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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918605/food-or-threat-wild-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-libidinosus-as-both-predators-and-prey-of-snakes
#1
Tiago Falótico, Michele P Verderane, Olívia Mendonça-Furtado, Noemi Spagnoletti, Eduardo B Ottoni, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Patrícia Izar
Snakes present a hazard to primates, both as active predators and by defensive envenomation. This risk might have been a selective pressure on the evolution of primate visual and cognitive systems, leading to several behavioral traits present in human and non-human primates, such as the ability to quickly learn to fear snakes. Primates seldom prey on snakes, and humans are one of the few primate species that do. We report here another case, the wild capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus), which preys on snakes...
September 16, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918604/symptom-experience-of-multiple-myeloma-symmex-patients-treated-with-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-following-high-dose-melphalan-a-descriptive-longitudinal-study
#2
Matthias Naegele, Monika Kirsch, Gabriele Ihorst, Katharina Fierz, Monika Engelhardt, Sabina De Geest
PURPOSE: High-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are associated with high symptom burden. This study aimed to explore multiple myeloma (MM) patients' experience of symptom frequency, intensity, and distress during therapy. METHODS: This descriptive longitudinal study enrolled 29 MM patients who completed the 43-item PROVIVO questionnaire, measuring symptom experience across the dimensions of frequency, intensity, and distress at four assessment points: hospital admission (T0), leucocyte nadir (T1), discharge (T2), and 30 days post discharge (T3)...
September 16, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918573/anti-inflammatory-effects-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-against-trimethyltin-induced-hippocampal-neuronal-injury
#3
Sukhwinder Kaur, Neha Sharma, Bimla Nehru
BACKGROUND: Despite the immense neuromodulatory potentials of Ginkgo biloba extract as a memory enhancer, its underlying mechanism seems inadequate particularly with regard to its anti-inflammatory properties. AIM: The objective of the present study is to investigate the protective potentials of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) against hippocampal neuronal injury induced by trimethyltin (TMT), a potent neurotoxicant. METHODS: Male SD rats were administered trimethyltin (8...
September 16, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918547/adaptive-step-goals-and-rewards-a-longitudinal-growth-model-of-daily-steps-for-a-smartphone-based-walking-intervention
#4
Elizabeth V Korinek, Sayali S Phatak, Cesar A Martin, Mohammad T Freigoun, Daniel E Rivera, Marc A Adams, Pedja Klasnja, Matthew P Buman, Eric B Hekler
Adaptive interventions are an emerging class of behavioral interventions that allow for individualized tailoring of intervention components over time to a person's evolving needs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adaptive step goal + reward intervention, grounded in Social Cognitive Theory delivered via a smartphone application (Just Walk), using a mixed modeling approach. Participants (N = 20) were overweight (mean BMI = 33.8 ± 6.82 kg/m(2)), sedentary adults (90% female) interested in participating in a 14-week walking intervention...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918494/betaine-in-the-brain-characterization-of-betaine-uptake-its-influence-on-other-osmolytes-and-its-potential-role-in-neuroprotection-from-osmotic-stress
#5
Leena S Knight, Quinn Piibe, Ian Lambie, Christopher Perkins, Paul H Yancey
Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specifically in the hippocampus, a region of the brain associated with learning and memory and one that is particularly susceptible to damage (e...
September 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918469/aversive-and-non-aversive-memory-impairment-in-the-mucopolysaccharidosis-ii-mouse-model
#6
Amanda Stapenhorst Azambuja, Lilian Correa, Bernardo Pappi Gabiatti, Giselle Renata Martins, Álvaro de Oliveira Franco, Maria Flávia Marques Ribeiro, Guilherme Baldo
Hunter syndrome (MPS II, OMIM 309900) is a lysosomal storage disorder due to deficient iduronate sulphatase activity. Patients present multiple cognitive alterations, and the aim of this work was to verify if MPS II mice also present some progressive cognitive alterations. For that, MPS II mice from 2 to 6 months of age were submitted to repeated open field and inhibitory avoidance tests to evaluate memory parameters. MPS II mice presented impaired memory at 6 months evaluated by open field test. They also performed poorly in the inhibitory avoidance test from 4 months...
