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neuro physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914762/distribution-of-the-neuro-regulatory-peptide-galanin-in-the-human-eye
#1
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894933/parasitism-personality-and-cognition-in-fish
#2
REVIEW
I Barber, A B Mora, E M Payne, K L Weinersmith, A Sih
It is well established that parasites can have profound effects on the behaviour of host organisms, and that individual differences in behaviour can influence susceptibility to parasite infections. Recently, two major themes of research have developed. First, there has been a growing interest in the proximate, mechanistic processes underpinning parasite-associated behaviour change, and the interactive roles of the neuro-, immune, and other physiological systems in determining relationships between behaviour and infection susceptibility...
November 25, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889022/advanced-mr-imaging-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-clinical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Maarten Lequin, Jeroen Hendrikse
Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885658/early-skin-to-skin-contact-for-mothers-and-their-healthy-newborn-infants
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth R Moore, Nils Bergman, Gene C Anderson, Nancy Medley
BACKGROUND: Mother-infant separation post birth is common. In standard hospital care, newborn infants are held wrapped or dressed in their mother's arms, placed in open cribs or under radiant warmers. Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and should last continually until the end of the first breastfeeding. SSC involves placing the dried, naked baby prone on the mother's bare chest, often covered with a warm blanket. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neuro-behaviors ensuring fulfillment of basic biological needs...
November 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884793/sex-stress-and-sleep-apnoea-decreased-susceptibility-to-upper-airway-muscle-dysfunction-following-intermittent-hypoxia-in-females
#5
REVIEW
Ken D O'Halloran, Philip Lewis, Fiona McDonald
Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a devastating respiratory control disorder more common in men than women. The reasons for the sex difference in prevalence are multifactorial, but are partly attributable to protective effects of oestrogen. Indeed, OSAS prevalence increases in post-menopausal women. OSAS is characterized by repeated occlusions of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Dysfunction of the upper airway muscles controlling airway calibre and collapsibility is implicated in the pathophysiology of OSAS, and sex differences in the neuro-mechanical control of upper airway patency are described...
November 21, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873108/flushing-in-neuro-endocrinology
#6
REVIEW
Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Constantine A Stratakis, Christian A Koch
Cutaneous flushing is a common presenting complaint in endocrine disorders. The pathophysiology of flushing involves changes in cutaneous blood flow triggered by multiple intrinsic factors that are either related to physiology or disease. Flushing can be divided into episodic or persistent causes. Episodic flushing is mediated by the release of endogenous vasoactive mediators or medications, while persistent flushing results in a fixed facial erythema with telangiectasia and cyanosis due to slow-flowing deoxygenated blood in large cutaneous blood vessels...
November 21, 2016: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837568/psynteract-a-flexible-cross-platform-open-framework-for-interactive-experiments
#7
Felix Henninger, Pascal J Kieslich, Benjamin E Hilbig
We introduce a novel platform for interactive studies, that is, any form of study in which participants' experiences depend not only on their own responses, but also on those of other participants who complete the same study in parallel, for example a prisoner's dilemma or an ultimatum game. The software thus especially serves the rapidly growing field of strategic interaction research within psychology and behavioral economics. In contrast to all available software packages, our platform does not handle stimulus display and response collection itself...
November 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800506/erythropoietin-and-the-use-of-a-transgenic-model-of-erythropoietin-deficient-mice
#8
REVIEW
Aurélien Pichon, Florine Jeton, Raja El Hasnaoui-Saadani, Luciana Hagström, Thierry Launay, Michèle Beaudry, Dominique Marchant, Patricia Quidu, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Fabrice Favret, Jean-Paul Richalet, Nicolas Voituron
Despite its well-known role in red blood cell production, it is now accepted that erythropoietin (Epo) has other physiological functions. Epo and its receptors are expressed in many tissues, such as the brain and heart. The presence of Epo/Epo receptors in these organs suggests other roles than those usually assigned to this protein. Thus, the aim of this review is to describe the effects of Epo deficiency on adaptation to normoxic and hypoxic environments and to suggest a key role of Epo on main physiological adaptive functions...
2016: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793651/the-effect-of-inflammation-on-sympathetic-nerve-mediated-contractions-in-rat-isolated-caudal-artery
#9
Jocelyn Fotso Soh, Hilary R Strong, Noriko Daneshtalab, Reza Tabrizchi
Chronic inflammatory process(es) contributes to changes in vascular function in a variety of diseases. Sympathetic nerve-mediated responses in blood vessels play a pivotal role in regular physiological functions. We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic neuro-effector function will be altered as consequence of inflammatory state. Sympathetic nerve-mediated contractions and alpha adrenergic receptor expressions were evaluated in isolated caudal arteries of rats treated with saline and Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779750/new-perspectives-on-the-development-of-muscle-contractures-following-central-motor-lesions
#10
J Pingel, E M Bartels, J B Nielsen
Muscle contractures are common in patients with central motor lesions, but the mechanisms responsible for the development of contractures are still unclear. Increased or decreased neural activation, protracted placement of a joint with the muscle in a short position and muscle atrophy have been suggested to be involved, but none of these mechanisms are sufficient to explain the development of muscle contractures alone. Here we propose that changes in tissue homeostasis in the neuro-muscular-tendon-connective tissue complex is at the heart of the development of contractures, and that an integrated physiological understanding of the interaction between neural, mechanical and metabolic factors, as well as genetic and epigenetic factors, is necessary in order to unravel the mechanisms that result in muscle contractures...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778248/analysis-of-the-dynamics-of-temporal-relationships-of-neural-activities-using-optical-imaging-data
#11
Jannetta S Steyn, Peter Andras
The temporal relationship between the activities of neurons in biological neural systems is critically important for the correct delivery of the functionality of these systems. Fine measurement of temporal relationships of neural activities using micro-electrodes is possible but this approach is very limited due to spatial constraints in the context of physiologically valid settings of neural systems. Optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes or calcium dyes can provide data about the activity patterns of many neurons in physiologically valid settings, but the data is relatively noisy...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760301/estrogen-dependent-seasonal-adaptations-in-the-immune-response-of-fish
#12
Ewa Szwejser, B M Lidy Verburg-van Kemenade, Magdalena Maciuszek, Magdalena Chadzinska
Clinical and experimental evidence shows that estrogens affect immunity in mammals. Less is known about this interaction in the evolutionary older, non-mammalian, vertebrates. Fish form an excellent model to identify evolutionary conserved neuroendocrine-immune interactions: i) they are the earliest vertebrates with fully developed innate and adaptive immunity, ii) immune and endocrine parameters vary with season iii) physiology is constantly disrupted by increasing contamination of the aquatic environment...
