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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588324/wisconsin-microbiome-study-a-cross-sectional-investigation-of-dietary-fibre-microbiome-composition-and-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-rationale-and-methods
#1
Shoshannah Eggers, Kristen Mc Malecki, Paul Peppard, Julie Mares, Daniel Shirley, Sanjay K Shukla, Keith Poulsen, Ronald Gangnon, Megan Duster, Ashley Kates, Garret Suen, Ajay K Sethi, Nasia Safdar
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections, such as those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , vancomycin-resistant enterococci, fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium difficile is crucial. Evidence suggests that dietary fibre increases gut microbial diversity, which may help prevent colonisation and subsequent infection by MDROs. The aim of the Winning the War on Antibiotic Resistance (WARRIOR) project is to examine associations of dietary fibre consumption with the composition of the gut microbiota and gut colonisation by MDROs...
March 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577058/infectious-diseases-consultation-reduces-30-day-and-1-year-all-cause-mortality-for-multidrug-resistant-organism-infections
#2
Jason P Burnham, Margaret A Olsen, Dustin Stwalley, Jennie H Kwon, Hilary M Babcock, Marin H Kollef
Background: Multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections are associated with high mortality and readmission rates. Infectious diseases (ID) consultation improves clinical outcomes for drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections. Our goal was to determine the association between ID consultation and mortality following various MDRO infections. Methods: This study was conducted with a retrospective cohort (January 1, 2006-October 1, 2015) at an academic tertiary referral center...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562944/long-term-impact-of-universal-contact-precautions-on-rates-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-icus-a-comparative-effectiveness-study
#3
E Yoko Furuya, Bevin Cohen, Haomiao Jia, Elaine L Larson
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of universal contact precautions (UCP) on rates of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in intensive care units (ICUs) over 9 years DESIGN Retrospective, nonrandomized observational study SETTING An 800-bed adult academic medical center in New York City PARTICIPANTS All patients admitted to 6 ICUs, 3 of which instituted UCP in 2007 METHODS Using a comparative effectiveness approach, we studied the longitudinal impact of UCP on MDRO incidence density rates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae...
March 22, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549515/multidrug-resistant-bacterial-microorganisms-mdro-in-end-of-life-care-development-of-recommendations-for-hospitalized-patients-using-a-mixed-methods-approach
#4
Maria Heckel, Stephanie Stiel, Franziska A Herbst, Johanna M Tiedtke, Alexander Sturm, Thomas Adelhardt, Christian Bogdan, Cornel Sieber, Oliver Schöffski, Frieder R Lang, Christoph Ostgathe
PURPOSE: Palliative care professionals are frequently confronted with patients colonized or infected with MDRO. One major challenge is how to balance necessary isolation measures and social inclusion as one of the main principles of palliative and end-of-life care. To date, MDRO-specific policies and protocols vary widely between institutions. AIM: provide empirical recommendations on how to deal with hospitalized MDRO patients in end-of-life care. METHODS: Recommendations were developed based on (i) initial results of face-to-face interviews and focus groups, (ii) impartial experts' comments and consensus on the draft via online survey and (iii) a face-to-face meeting with consortium members to finalize recommendations...
March 16, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530709/predominance-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-residents-and-environments-of-long-term-care-facilities-in-taiwan
#5
Chia-Ying Liu, Chih-Cheng Lai, Hsiu-Tzy Chiang, Min-Chi Lu, Ling-Fang Wang, Tsai-Ling Tsai, Mei-Yu Kang, Yi-Ni Jan, Yi-Ting Lo, Wen-Chien Ko, Shu-Hui Tseng, Chun-Ming Lee, Po-Ren Hsueh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This study investigated the distribution and persistence of multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA), and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) in six long-term care facilities (LTCFs). METHODS: We investigated the distribution of MDROs in residents of six LTCFs and their environments from January to December 2016 (intervention period)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508365/introducing-an-antibiotic-stewardship-program-in-a-pediatric-center-in-china
#6
Zhi-Gang Zhang, Fei Chen, Jian-Zhong Chen
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASP) on reducing antimicrobial resistance rate, antibiotics consumption and multi-drug resistance bacterial infections in the pediatric patients. METHODS: This study was carried out in the Pediatric Center of a tertiary hospital of Shandong Province, China. The study duration was separated into two periods according to introduction of ASP (began from April 2011). Before intervention: from April 2009 to March 2011; after intervention: from April 2012 to March 2014...
