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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143889/beyond-pathologizing-harm-understanding-ptsd-in-the-context-of-war-experience
#1
Patricia Benner, Jodi Halpern, Deborah R Gordon, Catherine Long Popell, Patricia W Kelley
An alternative to objectifying approaches to understanding Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology is presented. Nurses who provided care for soldiers injured in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, and sixty-seven wounded male servicemen in the rehabilitation phase of their recovery were interviewed. PTSD is the one major psychiatric diagnosis where social causation is established, yet PTSD is predominantly viewed in terms of the usual neuro-physiological causal models with traumatic social events viewed as pathogens with dose related effects...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120871/a-srsf1-self-binding-mechanism-restrains-mir505-3p-from-inhibiting-proliferation-of-neural-tumor-cell-lines
#2
Kan Yang, Li Tong, Kai Li, Yuxun Zhou, Junhua Xiao
Srsf1 has currently been demonstrated to be an oncogene that is precisely autoregulated for normal physiology. Although Mir505-3p has been reported as one of the regulatory miRNAs of Srsf1 in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF), the inhibitory effect of Mir505-3p on Srsf1 is poorly described in neural tumors. Whether SRSF1 autoregulation interferes with miRNA targeting on the Srsf1 transcript is unclear. In this work, we screened out one target site, out of three potential target sites on 3' UTR of Srsf1 transcript, that was required for Mir505-3p targeting...
November 8, 2017: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099872/a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial-of-ekg-for-neonatal-resuscitation
#3
Anup Katheria, Kathy Arnell, Melissa Brown, Kasim Hassen, Mauricio Maldonado, Wade Rich, Neil Finer
BACKGROUND: The seventh edition of the American Academy of Pediatrics Neonatal Resuscitation Program recommends the use of a cardiac monitor in infants that need resuscitation. Previous trials have shown that EKG heart rate is available before pulse rate from a pulse oximeter. To date no trial has looked at how the availability of electrocardiogram (EKG) affects clinical interventions in the delivery room. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the availability of an EKG heart rate value and tracing to the clinical team has an effect on physiologic measures and related interventions during the stabilization of preterm infants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091053/multiscale-network-representation-of-physiological-time-series-for-early-prediction-of-sepsis
#4
Supreeth Prajwal Shashikumar, Qiao Li, Gari D Clifford, Shamim Nemati
Sepsis, a dysregulated immune-mediated host response to infection, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Indices of heart rate variability and complexity (such as entropy) have been proposed as surrogate markers of Neuro-immune system dysregulation with diseases such as sepsis. However, these indices only provide an average, one dimensional description of complex neuro-physiological interactions. We propose a novel multiscale network construction and analysis method for multivariate physiological time series, and demonstrate its utility for early prediction of sepsis...
November 1, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059457/systemic-regulation-of-bilirubin-homeostasis-potential-benefits-of-hyperbilirubinemia
#5
REVIEW
Ryoichi Fujiwara, Mathias Haag, Elke Schaeffeler, Anne T Nies, Ulrich M Zanger, Matthias Schwab
Neurotoxic bilirubin is the end product of heme catabolism in mammals. Bilirubin is solely conjugated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, which is a membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes a transfer of glucuronic acid. Due to low function of hepatic and intestinal UGT1A1 during the neonatal period, human neonates develop mild to severe physiological hyperbilirubinemia. The accumulation of bilirubin in the brain leads to the onset of irreversible brain damage, kernicterus. Breastfeeding is one of the most significant factors that increase the risk of developing kernicterus in infants...
October 23, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057172/cerebral-and-retinal-neurovascular-changes-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Karru Venkata Ravi Teja, Tjm Tos Berendschot, Harry Steinbusch, A B Carroll Webers, R Praveen Murthy, P S Mathuranath
OBJECTIVES: Biomarker quest for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has gone a long way by studying various anatomical, physiological and biochemical parameters for detecting disease onset and predicting prognosis. Almost all the studies converge on the single hypothesis of the amyloid and Tau pathway. Recently, vascular hypothesis has evolved drawing attention towards a complex dynamic anatomical and physiological entity, neuro-vascular (NV) unit. Pathological changes at this level, altering the normal physiology such as auto-regulation and dynamics of blood brain barrier have been hypothesized as a probable basis for AD...
August 2017: Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053785/progranulin-a-new-avenue-towards-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#7
Babykumari P Chitramuthu, Hugh P J Bennett, Andrew Bateman
Progranulin, a secreted glycoprotein, is encoded in humans by the single GRN gene. Progranulin consists of seven and a half, tandemly repeated, non-identical copies of the 12 cysteine granulin motif. Many cellular processes and diseases are associated with this unique pleiotropic factor that include, but are not limited to, embryogenesis, tumorigenesis, inflammation, wound repair, neurodegeneration and lysosome function. Haploinsufficiency caused by autosomal dominant mutations within the GRN gene leads to frontotemporal lobar degeneration, a progressive neuronal atrophy that presents in patients as frontotemporal dementia...