October 16, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744473/-measuring-orofacial-pain
#13
R S G M Perez
Pain is a complex neuro-physiological phenomenon affecting mind and behaviour, and is in turn also affected by psyche and behaviour. Differences among individuals in modulation, interpretation and expression complicate the comparison of pain between patients. Pain is a subjective experience and can be expressed by the patient in many different ways. In addition, influential factors from a bio-psycho-social perspective have to be taken into consideration: the interaction among somatic, psychological and social factors determines the ultimate pain experience and pain behaviour...
October 2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741997/neuro-ophthalmology-in-emergency-medicine
#14
J Stephen Huff, Everett W Austin
Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the eye, the orbit, and the central connections is key to understanding neuro-ophthalmologic emergencies. Anisocoria is an important sign that requires a systematic approach to avoid misdiagnosis of serious conditions, including carotid dissection (miosis) and aneurysmal third nerve palsy (mydriasis). Ptosis may be a sign of either Horner syndrome or third nerve palsy. An explanation should be pursued for diplopia since the differential diagnosis ranges from the trivial to life-threatening causes...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739190/an-integrative-bio-psycho-social-theory-of-anorexia-nervosa
#15
Calum Munro, Louise Randell, Stephen M Lawrie
: The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719625/updates-on-therapeutics-in-clinical-trials-for-spinal-cord-injuries-key-translational-applications-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-derived-neural-progenitors
#16
Habiba Aurang Zeb, Ishaq Nasib Khan, Iqbal Munir, Wafaa Saadeldin Ramadan, Mian Afaq Ahmad, Deema Hussein, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Saleh Al Karim
Injuries to the spinal cord often have devastating physiological impacts due to the organ's vital role in neuro-impulse communications between muscles and the brain. Spinal Cord Injuries (SCIs) have recently been estimated to affect up to 80,000 individuals per year worldwide, with most occurring following a traumatic event. Unfortunately, effective treatments standardised globally for patients with SCIs have not yet been established. For many years, inadequate understanding of the complexities of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and Neurogenesis has limited progression towards effective cures...
October 4, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717098/neuropeptides-shaping-the-central-nervous-system-development-spatiotemporal-actions-of-vip-and-pacap-through-complementary-signaling-pathways
#17
Tando Maduna, Vincent Lelievre
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) are neuropeptides with wide, complementary, and overlapping distributions in the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they exert important regulatory roles in many physiological processes. VIP and PACAP display a large range of biological cellular targets and functions in the adult nervous system including regulation of neurotransmission and neuroendocrine secretion and neuroprotective and neuroimmune responses...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716781/cross-species-analysis-of-gene-expression-and-function-in-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampus-and-striatum
#18
Wei Chen, Xiayu Xia, Nan Song, Ying Wang, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Qi Kong, Xianmin Pan, Chuan Qin
BACKGROUND: Mouse has been extensively used as a tool for investigating the onset and development of human neurological disorders. As a first step to construct a transgenic mouse model of human brain lesions, it is of fundamental importance to clarify the similarity and divergence of genetic background between non-diseased human and mouse brain tissues. METHODS: We systematically compared, based on large scale integrated microarray data, the transcriptomes of three anatomically distinct brain regions; prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIP) and striatum (STR), across human and mouse...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705817/peptidomics-of-the-zebrafish-danio-rerio-in-search-for-neuropeptides
#19
Kristien A Van Camp, Geert Baggerman, Ronny Blust, Steven J Husson
: (Neuro)peptides are small messenger molecules that are derived from larger, inactive precursor proteins by the highly controlled action of processing enzymes. These biologically active peptides can be found in all metazoan species where they orchestrate a wide variety of physiological processes. Obviously, detailed knowledge on the actual peptide sequences, including the potential existence of truncated versions or presence of post-translation modifications, is of high importance when studying their function...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701788/pleiotropic-function-of-trpv4-ion-channels-in-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Patrick Kanju, Wolfgang Liedtke
What is the topic of this review? In this concise review, we highlight insights into the role of transient receptor potential, vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) ion channels in the CNS, results that have been contributed over the last 16 years since the initial discovery of the channel. What advances does it highlight? TRPV4 has been found to function in neurons, astroglia and microglia, both in physiological (e.g. astrocytic neurovascular coupling, neuronal membrane potential at physiological temperature) and in pathological conditions (e...
December 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
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