March 5, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501730/mobile-phones-and-computer-keyboards-unlikely-reservoirs-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-the-tertiary-intensive-care-unit
#7
O Smibert, A K Aung, E Woolnough, G P Carter, M B Schultz, B P Howden, T Seemann, D Spelman, S McGloughlin, A Y Peleg
Few studies have utilized molecular epidemiological methods to study transmission links to clinical isolates in intensive care units. 94 multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) cultured from routine specimens from ICU patients over 13 weeks were stored (11 MRSA, 2 VRE and 81 Gram-negative bacteria). Medical staff personal mobile phones, departmental phones and ICU keyboards were swabbed and cultured for MDRO; MRSA was isolated from two phones. Environmental and patient isolates of the same genus were selected for whole genome sequencing...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476847/a-randomized-trial-of-single-versus-double-high-level-disinfection-of-duodenoscopes-and-linear-echoendoscopes-using-standard-automated-reprocessing
#8
Rebecca L Bartles, James E Leggett, Shannan Hove, Catherine D Kashork, Lian Wang, Margret Oethinger, Lynda Baxter, Jack J Brandabur
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In a pilot study, we demonstrated that current guidelines for duodenoscope and linear echoendoscope (DLE) reprocessing using a single cycle of high-level disinfection (HLD) in an automated reprocessor may be inadequate. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration offered double HLD as a possible response to address this concern. As a result, Providence Health and Services adopted double HLD as standard procedure for DLEs, but no rigorous clinical studies supported this practice...
February 21, 2018: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460713/assessing-the-ability-of-hospital-diagnosis-codes-to-detect-inpatient-exposure-to-antibacterial-agents
#9
Michael J Ray, William E Trick, Michael Y Lin
OBJECTIVE Because antibacterial history is difficult to obtain, especially when the exposure occurred at an outside hospital, we assessed whether infection-related diagnostic billing codes, which are more readily available through hospital discharge databases, could infer prior antibacterial receipt. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS This study included 121,916 hospitalizations representing 78,094 patients across the 3 hospitals. METHODS We obtained hospital inpatient data from 3 Chicago-area hospitals...
February 20, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447024/microbiology-and-clinical-outcomes-of-puerperal-sepsis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Rumbidzai Majangara, Muchabayiwa Francis Gidiri, Zvavahera Mike Chirenje
The objectives of this study were to determine the identity and antibacterial susceptibility profiles of bacteria colonising the female genital tract and blood stream and their association with clinical outcomes in women with puerperal sepsis. A prospective descriptive cohort study was conducted at two tertiary hospitals in Zimbabwe. Endocervical swabs and blood were collected for culture and susceptibility testing from 151 consecutive women who met the World Health Organisation criteria for puerperal sepsis...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416463/effect-of-extended-infusion-of-meropenem-and-nebulized-amikacin-on-gram-negative-multidrug-resistant-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#11
Mona Ahmed Ammar, Waleed Abdalla
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) is associated with a significant mortality in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of extended infusion of meropenem and nebulized amikacin on VAP caused by Gram-negative MDRO versus intravenous (IV) meropenem and amikacin alone. Methodology: A randomized nonblinded controlled trial was performed on ninety patients with VAP...
January 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340898/epidemiological-aspects-of-healthcare-associated-infections-and-microbial-genomics
#12
C Mirande, I Bizine, A Giannetti, N Picot, A van Belkum
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are a cause of continuously increasing morbidity and mortality. Most of these infections are caused by a limited set of bacterial species, which share the capability to efficiently spread from patient to patient and to easily acquire antibiotic resistance determinants. This renders correct and rapid species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) important and underscores the relevance of bacterial epidemiological typing. The latter is needed for the sensitive detection and exact tracing of nosocomial spread of these potentially multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO)...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298133/epidemiology-and-risk-factors-for-isolation-of-multi-drug-resistant-organisms-in-patients-with-complicated-intra-abdominal-infections
#13
Francesco M Labricciosa, Massimo Sartelli, Lilian M Abbo, Pamela Barbadoro, Luca Ansaloni, Federico Coccolini, Fausto Catena
BACKGROUND: Patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) caused by multi-drug-resistant organisms (MDROs) have been identified as being at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Prompt identification and stratification of these patients is essential in the clinical management, allowing the physician timely optimization of empiric antimicrobial therapy while awaiting results of intra-operative cultures to streamline antibiotic treatment. METHODS: The study is a secondary analysis from two prospective multi-center color surveillance studies...
April 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277528/determinants-of-inappropriate-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Elena Carrara, Iris Pfeffer, Oren Zusman, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
This systematic review assessed study-level determinants of non-covering (inappropriate) empirical antibiotic treatment (IEAT), focusing on the influence of study years and the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the study. Prospective and retrospective observational studies reporting on the association between IEAT and mortality in adult patients with microbiologically documented infections published between 2008-2016 were included. A meta-analysis of IEAT rates was conducted using a random-effects model...
