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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176351/bacteremia-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-prevalence-and-predictors-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#1
Jennifer N Addo Smith, Raymond Yau, Hannah P Russo, Kimberly Putney, Alejandro Restrepo, Kevin W Garey, Amelia K Sofjan
GOALS: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) in cirrhotic patients with bacteremia at a large tertiary center in the United States. BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of bacteremia in patients with liver cirrhosis has not been well studied in the United States. STUDY: This case-case control study included 180 adults with liver cirrhosis hospitalized from 2011 to 2015. Case group 1 were patients with bacteremia due to a MDRO (n=30)...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162494/prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-migrant-children-admitted-to-an-italian-cardiac-surgery-department-2015-2016
#2
E Costa, M Tejada, P Gaia, M Cornetta, A Moroni, E Carfora, R Valaperta, C De Siena, N Moussaidi, G Isgrò, A Frigiola
Screening on hospital admission to identify multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization is a frequently discussed topic. We report the results of microbiological screening in 141 Italian and 354 migrant children candidates for cardiac surgery conducted in 2015-2016. In all, 25% of Italian children and more than 65.4% of African and Romanian children carried at least one MDRO (meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes; carbapenemase producers; and vancomycin-resistant enterococci)...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144223/no-touch-disinfection-methods-to-decrease-multidrug-resistant-organism-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Alexandre R Marra, Marin L Schweizer, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that using no-touch disinfection technologies (ie, ultraviolet light [UVL] or hydrogen peroxide vapor [HPV] systems) can limit the transmission of nosocomial pathogens and prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). To investigate these findings further, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of no-touch disinfection methods to decrease HAIs. METHODS We searched PubMed, CINAHL, CDSR, DARE and EMBASE through April 2017 for studies evaluating no-touch disinfection technology and the nosocomial infection rates for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132307/involvement-of-lemdr-an-atp-binding-cassette-protein-gene-in-shikonin-transport-and-biosynthesis-in-lithospermum-erythrorhizon
#4
Yu Zhu, Gui-Hua Lu, Zhuo-Wu Bian, Feng-Yao Wu, Yan-Jun Pang, Xiao-Ming Wang, Rong-Wu Yang, Cheng-Yi Tang, Jin-Liang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
BACKGROUND: Shikonin is a naphthoquinone secondary metabolite with important medicinal value and is found in Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Considering the limited knowledge on the membrane transport mechanism of shikonin, this study investigated such molecular mechanism. RESULTS: We successfully isolated an ATP-binding cassette protein gene, LeMDR, from L. erythrorhizon. LeMDR is predominantly expressed in L. erythrorhizon roots, where shikonin accumulated. Functional analysis of LeMDR by using the yeast cell expression system revealed that LeMDR is possibly involved in the shikonin efflux transport...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122787/effect-of-daily-antiseptic-body-wash-with-octenidine-on-nosocomial-primary-bacteraemia-and-nosocomial-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-intensive-care-units-design-of-a-multicentre-cluster-randomised-double-blind-cross-over-study
#5
Anne Meißner, Dirk Hasenclever, Oana Brosteanu, Iris Freya Chaberny
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections are serious complications that increase morbidity, mortality and costs and could potentially be avoidable. Antiseptic body wash is an approach to reduce dermal micro-organisms as potential pathogens on the skin. Large-scale trials with chlorhexidine as the antiseptic agent suggest a reduction of nosocomial infection rates. Octenidine is a promising alternative agent which could be more effective against Gram-negative organisms. We hypothesise that daily antiseptic body wash with octenidine reduces the risk of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired primary bacteraemia and ICU-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in a standard care setting...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102426/risk-factors-for-infection-with-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-haryana-india
#6
Shilpa Kalluru, Shoshannah Eggers, Anna Barker, Daniel Shirley, Ajay K Sethi, Sharmila Sengupta, Kajal Yeptho, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infection within patients from a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. This case-control study examined MDRO infection risk factors, including diet, health history, and medical device use. We administered a diet questionnaire to collect data on usual diet and collected data on other risk factors from chart review. All participants were inpatients identified through hospital microbiology reports...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097104/characterization-of-microbial-community-composition-antimicrobial-resistance-and-biofilm-on-intensive-care-surfaces
#7
K Johani, D Abualsaud, D M Costa, H Hu, G Whiteley, A Deva, K Vickery
BACKGROUND: Organisms causing healthcare associated infections can be sourced from the inanimate environment around patients. Residing in a biofilm increases the chances of these organisms persisting in the environment. We aimed to characterise bacterial environmental contamination, genetically and physiologically, and relate this to general intensive care unit (ICU) cleanliness. METHODS: Cleanliness was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements of 95 high-touch objects...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039717/high-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-libyan-war-casualties-admitted-to-a-tertiary-care-hospital-germany
#8
Benedikt Lohr, Yvonne Pfeifer, Ursel Heudorf, Christoph Rangger, Douglas E Norris, Klaus-Peter Hunfeld
The ongoing Libyan conflict constantly causes victims among the military and civilian population. Cross-border transfer of patients represents a high risk of introducing multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), for example, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms (CROs), into the country of destination. This study assessed the MDRO status in Libyan war casualties (n = 67) admitted to Northwest Medical Centre in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, from August 2016 till January 2017...
