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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222354/modelling-with-words-narrative-and-natural-selection
#1
Dominic K Dimech
I argue that verbal models should be included in a philosophical account of the scientific practice of modelling. Weisberg (2013) has directly opposed this thesis on the grounds that verbal structures, if they are used in science, only merely describe models. I look at examples from Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) of verbally constructed narratives that I claim model the general phenomenon of evolution by natural selection. In each of the cases I look at, a particular scenario is described that involves at least some fictitious elements but represents the salient causal components of natural selection...
February 18, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222088/gender-differences-in-bladder-cancer-treatment-decision-making
#2
Rachel A Pozzar, Donna L Berry
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To explore gender differences in bladder cancer treatment decision making.
. RESEARCH APPROACH: Secondary qualitative analysis of interview transcripts.
. SETTING: One multidisciplinary genitourinary oncology clinic (Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) and two urology clinics (Brigham and Women's Hospital and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) in Boston, MA.
. PARTICIPANTS: As part of the original study, 45 men and 15 women with bladder cancer participated in individual interviews...
March 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221300/patient-experience-of-wearing-compression-garments-post-burn-injury-a-review-of-the-literature
#3
Nicole Coghlan, Jodie Copley, Tammy Aplin, Jenny Strong
This review was conducted to critically appraise the literature regarding the patient's lived experience of, and adherence to, wearing compression garments post burn injury. Scholarly articles were identified from searches of the following databases: Pubmed, Cochrane Central, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and OT Seeker. Combinations of key words including compression therapy/garment, pressure therapy/garment, burn(s), adherence, and patient experience were utilized. Retrieved studies were included in the review if they were written in English, reported on adult burn populations, and the patient's lived experience of wearing compression garments...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221087/fechner-s-law-in-metacognition-a-quantitative-model-of-visual-working-memory-confidence
#4
Ronald van den Berg, Aspen H Yoo, Wei Ji Ma
Although visual working memory (VWM) has been studied extensively, it is unknown how people form confidence judgments about their memories. Peirce (1878) speculated that Fechner's law-which states that sensation is proportional to the logarithm of stimulus intensity-might apply to confidence reports. Based on this idea, we hypothesize that humans map the precision of their VWM contents to a confidence rating through Fechner's law. We incorporate this hypothesis into the best available model of VWM encoding and fit it to data from a delayed-estimation experiment...
March 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220990/oxidative-stress-serotonergic-changes-and-decreased-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-a-mouse-model-of-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome
#5
Navila F Sharif, Zeljka Korade, Ned A Porter, Harrison Fiona E
Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome is an inherited monogenic disorder in which mutations to the Dhcr7 gene lead to deficits in cholesterol synthesis. As a result, many patients suffer from gross physiological and neurological deficits. The purpose of this study was to identify a potential abnormal behavioral phenotype in a compound mutant mouse model for Smith Lemli Opitz disease (Dhcr7(Δ3)(-5/)(T93M) ) to further validate the model, and to provide potential targets for future therapeutic interventions. We also sought to identify some of the underlying changes in brain function that may be responsible for behavioral differences among groups...
February 21, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220928/malt-combined-motor-and-language-therapy-tool-for-brain-injury-patients-using-kinect
#6
Maitreyee Wairagkar, Rachel McCrindle, Holly Robson, Lotte Meteyard, Malcom Sperrin, Andy Smith, Moyra Pugh
BACKGROUND: The functional connectivity and structural proximity of elements of the language and motor systems result in frequent co-morbidity post brain injury. Although rehabilitation services are becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and "integrated", treatment for language and motor functions often occurs in isolation. Thus, behavioural therapies which promote neural reorganisation do not reflect the high intersystem connectivity of the neurologically intact brain. As such, there is a pressing need for rehabilitation tools which better reflect and target the impaired cognitive networks...
February 21, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220697/near-infrared-activated-upconversion-nanoprobes-for-sensitive-endogenous-zn2-detection-and-selective-on-demand-photodynamic-therapy
#7
Ping Hu, Rui Wang, Lei Zhou, Lei Chen, Qingsheng Wu, Ming-Yong Han, Ahmed Mohamed El-Toni, Dongyuan Zhao, Fan Zhang
As a light-activated non-invasive cancer treatment paradigm, photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been attracting extensive attentions because of its high treatment efficacy and low side effects. Especially, spatiotemporal control of singlet oxygen (1O2) release is highly desirable for realizing on-demand PDT, which, however, still remains a huge challenge. To address this issue, a novel switchable near infrared (NIR)-responsive upconversion nanoprobe has been firstly designed and successfully applied for controlled PDT that can be optically activated by tumor-associated disruption of labile Zn2+ (denoted as Zn2+ in the following words) homeostasis stimuli...