September 16, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918364/volumetric-changes-in-the-aging-rat-brain-and-its-impact-on-cognitive-and-locomotor-functions
#7
Hamizah Shahirah Hamezah, Lina Wati Durani, Nor Faeizah Ibrahim, Daijiro Yanagisawa, Tomoko Kato, Akihiko Shiino, Sachiko Tanaka, Hanafi Ahmad Damanhuri, Wan Zurinah Wan Ngah, Ikuo Tooyama
Impairments in cognitive and locomotor functions usually occur with advanced age, as do changes in brain volume. This study was conducted to assess changes in brain volume, cognitive and locomotor functions, and oxidative stress levels in middle- to late-aged rats. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: 14, 18, 23, and 27months of age. (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 7.0-Tesla MR scanner system. The volumes of the lateral ventricles, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and whole brain were measured...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918315/does-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-insomnia-improve-cognitive-performance-a-systematic-review-and-narrative-synthesis
#8
REVIEW
Vanessa Herbert, Simon D Kyle, Daniel Pratt
Individuals with insomnia report difficulties pertaining to their cognitive functioning. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is associated with robust, long-term improvements in sleep parameters, however less is known about the impact of CBT-I on the daytime correlates of the disorder. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted in order to summarise and evaluate the evidence regarding the impact of CBT-I on cognitive functioning. Reference databases were searched and studies were included if they assessed cognitive performance as an outcome of CBT-I, using either self-report questionnaires or cognitive tests...
July 12, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918286/identifying-combinatorial-biomarkers-by-association-rule-mining-in-the-camd-alzheimer-s-database
#9
Balázs Szalkai, Vince K Grolmusz, Vince I Grolmusz
The concept of combinatorial biomarkers was conceived when it was noticed that simple biomarkers are often inadequate for recognizing and characterizing complex diseases. Here we present an algorithmic search method for complex biomarkers which may predict or indicate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other kinds of dementia. We show that our method is universal since it can describe any Boolean function for biomarker discovery. We applied data mining techniques that are capable to uncover implication-like logical schemes with detailed quality scoring...
August 17, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918259/disrupted-structural-and-functional-connectivity-networks-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#10
Jingna Zhang, Ye Zhang, Li Wang, Linqiong Sang, Jun Yang, Rubing Yan, Pengyue Li, Jian Wang, Mingguo Qiu
Local lesions caused by stroke may result in extensive structural and functional reorganization in the brain. Previous studies of this phenomenon have focused on specific brain networks. Here, we aimed to discover abnormalities in whole-brain networks and to explore the decoupling between structural and functional connectivity in patients with stroke. Fifteen ischemic stroke patients and 23 normal controls (NCs) were recruited in this study. A graph theoretical analysis was employed to investigate the abnormal topological properties of structural and functional brain networks in patients with stroke...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918221/a-10-minute-measure-of-global-cognition-validation-of-the-brief-cognitive-assessment-tool-for-schizophrenia-b-cats
#11
Irene M Hurford, Joseph Ventura, Stephen R Marder, Steven P Reise, Robert M Bilder
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia is marked by a global cognitive impairment that contributes significantly to chronic disability and unemployment. As new treatments are developed for cognition in schizophrenia, clinicians require easily administered instruments to assess cognition. We previously developed a very brief cognitive battery (Bell et al., 2005). The Brief Cognitive Assessment Tool for Schizophrenia (B-CATS) was developed specifically to provide clinicians with a way to assess cognition in their patients with schizophrenia...
September 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918204/serum-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-and-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-after-surgery-for-rheumatic-heart-disease
#12
Xiaoxia Duan, Tao Zhu, Chan Chen, Guanpeng Zhang, Junhui Zhang, Lin Wang, Luye Zhang, Maohua Wang, Xiaobin Wang
OBJECTIVE: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is an important complication of cardiac surgery with poor outcomes. Serum glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels are decreased in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but the association between glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels and postoperative cognitive dysfunction is poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of postoperative serum glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels to predict postoperative cognitive dysfunction in patients with rheumatic heart disease undergoing heart valve replacement...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918179/-analysis-of-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disorder-copd-who-give-up-smoking
#13
C A Jimenez-Ruiz, J F Pascual Lledó, A Cícero Guerrero, M Cristóbal Fernández, M Mayayo Ulibarri, C Villar Laguna
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the impact in COPD patients' quality of life who stop smoking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied a group of COPD patients who received smoking cessation treatment. All patients were treated with bronchodilators according to the severity of their disorder. This treatment was not changed during the process of smoking cessation. Patients received a smoking cessation programme that consisted of a combination of pharmacological treatment plus cognitive-behavioural treatment...
