryan Lingo, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Catherine Mazzola, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: Plagiocephaly, involving positional deformity of the calvarium in infants, is one of the most common reasons for pediatric neurosurgical consultation. OBJECTIVE: To answer the question: "what is the evidence for the effectiveness of repositioning for positional plagiocephaly?" Treatment recommendations are provided based on the available evidence. METHODS: The National Library of Medicine MEDLINE database and the Cochrane Library were queried using MeSH headings and key words relevant to repositioning as a means to treat plagiocephaly and brachycephaly...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Catherine Mazzola, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Paul Klimo, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines exist for the imaging of patients with positional plagiocephaly. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and evidence-based guideline is to answer the question, Is imaging necessary for infants with positional plagiocephaly to make a diagnosis? METHODS: The National Library of Medicine Medline database and the Cochrane Library were queried with the use of MeSH headings and key words relevant to imaging as a means to diagnose plagiocephaly...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
Srishti Dutta, Jane Tracy
The Editorial Executive Committee welcomes letters, which should be less than 250 words. Before a decision to publish is made, letters which refer to a published article may be sent to the author for a response. Any letter may be sent to an expert for comment. When letters are published, they are usually accompanied in the same issue by any responses or comments. The Committee screens out discourteous, inaccurate or libellous statements. The letters are sub-edited before publication. Authors are required to declare any conflicts of interest...
August 2016: Australian Prescriber
Ryuichi Doizaki, Junji Watanabe, Maki Sakamoto
Several pairs of Japanese adjective words pertaining to a material's properties, such as roughness and hardness, have been used in Japanese studies to quantitatively evaluate variations in tactile sensations. This method asks observers to analyze their perceptual experiences one by one. An alternative notion is that human perceptual recognition is performed as a whole rather than by using fragmented factors. Based on this notion, we propose a system that can automatically estimate multidimensional ratings of touch from a single sound-symbolic word that has been spontaneously and intuitively expressed by a user...
October 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Pascal Goffin, Jeremy Boy, Wesley Willett, Petra Isenberg
We contribute an investigation of the design and function of word-scale graphics and visualizations embedded in text documents. Word-scale graphics include both data-driven representations such as word-scale visualizations and sparklines, and non-data-driven visual marks. Their design, function, and use has so far received little research attention. We present the results of an open ended exploratory study with 9 graphic designers. The study resulted in a rich collection of different types of graphics, data provenance, and relationships between text, graphics, and data...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Naoto Sakuma, Eiji Kimura, Ken Goryo
When viewing briefly presented two arrays of Arabic numerals, observers could accurately indicate which array contained the larger number of a target numeral (Corbett, Oriet, & Rensink, 2006). This study investigated whether this rapid proportion comparison can be extended to other symbols that represent non-numerical meaning but share some of notable properties of Arabic numerals. We mainly tested several Japanese Kanji letters, each of which represents a meaning and can work as a word. Using physically identical stimulus sets that could be interpreted as different types of letters, we first confirmed the rapid proportion comparison with Arabic numerals for Japanese participants in Experiment 1...
October 24, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Hojjat Rouhi-Boroujeni, Esfandiar Heidarian, Hamid Rouhi-Boroujeni, Fatemeh Deris, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this systematic review article is to introduce the medicinal plants that exert significant clinical effects on hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and diabetes. METHODS: In this review article, the international research databases including MEDLINE, Google scholar, EBSCO, Academic Search, Web of Science, SciVerse, Scopus (SCOPUS), EBSCO, Academic Search, Cochrane, Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a Chinese database (China Network Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]) were searched using the key words hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, herbal, obesity, and phytomedicine, matched by MESH, from their respective inceptions up to March, 2016...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Hagop S Akiskal
What I uttered in Athens moved with apparent emotion [that seem to have not escaped Jules Angst's concern] was spontaneous, except for what is printed in the program book, which has somehow vanished from my office, unlike him with his larger than life figure whose memory will live for as long as he lives in the minds and hearts of all those who were privileged to be his family, colleagues, patients, friends, and… countless others, plus those whose email addresses I cannot locate right now sitting in the sunshine of La Jolla-far away from my loved ones-and wondering what ethnic, genetic and environmental factors-perhaps even several Greek gods combined-to produce the original mind and heart of our Athenian friend who, nonetheless, lived in Rome-and now resting not in the 'atheist' cemetery [it took me 5 minutes to spell this word]-but in our hearts for as long as they will beat-perhaps eventually in another realm, 'from whose bourn'-according to Hamlet-no one has ever returned-that's the promise of the Eternal City-where Athanasios is lying...
