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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887595/antimicrobial-stewardship-of-chinese-ministry-of-health-reduces-multidrug-resistant-organism-isolates-in-critically-ill-patients-a-pre-post-study-from-a-single-center
#1
Xudong Ma, Jianfeng Xie, Yi Yang, Fengmei Guo, Zhiwei Gao, Hua Shao, Yingzi Huang, Congshan Yang, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: China's Ministry of Health (MOH) has established a policy about the antimicrobial stewardship. To date, the effects of this policy on multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) in critically ill patients are unknown. METHODS: A pre-post study was conducted on intensive care unit (ICU) patients from June 2010 to May 2011 and from June 2012 to May 2013. Bacterial cultures were conducted at ICU admission and discharge. In June 2011, our hospital started to administer the antimicrobial stewardship program of Chinese MOH...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868317/comparative-testing-of-disinfectant-efficacy-on-planktonic-bacteria-and-bacterial-biofilms-using-a-new-assay-based-upon-kinetic-analysis-of-metabolic-activity
#2
Frank Günther, Martin Scherrer, Stefan J Kaiser, Annalisa DeRosa, Nico T Mutters
AIMS: The aim of our study was to develop a new reproducible method for disinfectant efficacy testing on bacterial biofilms and to evaluate the efficacy of different disinfectants against biofilms. Clinical multidrug-resistant strains were chosen as test isolates to ensure practical relevance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared the standard qualitative suspension assay for disinfectant testing, which does not take into account biofilm formation, to the new biofilm viability assay that uses kinetic analysis of metabolic activity in biofilms after disinfectant exposure to evaluate disinfectant efficacy...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817759/status-of-the-prevention-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-international-settings-a-survey-of-the-society-for-healthcare-epidemiology-of-america-research-network
#3
Nasia Safdar, Sharmila Sengupta, Jackson S Musuuza, Manisha Juthani-Mehta, Marci Drees, Lilian M Abbo, Aaron M Milstone, Jon P Furuno, Meera Varman, Deverick J Anderson, Daniel J Morgan, Loren G Miller, Graham M Snyder
OBJECTIVE To examine self-reported practices and policies to reduce infection and transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in healthcare settings outside the United States. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS International members of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network. METHODS Electronic survey of infection control and prevention practices, capabilities, and barriers outside the United States and Canada. Participants were stratified according to their country's economic development status as defined by the World Bank as low-income, lower-middle-income, upper-middle-income, and high-income...
November 7, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810070/high-rate-of-multidrug-resistant-organism-colonization-among-patients-hospitalized-overseas-highlights-the-need-for-preemptive-infection-control
#4
Kayoko Hayakawa, Kazuhisa Mezaki, Yuko Sugiki, Maki Nagamatsu, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Teruo Kirikae, Satoshi Kutsuna, Nozomi Takeshita, Kei Yamamoto, Yuichi Katanami, Norio Ohmagari
We performed 4 years of active screening for multidrug resistant organism (MDRO) colonization among patients with a history of overseas hospitalization. Thirteen (56.5%) of 23 cases were positive for MDROs, which highlights the importance of preemptive infection control to prevent the spread of MDROs in this population.
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810066/correlations-between-quality-ratings-of-skilled-nursing-facilities-and-multidrug-resistant-urinary-tract-infections
#5
Azad L Gucwa, Veronika Dolar, Chao Ye, Stephanie Epstein
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for the acquisition of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in residents of skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). METHODS: Using the informational database provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), a retrospective logistic regression was performed on 1,523 urine cultures from 12 SNFs located in Long Island, New York. RESULTS: Of the 1,142 positive urine cultures, Escherichia coli was most prevalent...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751631/examining-the-relationship-between-multidrug-resistant-organism-acquisition-and-exposure-to-antimicrobials-in-long-term-care-populations-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Michele L Shaffer, Erika M C D'Agata, Daniel Habtemariam, Susan L Mitchell
PURPOSE: Methodological approaches to examine the association between antimicrobial exposure and multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) acquisition are complex. This report's objectives are to review approaches used in and findings of prior studies in the long-term care setting, illustrate how these challenges were addressed in a recently completed large prospective study, and discuss strategies for future studies. METHODS: Key design and analytic approaches used in studies conducted since 2000 examining the association between antimicrobial exposure and MDRO acquisition in the long-term care setting were reviewed...