February 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220094/the-word-frequency-effect-on-saccade-targeting-during-chinese-reading-evidence-from-a-survival-analysis-of-saccade-length
#8
Yanping Liu, Ren Huang, Yugang Li, Dingguo Gao
Our study employs distributional analysis (i.e., survival analysis) to examine how the frequency of target words influences saccade lengths into and out of these target words in Chinese reading. The results of survival analysis indicate the survival curves in the high- and low-frequency conditions diverge for a short saccade length, with more than 80% of the lengths of incoming and outgoing saccades being larger than the divergence points. These results as well as simulations using the novel Dynamic-adjustment Model of saccadic targeting (Liu et al...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219958/interpretation-and-use-of-evidence-in-state-policymaking-a-qualitative-analysis
#9
Dorie E Apollonio, Lisa A Bero
INTRODUCTION: Researchers advocating for evidence-informed policy have attempted to encourage policymakers to develop a greater understanding of research and researchers to develop a better understanding of the policymaking process. Our aim was to apply findings drawn from studies of the policymaking process, specifically the theory of policy windows, to identify strategies used to integrate evidence into policymaking and points in the policymaking process where evidence was more or less relevant...
February 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219552/unusual-gastrointestinal-bleeding-after-sutureless-aortic-valve-replacement-a-word-of-caution
#10
Jules Iquille, Joseph Nader, Eric Colpart, Thierry Caus
We report the clinical case of a male patient who presented, after an aortic valve replacement with a rapid deployment bioprosthesis, a Heyde-like syndrome, secondary to a moderate aortic paravalvular leakage. All the digestive and hematologic investigations confirmed the diagnosis. A redo surgery to fill the paravalvular gap was accomplished and the postoperative course was uneventful, with a normalization of the biological parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of such a complication with the new generation of sutureless bioprosthesis...
March 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219264/we-are-not-gametes-distinguishing-between-abortion-and-contraception
#11
Toni Saad
It is sometimes argued that interruptions of the life's continuum which have the same end result are morally equivalent. In other words, abortion and contraception are ethically identical because both prevent birth and the development of persons. We will examine two major arguments in favour of this thesis: (1) all things that are potential persons have equal moral status. Hence preventing fertilisation of gametes is morally identical to destroying an embryo; (2) all interruptions of the continuous process which leads to the creation of a person are morally equivalent; abortion and contraception are morally indistinguishable...
November 2016: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219259/the-role-of-cognitive-load-in-intentional-forgetting-using-the-think-no-think-task
#12
Saima Noreen, Jan W de Fockert
We investigated the role of cognitive control in intentional forgetting by manipulating working memory load during the think/no-think task. In two experiments, participants learned a series of cue-target word pairs and were asked to recall the target words associated with some cues or to avoid thinking about the target associated with other cues. In addition to this, participants also performed a modified version of the n-back task which required them to respond to the identity of a single target letter present in the currently presented cue word (n = 0 condition, low working memory load), and in either the previous cue word (n = 1 condition, high working memory load, Experiment 1) or the cue word presented two trials previously (n = 2 condition, high working memory load, Experiment 2)...
January 2017: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218938/voices-from-family-medicine-on-becoming-a-family-physician
#13
William B Ventres
In this essay-part memoir, part reflection, and part oral history-I review my early professional development, a several years' long progression after residency training, during which I grew from functioning as a technically competent primary care doctor to being a capable and compassionate family physician. As part of that development, and with my colleague John Frey, MD, I interviewed several of the founders of the modern family medicine movement. Here I review some of their answers to the fundamental question of my early practice years: What does it mean to be a family physician? I cite some of their words of wisdom, those of particular import for me, and discuss how these words both helped me become a family physician and ring true even today as we approach the 50th anniversary of the founding of family medicine...
February 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218161/directly-observed-iron-supplementation-for-control-of-iron-deficiency-anemia
#14
REVIEW
Mohan Bairwa, Farhad Ahamed, Smita Sinha, Kapil Yadav, Shashi Kant, Chandrakant S Pandav
Anemia is major public health problem affecting 1.6 billion people worldwide. The poor compliance of iron supplementation remains main contributor for high prevalence of anemia. The current paper reviewed the effectiveness of direct observation of oral iron supplementation on anemia. A systematic search was performed through electronic databases and local libraries. Search strategies used subject headings and key words "directly observed" and "iron supplementation." Searches were sought through April 2014. A total of 14 articles were included in the study...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217660/reverse-total-shoulder-arthroplasty-research-models
#15
Stefano Petrillo, Umile Giuseppe Longo, Lawrence V Gulotta, Alessandra Berton, Andreas Kontaxis, Timothy Wright, Vincenzo Denaro
PURPOSE: the past decade has seen a considerable increase in the use of research models to study reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Nevertheless, none of these models has been shown to completely reflect real in vivo conditions. METHODS: we performed a systematic review of the literature matching the following key words: "reverse total shoulder arthroplasty" or "reverse total shoulder replacement" or "reverse total shoulder prosthesis" and "research models" or "biomechanical models" or "physical simulators" or "virtual simulators"...
