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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161610/experimental-modification-of-dysfunctional-interpretations-in-individuals-with-contamination-concerns
#1
Sara L Conley, Kevin D Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dysfunctional interpretations of intrusive thoughts are implicated in the etiology and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Cognitive Bias Modification training for interpretations (CBM-I) has successfully modified dysfunctional interpretations in the context of several disorders, including OCD. However, research regarding CBM-I's impact on symptom reduction and behavior is mixed, which limits its clinical application. Further, support for the specific efficacy of CBM-I in individuals with contamination concerns is limited...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161524/words-matter
#2
Joan E Dodgson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161220/speaking-with-and-without-words-an-analysis-of-foster-children-s-expressions-and-behaviors-that-are-suggestive-of-prior-sexual-abuse
#3
Dorijn Wubs, Laura Batstra, Hans W E Grietens
This exploratory study reports on foster children's informal self-disclosures of previously unknown histories of sexual abuse. Data were collected from 40 children's files, and an inductive thematic analysis of verbal and behavioral expressions was conducted. Findings suggest that foster children's self-disclosures can be fragmented, spontaneous, narrative, or triggered and often occur during everyday activities in the foster family. The children disclose their past by referring to the perpetrator or the severity of the abuse or by acting out, mostly by reenacting sexual abuse experiences...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161175/performance-discrepancies-on-the-boston-naming-test-in-african-american-and-non-hispanic-white-american-young-adults
#4
Sabrina Na, Tricia Z King
The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is one of the most commonly used naming measures in neuropsychology. Although research in the older adult population has shown that African-American (AA) adults perform more poorly on the BNT than non-Hispanic White American (WA) adults, these findings have yet to be replicated in younger adults. The BNT and measures of word reading (WJ-Letter Word ID) and vocabulary (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Vocabulary) were administered to 50 WA and 33 AA young adults. Performance was age-normed based on published norms and transformed into z-scores...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160970/audits-is-audit-a-four-letter-word
#5
Norma J Gomez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nephrology Nursing Journal: Journal of the American Nephrology Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160728/selection-of-amino-acid-chirality-via-neutrino-interactions-with-14-n-in-crossed-electric-and-magnetic-fields
#6
Michael A Famiano, Richard N Boyd, Toshitaka Kajino, Takashi Onaka
Previous work has suggested that the chirality of the amino acids could be established in the magnetic field of a nascent neutron star from a core-collapse supernova or massive collapsar. The magnetic field would orient the (14)N nuclei, and the alignment of its nuclear spin with respect to those of the electron antineutrinos emitted from the collapsing star would determine the probability of destruction of the (14)N nuclei by interactions with the antineutrinos. Subsequent work estimated the bulk polarization of the (14)N nuclei in large rotating meteoroids in such an environment...
November 21, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160335/study-on-the-application-of-the-time-compressed-speech-in-children
#7
Fernanda Yasmin Odila Maestri Miguel Padilha, Maria Madalena Canina Pinheiro
PURPOSE: To analyze the performance of children without alteration of central auditory processing in the Time-compressed Speech Test. METHODS: This is a descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study. Study participants were 22 children aged 7-11 years without central auditory processing disorders. The following instruments were used to assess whether these children presented central auditory processing disorders: Scale of Auditory Behaviors, simplified evaluation of central auditory processing, and Dichotic Test of Digits (binaural integration stage)...
November 9, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160118/the-effectiveness-of-a-classroom-based-phonological-awareness-program-for-4-5-year-olds
#8
Chrissy Kelly, Suze Leitão, Karen Smith-Lock, Brody Heritage
PURPOSE: Numerous studies have reported a robust relationship between early phonological awareness (PA) and subsequent reading achievement, in addition to the critical role of the alphabetic principle in predicting and supporting later reading and spelling development. Given this association, there has been an increasing push to teach these skills to young children prior to word level reading and spelling instruction. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Cracking the Code (CtC) program with students aged 3;8-5;4...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160095/teaching-reading-comprehension-to-learners-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-discrepancies-between-teacher-and-research-recommended-practices
#9
Amy L Accardo, Elizabeth G Finnegan
Students with autism spectrum disorder have been found to experience difficulty with reading comprehension despite intact decoding and word recognition. This identified need for targeted reading comprehension remediation results in a need for teachers to utilize research-based practices and to individualize instruction for students with autism spectrum disorder; however, teachers report a lack of access to such practices. This study utilized survey methodology to gather perceptions and experiences of teachers and to compare teacher preparedness to use effective instructional practices emerging from the extant research to teacher-reported effective practices in the classroom...
November 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160019/comparison-of-animal-action-and-phonemic-fluency-in-aphasia
#10
Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah, Lisa Milman
BACKGROUND: The ability to generate words that follow certain constraints, or verbal fluency, is a sensitive indicator of neurocognitive impairment, and is impacted by a variety of variables. AIMS: To investigate the effect of post-stroke aphasia, elicitation category and linguistic variables on verbal fluency performance. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Twenty-eight persons with aphasia (PWA) with a single left-hemisphere lesion and 40 age-matched neurotypical community-dwelling adults were administered three verbal fluency tasks: two semantic (animals and actions) and one phonemic (the letters F, A and S)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159990/context-effects-and-spoken-word-recognition-of-chinese-an-eye-tracking-study
#11
Michael C W Yip, Mingjun Zhai
This study examined the time-course of context effects on spoken word recognition during Chinese sentence processing. We recruited 60 native Mandarin listeners to participate in an eye-tracking experiment. In this eye-tracking experiment, listeners were told to listen to a sentence carefully, which ended with a Chinese homophone, and look at different visual probes (Chinese characters or different line-drawing pictures) presented concurrently on the computer screen naturally. Different types of context and probe types were manipulated in the experiment...