August 18, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046256/capping-effects-on-polymorphic-a%C3%AE-16-21-amyloids-depend-on-their-size-a-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study
#8
Myeongsang Lee, Hyun Joon Chang, Hyunsung Choi, Sungsoo Na
Understanding Aβ amyloid oligomers associated with neuro-degenerative diseases is needed due to their toxic characteristics and mediation of amyloid fibril growth. Depending on various physiological circumstances such as ionic strength, metal ion, and point-residue mutation, oligomeric amyloids exhibit polymorphic behavior and structural stabilities, i.e. showing different conformation and stabilities. Specifically, experimental and computational researchers have found that the capping modulates the physical and chemical properties of amyloids by preserving electrostatic energy interactions, which is one of the dominant factors for amyloid stability...
October 10, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044165/in-vivo-neuromechanics-decoding-causal-motor-neuron-behavior-with-resulting-musculoskeletal-function
#9
Massimo Sartori, Utku Ş Yavuz, Dario Farina
Human motor function emerges from the interaction between the neuromuscular and the musculoskeletal systems. Despite the knowledge of the mechanisms underlying neural and mechanical functions, there is no relevant understanding of the neuro-mechanical interplay in the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. This currently represents the major challenge to the understanding of human movement. We address this challenge by proposing a paradigm for investigating spinal motor neuron contribution to skeletal joint mechanical function in the intact human in vivo...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038079/optical-coherence-tomography-in-the-management-of-skull-base-fibrous-dysplasia-with-optic-nerve-involvement
#10
Joshua Loewenstern, Christopher M Hernandez, Carolyn Chadwick, Amish Doshi, Rudrani Banik, Christopher A Sarkiss, Joshua Bederson, Raj K Shrivastava
BACKGROUND: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) of the skull base can present with optic nerve compression. As most patients initially do not experience vision loss, controversy exists whether to proceed with prophylactic surgical decompression or elect for conservative observation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a physiologic imaging modality widely used to assess the condition of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), has been useful in monitoring compressive tumors on the optic nerve. The present study evaluated the potential use of OCT in the management of FD patients with optic nerve involvement...
October 13, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018076/protocol-for-a-prospective-interventional-trial-to-develop-a-diagnostic-index-test-for-stroke-as-a-cause-of-vertigo-dizziness-and-imbalance-in-the-emergency-room-emvert-study
#11
Ken Möhwald, Stanislavs Bardins, Hans-Helge Müller, Klaus Jahn, Andreas Zwergal
INTRODUCTION: Identifying stroke as a cause of acute vertigo, dizziness and imbalance in the emergency room is still a clinical challenge. Many patients are admitted to stroke units, but only a minority will have strokes. This imposes a heavy financial burden on the healthcare system. The aim of this study is to develop a diagnostic index test to identify patients with a high risk of having a stroke as the cause of acute vertigo and imbalance. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Patients with acute onset of vertigo, dizziness, postural imbalance or double vision within the last 24 hours lasting for at least 10 min are eligible to be included in the study...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992195/neural-versus-gonadal-gnih-are-they-independent-systems-a-mini-review
#12
George E Bentley, Kathryn Wilsterman, Darcy K Ernst, Sharon E Lynn, Molly J Dickens, Rebecca M Calisi, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Daniela Kaufer, Anna C Geraghty, Dax viviD, Nicolette L McGuire, Patricia C Lopes, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui
Based on research in protochordates and basal vertebrates, we know that communication across the first endocrine axes likely relied on diffusion. Because diffusion is relatively slow, rapid responses to some cues, including stress-related cues, may have required further local control of axis outputs (e.g., steroid hormone production by the gonads). Despite the evolution of much more efficient circulatory systems and complex nervous systems in vertebrates, production of many "neuro"transmitters has been identified outside of the hypothalamus across the vertebrate phylogeny and these neurotransmitters are known to locally regulate endocrine function...
