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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779815/use-of-standard-enteral-formula-versus-enteric-formula-with-prebiotic-content-in-nutrition-therapy-a-randomized-controlled-study-among-neuro-critical-care-patients
#1
Piril Tuncay, Fatma Arpaci, Mutlu Doganay, Deniz Erdem, Arzu Sahna, Hulya Ergun, Dilek Atabey
OBJECTIVE: To compare use of standard enteral formula versus enteric formula with prebiotic content in terms of nutrition therapy related outcomes among neurocritical care patients. METHODS: A total of 46 adult neurocritical care patients who received nutrition therapy with standard enteral formula (SEF group; n = 23) or enteral formula with prebiotic content (EFPC group; n = 23) during their hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU) were included in this prospective randomized controlled study...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770889/autoregulation-in-the-neuro-icu
#2
REVIEW
Anson Wang, Santiago Ortega-Gutierrez, Nils H Petersen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the concept of cerebral autoregulation, to detail several bedside techniques for measuring and assessing autoregulation, and to outline the impact of impaired autoregulation on clinical and functional outcomes in acute brain injury. Furthermore, we will review several autoregulation studies in select forms of acute brain injuries, discuss the potential for its use in patient management in the ICU, and suggest further avenues for research...
May 17, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758498/accumulation-elimination-and-neuro-oxidative-damage-under-lanthanum-exposure-in-glass-eels-anguilla-anguilla
#3
Cátia Figueiredo, Tiago F Grilo, Clara Lopes, Pedro Brito, Mário Diniz, Miguel Caetano, Rui Rosa, Joana Raimundo
Rare earth elements (REEs) comprise elements from lanthanum to lutetium that together with yttrium and scandium are emergent contaminants of critical importance for numerous groundbreaking environmental technologies. Transfer to aquatic ecosystems is expected to increase, however, little information is known about their potential impacts in marine biota. Considering the endangered conservation status of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and the vulnerability of early fish life stages to contaminants, we exposed glass eels, through water, to an environmentally relevant concentration (120 ng...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752233/electro-physiology-of-coupling-model-and-its-impact-on-naja-kaouthia-venom-treated-sciatic-nerves-of-toad
#4
H K Das, P P Sahu
Demyelination in peripheral nerves causes dysfunction of slowing down and stoppage of nerve impulses causing many neurological diseases, such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, etc. This paper aims to develop a recovery model having interaction of a demyelinated nerve with a normal myelinated nerve. We validated the model by coupling between peripheral nerve of toad (demyelinated with Naja kaouthia venom) and a normal nerve of toad. An increase in both nerve conduction velocity as well as compound action potential amplitude is observed in the repetition of the experiments indicating gradual recovery of the patients...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721579/gaba-a-receptor-polymorphisms-in-alcohol-use-disorder-in-the-gwas-era
#5
REVIEW
Mairi Koulentaki, Elias Kouroumalis
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic, relapsing, neuro-psychiatric illness of high prevalence and with a serious public health impact worldwide. It is complex and polygenic, with a heritability of about 50%, and influenced by environmental causal heterogeneity. Risk factors associated with its etiology have a genetic component. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brain. GABAA receptors are believed to mediate some of the physiological and behavioral actions of alcohol...
May 2, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713425/follow-up-of-mri-bone-marrow-edema-in-the-treated-diabetic-charcot-foot-a-review-of-patient-charts
#6
Ernst-A Chantelau, Sofia Antoniou, Brigitte Zweck, Patrick Haage
Background : Ill-defined areas of water-like signal on bone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), characterized as bone marrow edema or edema-equivalent signal-changes (EESC), is a hallmark of active-stage pedal neuro-osteoarthropathy (Charcot foot) in painless diabetic neuropathy, and is accompanied by local soft-tissue edema and hyperthermia. The longitudinal effects on EESC of treating the foot in a walking cast were elucidated by reviewing consecutive cases of a diabetic foot clinic. Study design : Retrospective observational study, chart review Material and methods : Cases with active-stage Charcot foot were considered, in whom written reports on baseline and follow-up MRI studies were available for assessment...
2018: Diabetic Foot & Ankle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710410/comprehensive-peptide-analysis-of-mouse-brain-striatum-identifies-novel-sorf-encoded-polypeptides
#7
Harshavardhan Budamgunta, Volodimir Olexiouk, Walter Luyten, Karin Schildermans, Evelyne Maes, Kurt Boonen, Gerben Menschaert, Geert Baggerman
Bio-active peptides are involved in the regulation of most physiological processes in the body. Classical bio-active peptides (CBAPs) are cleaved from a larger precursor protein and stored in secretion vesicles from which they are released in the extracellular space. Recently, another non-classical type of bio-active peptides (NCBAPs) have gained interest. These typically are not secreted but instead appear to be translated from short open reading frames (sORF) and released directly into the cytoplasm. In contrast to CBAPs, these peptides are involved in the regulation of intra-cellular processes such as transcriptional control, calcium handling and DNA repair...