November 20, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159763/chinese-learners-of-english-see-chinese-words-when-reading-english-words
#12
Fengyang Ma, Haiyang Ai
The present study examines when second language (L2) learners read words in the L2, whether the orthography and/or phonology of the translation words in the first language (L1) is activated and whether the patterns would be modulated by the proficiency in the L2. In two experiments, two groups of Chinese learners of English immersed in the L1 environment, one less proficient and the other more proficient in English, performed a translation recognition task. In this task, participants judged whether pairs of words, with an L2 word preceding an L1 word, were translation words or not...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159679/the-location-word-and-arrow-based-simon-effects-an-ex-gaussian-analysis
#13
Chunming Luo, Robert W Proctor
Task-irrelevant spatial information, conveyed by stimulus location, location word, or arrow direction, can influence the response to task-relevant attributes, generating the location-, word-, and arrow-based Simon effects. We examined whether different mechanisms are involved in the generation of these Simon effects by fitting a mathematical ex-Gaussian function to empirical response time (RT) distributions. Specifically, we tested whether which ex-Gaussian parameters (μ, σ, and τ) show Simon effects and whether the location-, word, and arrow-based effects are on different parameters...
November 20, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159678/on-the-predictability-of-event-boundaries-in-discourse-an-erp-investigation
#14
Francesca Delogu, Heiner Drenhaus, Matthew W Crocker
When reading a text describing an everyday activity, comprehenders build a model of the situation described that includes prior knowledge of the entities, locations, and sequences of actions that typically occur within the event. Previous work has demonstrated that such knowledge guides the processing of incoming information by making event boundaries more or less expected. In the present ERP study, we investigated whether comprehenders' expectations about event boundaries are influenced by how elaborately common events are described in the context...
November 20, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159040/does-the-late-positive-component-reflect-successful-reading-acquisition-a-longitudinal-erp-study
#15
Christian Wachinger, Susanne Volkmer, Katharina Bublath, Jennifer Bruder, Jürgen Bartling, Gerd Schulte-Körne
Developmental dyslexia is a reading disorder that is associated with deficits in phonological processing, where the exact neural basis for those processing deficits remains unclear. In particular, disagreement exists whether degraded phonological representations or an impaired access to the phonological representations causes these deficits. To investigate this question and to trace changes in neurophysiology during the process of reading acquisition, we designed a longitudinal study with event related potentials (ERPs) in children between kindergarten and second grade...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159036/eeg-oscillations-during-word-processing-predict-mci-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Ali Mazaheri, Katrien Segaert, John Olichney, Jin-Chen Yang, Yu-Qiong Niu, Kim Shapiro, Howard Bowman
Only a subset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients progress to develop a form of dementia. A prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive decline in language. We investigated if subtle anomalies in EEG activity of MCI patients during a word comprehension task could provide insight into the likelihood of conversion to AD. We studied 25 amnestic MCI patients, a subset of whom developed AD within 3-years, and 11 elderly controls. In the task, auditory category descriptions (e.g., 'a type of wood') were followed by a single visual target word either semantically congruent (i...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158399/nature-and-origins-of-the-lexicon-in-6-mo-olds
#17
Elika Bergelson, Richard N Aslin
Recent research reported the surprising finding that even 6-mo-olds understand common nouns [Bergelson E, Swingley D (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:3253-3258]. However, is their early lexicon structured and acquired like older learners? We test 6-mo-olds for a hallmark of the mature lexicon: cross-word relations. We also examine whether properties of the home environment that have been linked with lexical knowledge in older children are detectable in the initial stage of comprehension. We use a new dataset, which includes in-lab comprehension and home measures from the same infants...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158027/a-conditioned-reinforcer-did-not-help-to-maintain-an-operant-conditioning-in-the-absence-of-a-primary-reinforcer-in-horses
#18
Léa Lansade, Ludovic Calandreau
The use of conditioned reinforcers is increasingly promoted in animal training. Surprisingly, the efficiency of their use remains to be demonstrated in horses. This study aimed to determine whether an auditory signal which had previously been associated with a food reward 288 times could be used as a conditioned reinforcer to replace the primary reinforcer in an unrelated operant conditioning procedure. Fourteen horses were divided into two groups of 7: No Reinforcement (NR) and Conditioned Reinforcement (CR)...
November 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157937/pure-word-deafness-following-left-temporal-damage-behavioral-and-neuroanatomical-evidence-from-a-new-case
#19
Chiara Maffei, Rita Capasso, Giulia Cazzolli, Cesare Colosimo, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Francesca Piludu, Marco Catani, Gabriele Miceli
Pure Word Deafness (PWD) is a rare disorder, characterized by selective loss of speech input processing. Its most common cause is temporal damage to the primary auditory cortex of both hemispheres, but it has been reported also following unilateral lesions. In unilateral cases, PWD has been attributed to the disconnection of Wernicke's area from both right and left primary auditory cortex. Here we report behavioral and neuroimaging evidence from a new case of left unilateral PWD with both cortical and white matter damage due to a relatively small stroke lesion in the left temporal gyrus...
October 23, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157569/a-regional-consortium-for-doctor-of-nursing-practice-education-integrating-improvement-science-into-the-curriculum
#20
Shea Polancich, Linda Roussel, Barbara Ann Graves, Pamela V O'Neal
The DNP curriculum prepares the graduate for evidence informed improvement translation through coursework integrating improvement, safety, and translation sciences. Innovative leadership skills are necessary to lead inter-professional unit-based and health system opportunities. Equipping the DNP with the necessary skills and competencies to accomplish any type of improvement translation requires exposure to the tools and techniques of these sciences with an emphasis in didactic content. With a foundational knowledge of the principles for improvement, translation and application will follow...
November 2017: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
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