October 17, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036747/prevention-of-multidrug-resistant-infections-from-contaminated-duodenoscopes-position-statement-of-the-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-esge-and-european-society-of-gastroenterology-nurses-and-associates-esgena
#9
Ulrike Beilenhoff, Holger Biering, Reinhard Blum, Jadranka Brljak, Monica Cimbro, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Cesare Hassan, Michael Jung, Christiane Neumann, Michael Pietsch, Lionel Pineau, Thierry Ponchon, Stanislav Rejchrt, Jean-François Rey, Verona Schmidt, Jayne Tillett, Jeanin van Hooft
Patients should be informed about the benefits and risks of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)Only specially trained and competent personnel should carry out endoscope reprocessing.Manufacturers of duodenoscopes should provide detailed instructions on how to use and reprocess their equipment.In the case of modifications to their equipment, manufacturers should provide updated instructions for use.Detailed reprocessing protocols based on the manufacturer's instructions for use should clearly lay out the different reprocessing steps necessary for each endoscope model...
November 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033075/multi-drug-resistant-organism-infections-in-a-medical-icu-association-to-clinical-features-and-impact-upon-outcome
#10
E E Magira, S Islam, M S Niederman
OBJECTIVE: To define clinical features associated with Intensive Care Unit (ICU) infections caused by multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and their impact on patient outcome. DESIGN: A single-center, retrospective case-control study was carried out between January 2010 and May 2010. SETTING: A medical ICU (MICU) in the United States. PATIENTS: The study included a total of 127 MDRO-positive patients and 186 MDRO-negative patients...
October 12, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962969/emergence-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-mdros-causing-fournier-s-gangrene
#11
Laura Chia, Nancy F Crum-Cianflone
BACKGROUND: Fournier's gangrene is an uncommon but often devastating infection. There are few contemporary data on the risk factors and evolving microbiologic trends including drug-resistant organisms implicated in these life-threatening infections. METHODS: A retrospective study of Fournier's gangrene from 2006 to 2015 at a large academic hospital was conducted. Cases were identified using ICD codes (ICD-9: 608.83, V13.89; ICD-10: N49.3, Z87.438), and a review of medical, radiographic, and pathology records was performed to confirm each case...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960264/clinical-impact-of-colonization-with-multidrug-resistant-organisms-on-outcome-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-in-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#12
Sebastian Scheich, Sarah Lindner, Rosalie Koenig, Claudia Reinheimer, Thomas A Wichelhaus, Michael Hogardt, Silke Besier, Volkhard A J Kempf, Johanna Kessel, Hans Martin, Anne C Wilke, Hubert Serve, Gesine Bug, Björn Steffen
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a curative treatment option for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). During transplantation, patients undergo a period of severe neutropenia, which puts them at high risk for infectious complications. However, the impact of patient colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) on overall survival remains unclear. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center study, the authors analyzed data from 264 patients with AML who underwent a first allo-HSCT between January 2006 and March 2016 at their institution...
September 28, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900004/network-of-microbial-and-antibiotic-interactions-drive-colonization-and-infection-with-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#13
Joyce Wang, Betsy Foxman, Lona Mody, Evan S Snitkin
The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) across global healthcare networks poses a serious threat to hospitalized individuals. Strategies to limit the emergence and spread of MDROs include oversight to decrease selective pressure for MDROs by promoting appropriate antibiotic use via antibiotic stewardship programs. However, restricting the use of one antibiotic often requires a compensatory increase in the use of other antibiotics, which in turn selects for the emergence of different MDRO species...
September 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899445/microbial-disruption-indices-to-detect-colonization-with-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#14
Rafael Araos, Veronica Montgomery, Juan A Ugalde, Graham M Snyder, Erika M C D'Agata
OBJECTIVE To characterize the microbial disruption indices of hospitalized patients to predict colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). DESIGN A cross-sectional survey of the fecal microbiome was conducted in a tertiary referral, acute-care hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS The study population consisted of adult patients hospitalized in general medical/surgical wards. METHODS Rectal swabs were obtained from patients within 48 hours of hospital admission and screened for MDRO colonization using conventional culture techniques...