April 30, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708532/development-of-recombinant-proteins-to-treat-chronic-pain
#8
Judith Prado, Jelena Popov-Celeketic, Cristine Steen-Louws, Ramin Raoof, Eric Hack, Niels Eijkelkamp
Chronic pain is difficult to treat and new approaches to resolve persistent pain are urgently needed. Anti-inflammatory cytokines are promising candidates for treating debilitating pain conditions due to their capacity to regulate aberrant neuro-immune interactions. However, physiologically they work in a network of various cytokines, and therefore their therapeutic effect may not be optimal when used as stand-alone drugs. To overcome this limitation, we developed a fusion protein of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL4 and IL10...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695746/gold-nanoparticle-mediated-laser-stimulation-induces-a-complex-stress-response-in-neuronal-cells
#9
Sonja Johannsmeier, Patrick Heeger, Mitsuhiro Terakawa, Stefan Kalies, Alexander Heisterkamp, Tammo Ripken, Dag Heinemann
Stimulation of neuronal cells generally resorts to electric signals. Recent advances in laser-based stimulation methods could present an alternative with superior spatiotemporal resolution. The avoidance of electronic crosstalk makes these methods attractive for in vivo therapeutic application. In particular, nano-mediators, such as gold nanoparticles, can be used to transfer the energy from a laser pulse to the cell membrane and subsequently activate excitable cells. Although the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activation have been widely unraveled, the overall effect on the targeted cell is not understood...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684179/comparing-plant-and-animal-glutamate-receptors-common-traits-but-different-fates
#10
Michael M Wudick, Erwan Michard, Custódio Oliveira Nunes, José A Feijó
Animal ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated channels whose evolution is intimately linked to the one of the nervous system, where the agonist glutamate and co-agonists glycine/D-serine act as neuro-transmitters or -modulators. While iGluRs are specialized in neuronal communication, plant glutamate receptor-like (GLR) homologues have evolved many plant-specific physiological functions, such as sperm signaling in moss, pollen tube growth, root meristem proliferation, innate immune and wound responses...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677367/stable-microsaccades-and-microsaccade-induced-global-alpha-band-phase-reset-across-the-life-span
#11
Ying Gao, Carl Huber, Bernhard A Sabel
Purpose: To understand the effect of aging on microsaccade functions and brain physiologic responses, we quantified microsaccades and their physiologic correlates (including their interaction with alpha band brain oscillation) in normal subjects of different ages. Methods: Twenty-two normally sighted young (18 to 29 years), 22 middle-aged (31 to 55 years), and 22 elderly subjects (56 to 77 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Dense array EEG and high-resolution eye-tracking data were simultaneously recorded during a fixation task...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623033/aggression-social-stress-and-the-immune-system-in-humans-and-animal-models
#12
REVIEW
Aki Takahashi, Meghan E Flanigan, Bruce S McEwen, Scott J Russo
Social stress can lead to the development of psychological problems ranging from exaggerated anxiety and depression to antisocial and violence-related behaviors. Increasing evidence suggests that the immune system is involved in responses to social stress in adulthood. For example, human studies show that individuals with high aggression traits display heightened inflammatory cytokine levels and dysregulated immune responses such as slower wound healing. Similar findings have been observed in patients with depression, and comorbidity of depression and aggression was correlated with stronger immune dysregulation...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615850/interplay-between-the-gut-brain-axis-obesity-and-cognitive-function
#13
REVIEW
Ana Agustí, Maria P García-Pardo, Inmaculada López-Almela, Isabel Campillo, Michael Maes, Marina Romaní-Pérez, Yolanda Sanz
Obesity continues to be one of the major public health problems due to its high prevalence and co-morbidities. Common co-morbidities not only include cardiometabolic disorders but also mood and cognitive disorders. Obese subjects often show deficits in memory, learning and executive functions compared to normal weight subjects. Epidemiological studies also indicate that obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing depression and anxiety, and vice versa . These associations between pathologies that presumably have different etiologies suggest shared pathological mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576121/anti-nociceptive-effects-of-caloric-restriction-on-neuropathic-pain-in-rats-involves-silent-information-regulator-1
#14
Y Liu, Y Ni, W Zhang, Y E Sun, M Jiang, W J Gu, Z L Ma, X P Gu
BACKGROUND: Caloric restriction (CR) increases both average and maximum lifespan, retards physiological signs of ageing, and delays the onset of several diseases and may mediate neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain seriously affects the quality of life of patients. In this study, we investigated whether CR exerts anti-nociceptive effects on neuropathic pain, and probed its potential mechanisms. METHODS: Adult rats were divided into two dietary groups: an ad libitum (AL)-fed group and a CR group, which was provided with 60% of the food intake of AL rats for 6 weeks...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567584/interaction-between-striatal-volume-and-dat1-polymorphism-predicts-working-memory-development-during-adolescence
