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cognitive studies

William H Curley, Peter B Forgacs, Henning U Voss, Mary M Conte, Nicholas D Schiff
Patients with severe brain injury are difficult to assess and frequently subject to misdiagnosis. 'Cognitive motor dissociation' is a term used to describe a subset of such patients with preserved cognition as detected with neuroimaging methods but not evident in behavioural assessments. Unlike the locked-in state, cognitive motor dissociation after severe brain injury is prominently marked by concomitant injuries across the cerebrum in addition to limited or no motoric function. In the present study, we sought to characterize the EEG signals used as indicators of cognition in patients with disorders of consciousness and examine their reliability for potential future use to re-establish communication...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Mary C Davis, Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant, Ellen WanHeung Yeung, Linda J Luecken, Alex J Zautra, Michael R Irwin
Background: Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of cognitive deficits in adulthood, a relation that is likely mediated by stress-sensitive psychological and physiological indicators. Purpose: To evaluate whether the link between exposure to childhood abuse and cognitive function in middle adulthood is mediated by interleukin-6 (IL-6), metabolic risk, and depressive mood symptoms. Methods: Participants were 770 adults aged 40-65 recruited from the community, who completed the following: (i) a questionnaire assessing exposure to abuse prior to age 18, (ii) a phone interview assessing current depressive mood symptoms, and (iii) a home visit that included blood sampling for evaluation of IL-6 and assessment of metabolic risk indices...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Elena Boto, Niall Holmes, James Leggett, Gillian Roberts, Vishal Shah, Sofie S Meyer, Leonardo Duque Muñoz, Karen J Mullinger, Tim M Tierney, Sven Bestmann, Gareth R Barnes, Richard Bowtell, Matthew J Brookes
Imaging human brain function with techniques such as magnetoencephalography typically requires a subject to perform tasks while their head remains still within a restrictive scanner. This artificial environment makes the technique inaccessible to many people, and limits the experimental questions that can be addressed. For example, it has been difficult to apply neuroimaging to investigation of the neural substrates of cognitive development in babies and children, or to study processes in adults that require unconstrained head movement (such as spatial navigation)...
March 21, 2018: Nature
Lukas M von Ziegler, Nathalie Selevsek, Ry Y Tweedie-Cullen, Eloïse Kremer, Isabelle M Mansuy
The hippocampal formation is a brain structure essential for higher-order cognitive functions. It has a complex anatomical organization and cellular composition, and hippocampal subregions have different properties and functional roles. In this study, we used SWATH-MS to determine whether the proteomes of hippocampus areas CA1 and CA3 can explain the commonalities or specificities of these subregions in basal conditions and after recognition memory. We show that the proteomes of areas CA1 and CA3 are largely different in basal conditions and that differential changes and dynamics in protein expression are induced in these areas after recognition of an object or object location...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Bérénice Lecluyse, Claire Triquet, Emmanuel Brunelle, Jean-Paul Duparcq, Jean-Louis Nandrino
OBJECTIVES: Impairments in social cognition have been described as playing a major role in the maintenance of addictive behavior in substance abusers. This study aimed to investigate the Theory of Mind (ToM) ability of opiate-dependent (OD) patients and to explore whether TOM ability was correlated with length of substance abuse, age at onset of substance abuse and length of abstinence. METHODS: OD patients (N = 29) and non-dependent individuals (NDI) (N = 29) were submitted to the Theory of Mind Assessment Scale (Th...