October 21, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Kelly Warren, Noel Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a vastly prevalent metabolic disorder with escalating global health concerns. Particularly when mismanaged, chronic micro- and macrovascular complications may highly impair physiological systems while immunodeficiency disposes us to infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigate infections, localized complications, and neoplasms of the genitourinary system secondary to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in males and females. METHOD: A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and the genitourinary system...
October 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
Merav Kovatch, Daniel Feingold, Odelia Elkana, Shaul Lev-Ran
Prescription opioid medications are commonly used for the treatment of chronic pain. Assessments of problematic opioid use among pain patients are inconsistent across studies, partially due to differences between various measures. Therefore, the most appropriate measure to use is often unclear. In this study we assessed problematic opioid use in a sample of 551 individuals receiving treatment for chronic pain, using three questionnaires: the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule - Fourth Edition (AUDADIS-IV), the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) questionnaire and Portenoy's criteria (PC)...
October 23, 2016: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
L Sharpe, M Brookes, E Jones, C Gittins, E Wufong, M K Nicholas
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effects of fear of pain (FOP) and threat on attentional biases, using eye-tracking methods. METHOD: One hundred and seven undergraduate students were randomized to receive threatening or reassuring information about the cold pressor task; and divided into high and low FOP groups. Participants completed the dot-probe task, while their eye movements were tracked. RESULTS: Results showed that those who received threatening information were less likely to have their first fixation on pain words, particularly affective pain words...
October 24, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Stephanie A Korenic, Sarah J Nisonger, Benjamin W Krause, S Andrea Wijtenburg, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
Fast mapping (FM), a process that promotes the expeditious incidental learning of information, is thought to support rapid vocabulary acquisition in young children through extra-medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. A recent study suggested that patients with MTL damage resulting in profound amnesia were able to learn novel word-image associations using an FM paradigm. The present study investigated whether FM would be an effective strategy to promote learning for individuals with schizophrenia, a severe mental illness associated with compromised MTL functionality...
June 2016: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Morris B Hoffman
The Murrows' paper, 'A hypothetical link between dehumanization and human rights abuses', in which they propose that neuroscience may answer some difficult public policy questions, including questions about the First Amendment, is an unfortunate foray into law and public policy unjustified by the current state of neuroscience. Neuroscientific insights may one day have important implications for the law, and for some of the folk psychological assumptions embedded in the law, but they will never change the words of the written Constitution, or answer difficult policy questions in the interstices of those words...
April 2016: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
S Vijayachitra, K Sasikala
Research in combinatorics on words goes back a century. Berstel and Boasson introduced the partial words in the context of gene comparison. Alignment of two genes can be viewed as a construction of two partial words that are said to be compatible. In this paper, we examine to which extent the fundamental properties of partial words such as compatbility and conjugacy remain true for partial arrays. This paper studies a relaxation of the compatibility relation called k-compability. It also studies k-conjugacy of partial arrays...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Alex Fogli Iseppe, Angela Pignatelli, Ottorino Belluzzi
Within the olfactory bulb (OB), periglomerular (PG) cells consist of various types of interneurons, generally classified by their chemical properties such as neurotransmitter and calcium binding proteins. Calretinin (CR) characterizes morphologically and functionally the more numerous and one of the less known subpopulation of PG cells in the OB. Using of transgenic mice expressing eGFP under the CR promoter, we have tried to obtain the first functional characterization of these cells. Electrophysiological recordings were made in these cells using the patch-clamp technique in thin slices...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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