October 2016: Joints
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217493/outcome-and-preferences-in-male-to-female-subjects-with-gender-dysphoria-experience-from-eastern-india
#16
Anirban Majumder, Debmalya Sanyal
CONTEXT: Gender dysphoria (GD) is an increasingly recognized medical condition in India, and little scientific data on treatment outcomes are available. AIMS: Our objective is to study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD in male-to-female (MTF) transgender subjects in Eastern India. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 55 MTF transgender subjects who were presented to the endocrine clinic...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217264/eight-essential-foods-in-iranian-traditional-medicine-and-their-role-in-health-promotion-and-well-being
#17
REVIEW
Mehrdad Zeinalian, Mehdi Eshaghi, Mahdi Hadian, Homayoun Naji, Sayed Mohammad Masoud Marandi, Sedigheh Asgary
Eight essential foods (EEF) described in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) have a determinant role to balance human temperament insuring health and well-being. EEF included oral, imaginary, auditory, visual, olfactory, touch, sexual, and familiarity food. Oral foods should be halal, compatible with individual temper, consumed up twice a day, and compatible with different seasons and geographic conditions. Imaginary food consists of the individual thought content which is directly related to mental and physical fitness...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216857/body-image-and-sexuality-in-women-survivors-of-breast-cancer-in-india-qualitative-findings
#18
Michelle S Barthakur, Mahendra P Sharma, Santosh K Chaturvedi, Suraj K Manjunath
OBJECTIVES: With increasing rates of breast cancer survivors, psychosocial issues surrounding cancer survivorship have been gaining prominence. The following article reports on body image and sexuality-related issues in aftermath of the diagnosis and its treatment in the Indian context. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research design was mixed method, cross-sectional, and exploratory in nature. Quantitative sample consisted of fifty survivors while the qualitative sample size included 15 out of the 50 total breast cancer survivors who were recruited from hospitals, nongovernmental organization, and through word-of-mouth...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216249/position-statement-of-the-brazilian-academy-of-rhinology-on-the-use-of-antihistamines-antileukotrienes-and-oral-corticosteroids-in-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-sinonasal-diseases
#19
Olavo de Godoy Mion, João Ferreira de Mello, Daniel Lorena Dutra, Nilvano Alves de Andrade, Washington Luiz de Cerqueira Almeida, Wilma Teresinha Anselmo-Lima, Leonardo Lopes Balsalobre Filho, Jair de Carvalho E Castro, Roberto Eustáquio Dos Santos Guimarães, Marcus Miranda Lessa, Sérgio Fabrício Maniglia, Roberto Campos Meireles, Márcio Nakanishi, Shirley Shizue Nagata Pignatari, Renato Roithmann, Fabrizio Ricci Romano, Rodrigo de Paula Santos, Marco César Jorge Dos Santos, Edwin Tamashiro
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory conditions of the nose and paranasal sinuses are very prevalent in the general population, resulting in marked loss of quality of life in affected patients, as well as significant work, leisure, and social activity losses. These patients require specific and specialized treatment. A wide range of oral medications are available. OBJECTIVE: The present document is aimed to clarify, for professionals treating patients with inflammatory sinonasal diseases, both specialists and general practitioners, specific oral therapies in noninfectious nasal inflammatory conditions...
January 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216124/the-pattern-and-degree-of-capsular-fibrous-sheaths-surrounding-cochlear-electrode-arrays
#20
Reuven Ishai, Barbara S Herrmann, Joseph B Nadol, Alicia M Quesnel
An inflammatory tissue reaction around the electrode array of a cochlear implant (CI) is common, in particular at the electrode insertion region (cochleostomy) where mechanical trauma often occurs. However, the factors determining the amount and causes of fibrous reaction surrounding the stimulating electrode, especially medially near the perimodiolar location, are unclear. Temporal bone (TB) specimens from patients who had undergone cochlear implantation during life with either Advanced Bionics (AB) Clarion (TM) or HiRes90K(TM) (Sylmar, CA, USA) devices that have a half-band and a pre-curved electrode, or Cochlear (TM) Nucleus (Sydney, Australia) device that have a full-band and a straight electrode were evaluated...
February 16, 2017: Hearing Research
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