#15
F Nemmi, C Nymberg, F Darki, T Banaschewski, A L W Bokde, C Büchel, H Flor, V Frouin, H Garavan, P Gowland, A Heinz, J-L Martinot, F Nees, T Paus, M N Smolka, T W Robbins, G Schumann, T Klingberg
There is considerable inter-individual variability in the rate at which working memory (WM) develops during childhood and adolescence, but the neural and genetic basis for these differences are poorly understood. Dopamine-related genes, striatal activation and morphology have been associated with increased WM capacity after training. Here we tested the hypothesis that these factors would also explain some of the inter-individual differences in the rate of WM development. We measured WM performance in 487 healthy subjects twice: at age 14 and 19...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532418/the-psychophysiological-determinants-of-pacing-behaviour-and-performance-during-prolonged-endurance-exercise-a-performance-level-and-competition-outcome-comparison
#16
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic P Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
INTRODUCTION: A three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour emphasised the integration of distinct sensory-discriminatory, affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative dimensions that underpin perceived fatigability. This study aimed to capture the complex interdependencies and temporal dynamics in these processes, their interrelations with observed pacing behaviour, performance and biochemical variables as well as their performance level- and competition outcome-dependent variances...
March 12, 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527011/space-flight-associated-neuro-ocular-syndrome-sans
#17
REVIEW
Andrew G Lee, Thomas H Mader, C Robert Gibson, Tyson J Brunstetter, William J Tarver
Interesting novel and somewhat perplexing physiologic and pathologic neuro-ocular findings have been documented in astronauts during and after long duration space flight (LDSF). These findings collectively have been termed the "space flight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome" (SANS). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States has meticulously and prospectively documented the clinical, ultrasound, optical coherence tomography imaging, and radiographic findings of SANS including unilateral and bilateral optic disc edema, globe flattening, choroidal and retinal folds, hyperopic refractive error shifts, and nerve fiber layer infarcts (i...
March 12, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524231/dynamics-of-neuroeffector-coupling-at-cardiac-sympathetic-synapses
#18
Valentina Prando, Francesca Da Broi, Mauro Franzoso, Anna Pia Plazzo, Nicola Pianca, Maura Francolini, Cristina Basso, Matthew W Kay, Tania Zaglia, Marco Mongillo
KEY POINTS: The present study demonstrates, by in vitro and in vivo analyses, the novel concept that signal transmission between sympathetic neurons and the heart, underlying the physiological regulation of cardiac function, operates in a quasi-synaptic fashion. This is a result of the direct coupling between neurotransmitter releasing sites and effector cardiomyocyte membranes. ABSTRACT: Cardiac sympathetic neurons (SNs) finely tune the rate and strength of heart contractions to match blood demand, both at rest and during acute stress, through the release of noradrenaline (NE)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507308/circuit-specific-and-neuronal-subcellular-wide-e-i-balance-in-cortical-pyramidal-cells
#19
Weiguo Yang, Qian-Quan Sun
We used ChR2-assisted circuit mapping (CRACM) to examine neuronal/compartmental excitatory and inhibitory synaptic balance (E-I balance) in pyramidal cells (PCs) located in several brain regions (including both neocortices and paleocortices). Within the vS1, different inputs on the same neurons, or the same inputs formed on different targets, induced different E/I ratios. E/I ratios in PCs from different regions were largely different. Chemogenetic silencing of somatostatin (SOM)- or parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons (INs) while optogenetically activating long-range M1 inputs demonstrated differential contribution of PV and SOM INs to the E/I ratios in a layer-specific manner in S1...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498762/the-effects-of-capillary-transit-time-heterogeneity-on-the-bold-signal
#20
Hugo Angleys, Sune N Jespersen, Leif Østergaard
Neurovascular coupling mechanisms give rise to vasodilation and functional hyperemia upon neural activation, thereby altering blood oxygenation. This blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast allows studies of activation patterns in the working human brain by functional MRI (fMRI). The BOLD-weighted fMRI signal shows characteristic transients in relation to functional activation, such as the so-called initial dip, overshoot, and post-stimulus undershoot. These transients are modulated by other physiological stimuli and in disease, but the underlying physiological mechanisms remain incompletely understood...
June 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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