September 13, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918171/the-association-between-delirium-and-sarcopenia-in-older-adult-patients-admitted-to-acute-geriatrics-units-results-from-the-glisten-multicenter-observational-study
#14
Giuseppe Bellelli, Antonella Zambon, Stefano Volpato, Pasquale Abete, Lara Bianchi, Mario Bo, Antonio Cherubini, Francesco Corica, Mauro Di Bari, Marcello Maggio, Giovanna Maria Manca, Maria Rosaria Rizzo, Andrea Rossi, Francesco Landi
BACKGROUND & AIMS: To date, studies assessing the relationship between sarcopenia and delirium, two of the most common geriatric syndromes, are lacking. We sought to explore this association by investigating the co-occurrence of these two conditions and the independent association between them in a population of hospitalized older adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional multicenter analysis of older adults consecutively admitted to 12 acute geriatric units (AGUs). Sarcopenia was assessed upon admission by evaluating the presence of low skeletal mass index (kg/m(2)), and either low handgrip strength or low walking speed (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, EWGSOP criteria)...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918164/telepsychiatry-consultation-for-medical-and-surgical-inpatient-units
#15
Julie A Graziane, Priya Gopalan, Jack Cahalane
BACKGROUND: Telepsychiatry is becoming more commonplace in the provision of psychiatric care. Most commonly used in the outpatient setting, there is little information available in the literature as to the use of telepsychiatry for inpatient medical/surgical consultation. OBJECTIVE: We review the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's telepsychiatry consultation program that provides consultation to an outlying community-based rural hospital. METHODS: This article examines the 69 telepsychiatry consultations that were performed from November 2014 through February 2016, looking at the patients served, common consultation questions, and patterns of diagnoses and recommendations...
August 12, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918007/the-effect-of-visual-spatial-ability-on-the-learning-of-robot-assisted-surgical-skills
#16
Takashige Abe, Nicholas Raison, Nobuo Shinohara, M Shamim Khan, Kamran Ahmed, Prokar Dasgupta
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of visual-spatial ability with progression along the learning curve for robotic surgical skills training. METHODS: A total of 21 novice participants were recruited. All participants completed a training program consisting of 5 training sessions of 30 minutes of virtual reality (VR) simulation and 30 minutes of dry laboratory training. The VR simulation part was the subject of the present study. During VR simulation training, participants performed the basic skill exercises of Camera Targeting 1, Pick and Place, and Peg Board 1 followed by advanced skill exercises of Suture Sponge 1 and Thread the Rings...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917981/intranasal-insulin-treatment-alleviates-methamphetamine-induced-anxiety-like-behavior-and-neuroinflammation
#17
Elmira Beirami, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Seyedeh Masoumeh Seyedhoseini Tamijani, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Leila Dargahi
Insulin, as a peptide hormone, has recently gained attention for its pro-cognitive, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system (CNS). Most studies have indicated anxiogenic and neuroinflammatory effects of methamphetamine (MA) and other psychostimulants, even after periods of abstinence. The present study aimed to examine whether intranasal (IN) insulin treatment with high CNS bioavailability and minimal systemic side effects, can reverse the anxiety-like behavior and neuroinflammation induced by repeated MA administration...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917975/the-memory-ameliorating-effects-of-dhp1402-an-herbal-mixture-on-cholinergic-blockade-induced-cognitive-dysfunction-in-mice
#18
Haneul Kim, Hyung Eun Lee, In Ho Jung, Se Jin Jeon, Jiabao Zhang, Yubeen Kwon, Dae Sik Jang, Jong Hoon Ryu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H.F Chow (rhamnaceae) and Codonopsis lanceolata (Siedbold & Zucc.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Trautv. (campanulaceae), compositions of DHP1402, have long been used for treating anti-dementia or hypomnesia as folk medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: It has been reported that Z. jujuba var. spinosa and C. lanceolata are effective on cognitive function with different mechanism of action. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the synergistic effects of Ziziphus jujuba var...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917949/linear-association-between-number-of-modifiable-risk-factors-and-multiple-chronic-conditions-results-from-the-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system
#19
Mary L Adams, Joseph Grandpre, David L Katz, Douglas Shenson
Multiple (≥2) chronic conditions (MCCs) are responsible for a large fraction of healthcare costs. Our aim was to examine possible associations between MCCs and composite measures of behavioral risk factors (RFs). Data were publicly available 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and included 483,865 non-institutionalized US adults ages ≥18years. Chronic conditions included asthma, arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cognitive impairment, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and kidney disease...
September 13, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917715/attentional-control-predicts-change-in-bias-in-response-to-attentional-bias-modification
#20
Julian Basanovic, Lies Notebaert, Ben Grafton, Colette R Hirsch, Patrick J F Clarke
Procedures that effectively modify attentional bias to negative information have been examined for their potential to be a source of therapeutic change in emotional vulnerability. However, the degree to which these procedures modify attentional bias is subject to individual differences. This generates the need to understand the mechanisms that influence attentional bias change across individuals. The present study investigated the association between individual differences in attentional control and individual differences in the magnitude of bias change evoked by an attentional bias modification procedure...
September 11, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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