November 2016: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745555/multidrug-resistant-organisms-detected-more-than-48-hours-after-hospital-admission-are-not-necessarily-hospital-acquired
#7
Stefan Erb, Reno Frei, Marc Dangel, Andreas F Widmer
BACKGROUND Infections and colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) identified >48 hours after hospital admission are considered healthcare-acquired according to the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Some may originate from delayed diagnosis rather than true acquisition in the hospital, potentially diluting the impact of infection control programs. In addition, such infections are not necessarily reimbursed in a healthcare system based on the diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)...
October 17, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671022/prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-multidrug-resistant-organism-mdro-colonization-in-3-nursing-homes
#8
James A McKinnell, Loren G Miller, Raveena Singh, Ken Kleinman, Ellena M Peterson, Kaye D Evans, Tabitha D Dutciuc, Lauren Heim, Adrijana Gombosev, Marlene Estevez, Bryn Launer, Tom Tjoa, Steven Tam, Michael A Bolaris, Susan S Huang
Nursing home residents are at risk for acquiring and transmitting MDROs. A serial point-prevalence study of 605 residents in 3 facilities using random sampling found MDRO colonization in 45% of residents: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 26%); extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL, 17%); vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE, 16%); carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE, 1%). MDRO colonization was associated with history of MDRO, care needs, incontinence, and catheters...
December 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636769/implementing-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-out-patient-dialysis-units
#9
Cheston B Cunha, Erika M C D'Agata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, continue to rise among the population of chronic hemodialysis. Antimicrobial exposure is the main risk factor for MDRO emergence and dissemination. Up to 30% of antimicrobial doses administered in out-patient dialysis units may not be indicated. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) improve antimicrobial prescribing patterns...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619507/assessment-of-the-overall-and-multidrug-resistant-organism-bioburden-on-environmental-surfaces-in-healthcare-facilities
#10
Alicia M Shams, Laura J Rose, Jonathan R Edwards, Salvatore Cali, Anthony D Harris, Jesse T Jacob, Anna LaFae, Lisa L Pineles, Kerri A Thom, L Clifford McDonald, Matthew J Arduino, Judith A Noble-Wang
OBJECTIVE To determine the typical microbial bioburden (overall bacterial and multidrug-resistant organisms [MDROs]) on high-touch healthcare environmental surfaces after routine or terminal cleaning. DESIGN Prospective 2.5-year microbiological survey of large surface areas (>1,000 cm2). SETTING MDRO contact-precaution rooms from 9 acute-care hospitals and 2 long-term care facilities in 4 states. PARTICIPANTS Samples from 166 rooms (113 routine cleaned and 53 terminal cleaned rooms). METHODS Using a standard sponge-wipe sampling protocol, 2 composite samples were collected from each room; a third sample was collected from each Clostridium difficile room...
December 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588292/hygiene-the-looming-achilles-heel-in-endoscopy
#11
REVIEW
Michael Jung, Ulrike Beilenhoff
BACKGROUND: Since the late 1970s there have been sporadic reports of nosocomial infections linked to endoscopic procedures. Infections by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) have an increasing impact on healthcare systems worldwide. Since 2010 outbreaks involving MDRO have been reported as a result of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) from the USA, France, Germany and the Netherlands. METHODS: This article evaluates the recent outbreaks and developments and demonstrates a structural approach to how to prevent future infections...
February 2016: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579250/multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-refugees-prevalences-and-impact-on-infection-control-in-hospitals
#12
Ursel Heudorf, Sabine Albert-Braun, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld, Franz-Ulrich Birne, Jörg Schulze, Klaus Strobel, Knut Petscheleit, Volkhard A J Kempf, Christian Brandt
INTRODUCTION: The refugee crisis is a great challenge to the social and healthcare system in European countries, especially in Germany. An abundance of data has been published on the refugees' health problems (infections as well as physical diseases and psychiatric problems) and their prevention (i.e., sanitary and vaccination programs). However, data on prevalences of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in refugees are scarce, although it is known that most refugees are from or travelled through countries with high prevalences of MDRO...
2016: GMS Hygiene and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523304/prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-hospitalized-pediatric-refugees-in-an-university-children-s-hospital-in-germany-2015-2016
#13
Tobias Tenenbaum, Klaus-Peter Becker, Bettina Lange, Anka Martin, Peter Schäfer, Stefan Weichert, Horst Schroten
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) colonizing in pediatric refugees admitted to a University Children Hospital in Germany. DESIGN Retrospective observational study. SETTING General pediatric and pediatric surgery units. PATIENTS In Germany, recommendations for MDRO screening of pediatric refugees were recently published. According to these and institutional recommendations, all hospitalized pediatric refugees were screened for MDROs between October 2015 and March 2016...