September 13, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870433/antibacterial-activity-of-3-3-4-trihydroxyflavone-from-justicia-wynaadensis-against-diabetic-wound-and-urinary-tract-infection
#15
Dorin Dsouza, Lakshmidevi Nanjaiah
The present investigation was designed to study the effect of an active compound isolated from Justicia wynaadensis against multi drug resistant organisms (MDRO's) associated with diabetic patients. The drug resistant pathogens implicated in wound and urinary tract infection of diabetic patients were isolated and identified by molecular sequencing. Solvent-solvent fractionation of crude methanol extract produced hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol-water fraction, among which chloroform fraction was found to be potent when compared with other three fractions...
August 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818628/a-prospective-multicentre-study-of-the-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infection-in-cirrhotic-patients
#16
M Bartoletti, M Giannella, R Lewis, P Caraceni, S Tedeschi, M Paul, C Schramm, T Bruns, M Merli, N Cobos-Trigueros, E Seminari, P Retamar, P Muñoz, M Tumbarello, P Burra, M Torrani Cerenzia, B Barsic, E Calbo, A E Maraolo, N Petrosillo, M A Galan-Ladero, G D'Offizi, N Bar Sinai, J Rodríguez-Baño, G Verucchi, M Bernardi, P Viale
OBJECTIVES: To describe the current epidemiology of bloodstream infection (BSI) in patients with cirrhosis; and to analyse predictors of 30-day mortality and risk factors for antibiotic resistance. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients developing a BSI episode were prospectively included at 19 centres in five countries from September 2014 to December 2015. The discrimination of mortality risk scores for 30-day mortality were compared by area under the receiver operator risk and Cox regression models...
August 14, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807836/development-and-evaluation-of-the-automated-risk-assessment-system-for-multidrug-resistant-organisms-autoras-mdro
#17
E Y Hur, Y J Jin, T X Jin, S M Lee
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of infections acquired in hospitals are caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). The priority in MDRO prevention is to detect high-risk patients and implement preventive intervention as soon as possible. AIM: To develop an automated risk assessment system for MDROs (autoRAS-MDRO) to screen for patients at MDRO infection risk and evaluate the predictive validity of the autoRAS-MDRO. METHODS: Data for 4200 variables were extracted from the electronic health records (EHRs) for constructing the MDRO risk-scoring algorithm, which was based on a logistic regression model...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797758/infection-control-measures-and-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-non-hospital-care-settings-in-northeastern-germany-results-from-a-one-day-point-prevalence-study
#18
N O Hübner, K Dittmann, R Begunk, A Kramer
BACKGROUND: Much of the existing literature on the epidemiology of multidrug-resistant bacterial organisms (MDROs) and infection control measures still concentrates on hospital care settings. AIM: To pilot a cross-sectional survey in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), rehabilitation clinics, and homecare services to assess the prevalence of MDROs, structural data on infection control, and referral links between care settings in the state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, Germany, in 2015...
November 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790230/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-vap-in-a-patient-with-guillain-barre-syndrome
#19
Anti Dharmayanti, Dalima Astrawinata
A 46-year-old man was admitted to ICU with a diagnosis at the time of admission of Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) and sepsis due to suspected Ventilator-Associated Pneumoniae (VAP). Specimens for the following laboratory workup were inquired, i.e. complete blood count, culture and resistance workup using specimens obtained from the tip of suction pipe, urinalysis and urine culture, blood culture and resistance, procalcitonin and lactate levels. Neutrophilia was found along with increased procalcitonin and lactate levels, which supported the sepsis diagnosis...
April 2017: Acta Medica Indonesiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758615/determinants-of-implementation-of-isolation-precautions-against-infections-by-multidrug-resistant-microorganisms-a-hospital-based-multicenter-observational-study
#20
Thomas Bénet, Raphaele Girard, Solweig Gerbier-Colomban, Cédric Dananché, Elisabeth Hodille, Olivier Dauwalder, Philippe Vanhems
OBJECTIVES We aimed to ascertain the factors associated with lack of isolation precautions (IP) in patients infected or colonized by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCR-E) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospital settings. DESIGN Prospective surveillance and audit of practices. SETTING The study included 4 university hospitals in Lyon, France. PARTICIPANTS All patients hospitalized between April and June in 2013 and 2015 were included. Case patients had ≥1 clinical sample positive for MRSA and/or 3GCR-E...
October 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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