March 12, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Guillaume Huguet, Catherine Schramm, Elise Douard, Lai Jiang, Aurélie Labbe, Frédérique Tihy, Géraldine Mathonnet, Sonia Nizard, Emmanuelle Lemyre, Alexandre Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Eva Loth, Roberto Toro, Gunter Schumann, Patricia Conrod, Zdenka Pausova, Celia Greenwood, Tomas Paus, Thomas Bourgeron, Sébastien Jacquemont
Importance;: Copy number variants (CNVs) classified as pathogenic are identified in 10% to 15% of patients referred for neurodevelopmental disorders. However, their effect sizes on cognitive traits measured as a continuum remain mostly unknown because most of them are too rare to be studied individually using association studies. Objective: To measure and estimate the effect sizes of recurrent and nonrecurrent CNVs on IQ. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study identified all CNVs that were 50 kilobases (kb) or larger in 2 general population cohorts (the IMAGEN project and the Saguenay Youth Study) with measures of IQ...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Jianhua Tang, Yuqing Zhen, Ling Yu, Cui Lv, Juan Zheng, Hui Liang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuropsychological characteristics and changes in CRP, S100B, MBP, HSP-7, and NSE in serum. METHOD: Sixty-six (66) patients treated in our hospital as CCCI group were chosen for our study, and 90 patients with depression were selected as the depression group. The patients in both groups were examined with CT perfusion, depression, anxiety and cognition evaluation. Their serum CRP, S100B, MBP, HSP-70 and NSE levels were detected. Neuropsychological and serum markers characteristics were compared...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Kate S Collison, Angela Inglis, Sherin Shibin, Soad Saleh, Bernard Andres, Rosario Ubungen, Jennifer Thiam, Princess Mata, Futwan A Al-Mohanna
RATIONALE: Aspartame (L-aspartyl phenylalanine methyl ester) is a non-nutritive sweetener (NNS) approved for use in more than 6000 dietary products and pharmaceuticals consumed by the general public including adults and children, pregnant and nursing mothers. However a recent prospective study reported a doubling of the risk of being overweight amongst 1-year old children whose mothers consumed NNS-sweetened beverages daily during pregnancy. We have previously shown that chronic aspartame (ASP) exposure commencing in utero may detrimentally affect adulthood adiposity status, glucose metabolism and aspects of behavior and spatial cognition, and that this can be modulated by developmental N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade with the competitive antagonist CGP 39551 (CGP)...
2018: PloS One
Beyza Aksu Dunya, Clark McKown, Everett V Smith
Social perspective-taking (SPT), which involves the ability infer others' intentions, is a consequential social cognitive process. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of a web-based social perspective-taking (SELweb SPT) assessment designed for children in kindergarten through third grade. Data were collected from two separate samples of children. The first sample included 3224 children and the second sample included 4419 children. Data were calibrated using Rasch dichotomous model (Rasch, 1960)...
2018: Journal of Applied Measurement
Xia Liao, Cuiping Mao, Yuan Wang, Qingfeng Zhang, Dongyuan Cao, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang, Xiaoli Yang
Altered cerebral gray matter volume (GMV) is commonly found in patients with chronic pain. Chronic pain is the prominent characteristic of knee osteoarthritis (KOA), yet little is known about its morphological changes in the brain. Here an MRI study was performed to examine the structural brain abnormalities in 30 KOA patients with knee pain and age-matched healthy subjects. We detected that the patients exhibited significant almost 2-fold age-related decreases of GMV compared to healthy controls. Moreover, KOA patients also had significant loss of regional GMV including in the bilateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC), the right lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), and precentral and postcentral cortices...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Iris Bomilcar, Robin G Morris, Richard G Brown, Daniel C Mograbi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lack of awareness about impairments is commonly found in Alzheimer disease (AD), but recent evidence suggests that patients may respond to the experience of illness despite limited awareness. In this study, we explored whether implicit emotional responses to experiences of failure in cognitive tasks would result in longer-term change in behavior. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with AD were seen 1 week after a previous session in which they performed computer tasks that had been manipulated to be either too difficult (failure condition) or very easy (success condition) for them...
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Nicholas I Bradfield, Kathryn A Ellis, Greg Savage, Paul Maruff, Samantha Burnham, David Darby, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Ralph N Martins, Colin L Masters, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Joanne Robertson, Christopher Rowe, Michael Woodward, David Ames
BACKGROUND: Given the long preclinical disease course of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology, novel treatments may be more efficacious if administered before the emergence of dementia. Thus, accurate prediction of who will develop AD dementia is of key importance in selecting individuals for trials of treatment and may become crucial for future selection of patients for therapy. METHODS: As part of the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing, 901 individuals who did not have dementia were recruited...