November 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503500/-antibiotic-intake-and-resistance-development-knowledge-experience-and-behavior-among-the-german-general-population
#14
Sandra Schneider, Florian Salm, Christin Schröder, Norman Ludwig, Regina Hanke, Petra Gastmeier
BACKGROUND: The network project RAI (Rational Use of Antibiotics via Information and Communication) is aimed at developing tailored information and communication tools on the subject of antibiotic (AB) resistance for various stakeholder groups. During the preparation phase, a survey was performed addressing the German general population. OBJECTIVES: To gain insights into the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of nonprescribers concerning AB and multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO)...
September 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470996/bacterial-and-viral-contamination-of-breathing-circuits-after-extended-use-an-aspect-of-patient-safety
#15
S Dubler, S Zimmermann, M Fischer, P Schnitzler, T Bruckner, M A Weigand, U Frank, S Hofer, A Heininger
BACKGROUND: In the past, anaesthetic breathing circuits were identified as a source of pathogen transmission. It is still debated, whether breathing circuits combined with breathing system filters can be safely used for more than 1 day. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmission risk of bacteria and also viruses via breathing circuits after extended use. METHODS: The inner and outer surface of 102 breathing circuits used for 1 day and of 101 circuits used for 7 days were examined for bacteria and viruses...
October 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452597/risk-factors-for-carbapenemase-producing-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cp-cre-acquisition-among-contacts-of-newly-diagnosed-cp-cre-patients
#16
Anat Schwartz-Neiderman, Tali Braun, Noga Fallach, David Schwartz, Yehuda Carmeli, Vered Schechner
OBJECTIVE Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) are extremely drug-resistant pathogens. Screening of contacts of newly identified CP-CRE patients is an important step to limit further transmission. We aimed to determine the risk factors for CP-CRE acquisition among patients exposed to a CP-CRE index patient. METHODS A matched case-control study was performed in a tertiary care hospital in Israel. The study population was comprised of patients who underwent rectal screening for CP-CRE following close contact with a newly identified CP-CRE index patient...
October 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358350/predominance-of-lactobacillus-spp-among-patients-who-do-not-acquire-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#17
Rafael Araos, Albert K Tai, Graham M Snyder, Martin J Blaser, Erika M C D'Agata
BACKGROUND: The emergence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is a global threat. Characterizing the human microbiome among hospitalized patients and identifying unique microbial signatures among those patients who acquire MDROs may identify novel infection prevention strategies. METHODS: Adult patients admitted to 5 general medical-surgical floors at a 649-bed, tertiary care center in Boston, Massachusetts, were classified according to in-hospital antimicrobial exposure and MDRO colonization status...
October 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27350394/policies-for-controlling-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-us-healthcare-facilities-reporting-to-the-national-healthcare-safety-network-2014
#18
Lindsey M Weiner, Amy K Webb, Maroya S Walters, Margaret A Dudeck, Alexander J Kallen
We examined reported policies for the control of common multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in US healthcare facilities using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network Annual Facility Survey. Policies for the use of Contact Precautions were commonly reported. Chlorhexidine bathing for preventing MDRO transmission was also common among acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016:1-4.
September 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337459/hospital-associated-infections
#19
N Esther Babady
Hospital-associated infection (HAI) in immunocompromised patients can result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are especially worrisome because of the limited choice of remaining antibiotics available when a patient becomes colonized or infected with an MDRO. It is therefore important that immunocompromised patients be cared for in an environment that limits the risk for acquiring infections. However, with healthcare being increasingly delivered in settings other than the traditional inpatient hospital wards, a bigger effort will need to be set forth to prevent or rapidly diagnose HAI...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317445/colonization-with-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-on-hospital-admission-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#20
A Hamprecht, A M Rohde, M Behnke, S Feihl, P Gastmeier, F Gebhardt, W V Kern, J K Knobloch, A Mischnik, B Obermann, C Querbach, S Peter, C Schneider, W Schröder, F Schwab, E Tacconelli, M Wiese-Posselt, T Wille, M Willmann, H Seifert, J Zweigner
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to prospectively assess the rectal carriage rate of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCREB) in non-ICU patients on hospital admission and to investigate resistance mechanisms and risk factors for carriage. METHODS: Adult patients were screened for 3GCREB carriage at six German tertiary care hospitals in 2014 using rectal swabs or stool samples. 3GCREB isolates were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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