September 2, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988348/insight-into-the-neuroendocrine-basis-of-signal-evolution-a-case-study-in-foot-flagging-frogs
#13
REVIEW
Lisa A Mangiamele, Matthew J Fuxjager
A hallmark of sexual selection is the evolution of elaborate male sexual signals. Yet, how the physiology of an animal changes to support a new or modified signal is a question that has remained largely unanswered. Androgens are important in regulating male reproductive behavior, therefore, selection for particular signals may drive the evolution of increased androgenic sensitivity in the neuro-motor systems underlying their production. Studies of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of anuran sexual signaling provide evidence to support this idea...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980233/molecular-and-neuroendocrine-mechanisms-of-avian-seasonal-reproduction
#14
T Katherine Tamai, Takashi Yoshimura
Animals living outside tropical zones experience seasonal changes in the environment and accordingly, adapt their physiology and behavior in reproduction, molting, and migration. Subtropical birds are excellent models for the study of seasonal reproduction because of their rapid and dramatic response to changes in photoperiod. For example, testicular weight typically changes by more than a 100-fold. In birds, the eyes are not necessary for seasonal reproduction, and light is instead perceived by deep brain photoreceptors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961101/low-to-high-cross-frequency-coupling-in-the-electrical-rhythms-as-biomarker-for-hyperexcitable-neuro-glial-networks-of-the-brain
#15
Vasily Grigorovsky, Berj L Bardakjian
OBJECTIVE: One of the features used in the study of hyperexcitablility are high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80Hz). HFOs have been reported in the electrical rhythms of the brain's neuro-glial networks under physiological and pathological conditions. Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) of HFOs with low frequency rhythms was used to identify pathologic HFOs (pHFOs) (i) in the epileptogenic zones of epileptic patients, and (ii) as a biomarker for the severity of seizure-like events in genetically modified rodent models...
September 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946612/meditative-movement-energetic-and-physical-analyses-of-three-qigong-exercises-unification-of-eastern-and-western-mechanistic-exercise-theory
#16
Penelope Klein, George Picard, Joseph Baumgarden, Roger Schneider
Abstract: Qigong is the meditative movement and therapeutic exercise of Eastern medicine. A growing body of evidence is validating its health benefits leading to mechanistic questions of how it works. The purpose of this article is to explore mechanisms of action related to Qigong, with the intent of unifying Eastern and Western exercise theory and to present a model for Qigong exercise analysis. Three exercises from a standardized Qigong form: 'Plucking the Stars', 'Lotus Leaves Rustle in the Wind', and 'Pacing Forwards and Backwards' were selected for meditative, energetic, and physical analyses...
September 23, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943841/microglia-an-interface-between-the-loss-of-neuroplasticity-and-depression
#17
REVIEW
Gaurav Singhal, Bernhard T Baune
Depression has been widely accepted as a major psychiatric disease affecting nearly 350 million people worldwide. Research focus is now shifting from studying the extrinsic and social factors of depression to the underlying molecular causes. Microglial activity is shown to be associated with pathological conditions, such as psychological stress, pathological aging, and chronic infections. These are primary immune effector cells in the CNS and regulate the extensive dialogue between the nervous and the immune systems in response to different immunological, physiological, and psychological stressors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941325/neuro-immune-interactions-in-inflammation-and-host-defense-implications-for-transplantation
#18
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Pingchuan Ma, Isaac M Chiu
Sensory and autonomic neurons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) play a critical role in regulating the immune system during tissue inflammation and host defense. Recent studies have identified the molecular mechanisms underlying the bidirectional communication between the nervous system and the immune system. Here, we highlight the studies that demonstrate the importance of the neuro-immune interactions in health and disease. Nociceptor sensory neurons detect immune mediators to produce pain, and release neuropeptides that act on the immune system to regulate inflammation...
September 23, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933618/novel-cns-drug-discovery-and-development-approach-model-based-integration-to-predict-neuro-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics
#19
Elizabeth C M de Lange, Willem van den Brink, Yumi Yamamoto, Wilhelmus E A de Witte, Yin Cheong Wong
CNS drug development has been hampered by inadequate consideration of CNS pharmacokinetic (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and disease complexity (reductionist approach). Improvement is required via integrative model-based approaches. Areas covered: The authors summarize factors that have played a role in the high attrition rate of CNS compounds. Recent advances in CNS research and drug discovery are presented, especially with regard to assessment of relevant neuro-PK parameters. Suggestions for further improvements are also discussed...
September 21, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921568/neuronal-activity-dependent-local-activation-of-dendritic-unfolded-protein-response-promotes-expression-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-cell-soma
#20
Atsushi Saito, Longjie Cai, Koji Matsuhisa, Yosuke Ohtake, Masayuki Kaneko, Soshi Kanemoto, Rie Asada, Kazunori Imaizumi
Unfolded protein response (UPR) has roles not only in resolving the accumulation of unfolded proteins owing to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, but also in regulation of cellular physiological functions. ER stress transducers providing the branches of UPR signaling are known to localize in distal dendritic ER of neurons. These reports suggest that local activation of UPR branches may produce integrated outputs for distant communication, and allow regulation of local events in highly polarized neurons. Here, we demonstrated that synaptic activity- and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent local activation of UPR signaling could be associated with dendritic functions through retrograde signal propagation by using murine neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro-2A and primary cultured hippocampal neurons derived from postnatal day 0 litter C57BL/6 mice...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
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