March 20, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Kohinoor M Darda, Emily E Butler, Richard Ramsey
Although humans show an involuntary tendency to copy other people's actions, which builds rapport between individuals, we do not copy actions indiscriminately. Instead, copying behaviors are guided by a selection mechanism, which inhibits some actions and prioritizes others. To date, the neural underpinnings of the inhibition of automatic imitation and differences between the sexes in imitation control are not well understood. Previous studies involved small sample sizes and low statistical power, which produced mixed findings regarding the involvement of domain-general and domain-specific neural architectures...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Alexander V Lebedev, Jonna Nilsson, Martin Lövdén
Researchers have proposed that solving complex reasoning problems, a key indicator of fluid intelligence, involves the same cognitive processes as solving working memory tasks. This proposal is supported by an overlap of the functional brain activations associated with the two types of tasks and by high correlations between interindividual differences in performance. We replicated these findings in 53 older participants but also showed that solving reasoning and working memory problems benefits from different configurations of the functional connectome and that this dissimilarity increases with a higher difficulty load...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Wolf Osterode, Sandra Schranz, Galateja Jordakieva
Mental and physical stress is common in physicians during night shifts. Neurocognitive effects of sleep deprivation as well as alterations in hormonal and metabolic parameters have previously been described. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate the effects of night-shift work with partial sleep deprivation on steroid hormone excretion and possible associations with mood, sleep characteristics and cognitive functions in physicians. In total, 34 physicians (mean age 42 ± 8.5 years, 76.5% male) from different departments of the General Hospital of Vienna, Austria, were randomly assigned to two conditions: a regular day shift (8 h on duty, condition 1) and a continuous day-night shift (24 h on duty, condition 2)...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
I V Damulin
The article addresses gait disturbances in the elderly. It emphasizes that the system that maintains the balance in resting conditions and gait is based on the hierarchical principle and its function depends on the maintenance of integration between vestibular, visual and somatosensory information as well as on cognitive functions. Walking depends on the integrity of frontal-subcortical neuronal circles that support regulatory functions. The main pathogenetic mechanisms of age-related disturbances of balance and gait are a decrease in the efficacy of spinal motorneurons activation caused by Ia-afferentation, a decrease in cortical activation and excitability of corticospinal pathways and in the intensity of intracortical inhibition...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
V E Medvedev, A Yu Ter-Israelyan, V I Frolova, E A Korovyakova, E V Gushanskaya
AIM: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of monotherapy with agomelatine (valdoxan) in depressive patients with marked cognitive impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients (women 77.1%) were recruited to participate in the study. Mean age of patients was 48.9±3.5 years. The following scales and cognitive tests were used: HAM-21, CGI, HADS, MMSE, the Stroop task, the Rey test, RAVLT. Effective therapeutic doses of valdoxan were 25mg per day in 77...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
A O Kibitov, L P Babicheva, N A Chuprova, A V Shchurina, R A Romashkin
AIM: To reveal objective factors predicting the readiness of inpatient drug treatment patients to undergo a rehabilitation program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a retrospective comparative study, drug-dependent individuals (n=199, 16.6% females, 83.4% men, 91.5% opioid-dependent) were studied. After conducting motivational activities based on cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, the premorbid, anamnestic, clinical, socio-demographic characteristics of patients were studied as possible predictors of readiness for rehabilitation using binary logistic regression...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Ena Xiao, Qiang Chen, Aaron L Goldman, Hao Yang Tan, Kaitlin Healy, Brad Zoltick, Saumitra Das, Bhaskar Kolachana, Joseph H Callicott, Dwight Dickinson, Karen F Berman, Daniel R Weinberger, Venkata S Mattay
BACKGROUND: We explored the cumulative effect of several late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) risk loci using a polygenic risk profile score (RPS) approach on measures of hippocampal function, cognition, and brain morphometry. METHODS: In a sample of 231 healthy control subjects (19-55 years of age), we used an RPS to study the effect of several LOAD risk loci reported in a recent meta-analysis on hippocampal function (determined by its engagement with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic memory) and several cognitive metrics...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Chen Jia, Shanshan Han, Liming Wei, Xiangji Dang, Qianqian Niu, Mengyu Chen, Boqun Cao, Yuting Liu, Haisheng Jiao
CONTEXT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is resistant to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and is associated with cognitive impairment. The modern Chinese medicine, compound Danshen dripping pills (CDDP), is clinically effective in treating epilepsy and improving cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the protective effects of CDDP alone and in combination with carbamazepine (CBZ) on kainic acid-induced TLE and cognitive impairment in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control (sham operated), model, CDDP, CBZ and combined...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
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