April 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248023/readmissions-with-multidrug-resistant-infection-in-patients-with-prior-multidrug-resistant-infection
#15
Jason P Burnham, Jennie H Kwon, Margaret A Olsen, Hilary M Babcock, Marin H Kollef
OBJECTIVE To determine incidence of and risk factors for readmissions with multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections among patients with previous MDRO infection. DESIGN Retrospective cohort of patients admitted between January 1, 2006, and October 1, 2015. SETTING Barnes-Jewish Hospital, a 1,250-bed academic tertiary referral center in St Louis, Missouri. METHODS We identified patients with MDROs obtained from the bloodstream, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)/bronchial wash, or other sterile sites. Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) and European CDC definitions of MDROs were utilized...
January 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176351/bacteremia-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis-prevalence-and-predictors-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#16
Jennifer N Addo Smith, Raymond Yau, Hannah P Russo, Kimberly Putney, Alejandro Restrepo, Kevin W Garey, Amelia K Sofjan
GOALS: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) in cirrhotic patients with bacteremia at a large tertiary center in the United States. BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of bacteremia in patients with liver cirrhosis has not been well studied in the United States. STUDY: This case-case control study included 180 adults with liver cirrhosis hospitalized from 2011 to 2015. Case group 1 were patients with bacteremia due to a MDRO (n=30)...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162494/prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-migrant-children-admitted-to-an-italian-cardiac-surgery-department-2015-2016
#17
E Costa, M Tejada, P Gaia, M Cornetta, A Moroni, E Carfora, R Valaperta, C De Siena, N Moussaidi, G Isgrò, A Frigiola
Screening on hospital admission to identify multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) colonization is a frequently discussed topic. We report the results of microbiological screening in 141 Italian and 354 migrant children candidates for cardiac surgery conducted in 2015-2016. In all, 25% of Italian children and more than 65.4% of African and Romanian children carried at least one MDRO (meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; extended-spectrum β-lactamase enzymes; carbapenemase producers; and vancomycin-resistant enterococci)...
March 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144223/no-touch-disinfection-methods-to-decrease-multidrug-resistant-organism-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Alexandre R Marra, Marin L Schweizer, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that using no-touch disinfection technologies (ie, ultraviolet light [UVL] or hydrogen peroxide vapor [HPV] systems) can limit the transmission of nosocomial pathogens and prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). To investigate these findings further, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of no-touch disinfection methods to decrease HAIs. METHODS We searched PubMed, CINAHL, CDSR, DARE and EMBASE through April 2017 for studies evaluating no-touch disinfection technology and the nosocomial infection rates for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132307/involvement-of-lemdr-an-atp-binding-cassette-protein-gene-in-shikonin-transport-and-biosynthesis-in-lithospermum-erythrorhizon
#19
Yu Zhu, Gui-Hua Lu, Zhuo-Wu Bian, Feng-Yao Wu, Yan-Jun Pang, Xiao-Ming Wang, Rong-Wu Yang, Cheng-Yi Tang, Jin-Liang Qi, Yong-Hua Yang
BACKGROUND: Shikonin is a naphthoquinone secondary metabolite with important medicinal value and is found in Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Considering the limited knowledge on the membrane transport mechanism of shikonin, this study investigated such molecular mechanism. RESULTS: We successfully isolated an ATP-binding cassette protein gene, LeMDR, from L. erythrorhizon. LeMDR is predominantly expressed in L. erythrorhizon roots, where shikonin accumulated. Functional analysis of LeMDR by using the yeast cell expression system revealed that LeMDR is possibly involved in the shikonin efflux transport...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122787/effect-of-daily-antiseptic-body-wash-with-octenidine-on-nosocomial-primary-bacteraemia-and-nosocomial-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-intensive-care-units-design-of-a-multicentre-cluster-randomised-double-blind-cross-over-study
#20
Anne Meißner, Dirk Hasenclever, Oana Brosteanu, Iris Freya Chaberny
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections are serious complications that increase morbidity, mortality and costs and could potentially be avoidable. Antiseptic body wash is an approach to reduce dermal micro-organisms as potential pathogens on the skin. Large-scale trials with chlorhexidine as the antiseptic agent suggest a reduction of nosocomial infection rates. Octenidine is a promising alternative agent which could be more effective against Gram-negative organisms. We hypothesise that daily antiseptic body wash with octenidine reduces the risk of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired primary bacteraemia and ICU-acquired multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) in a standard care setting...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
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