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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646310/effects-of-a-dark-septate-endophyte-dse-on-growth-cadmium-content-and-physiology-in-maize-under-cadmium-stress
#1
Yongmei He, Zhixin Yang, Mingrui Li, Ming Jiang, Fangdong Zhan, Yanqun Zu, Tao Li, Zhiwei Zhao
Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are widely distributed in plant roots grown in stressful habitats, especially in heavy metal-polluted soils. But little is known about the physiological interactions between DSE and plants under heavy metal stress. In the present study, the growth, Cd content, and physiological response of Zea mays L. to a root-colonized DSE, Exophiala pisciphila, were analyzed under Cd stress (0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) in a sand culture experiment. Under high Cd (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) stress, the DSE colonization in roots increased the maize growth, kept more Cd in roots, and decreased Cd content in shoots...
June 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644041/identifying-the-functional-groups-and-the-influence-of-synthetic-chelators-on-cd-availability-and-microbial-biomass-carbon-in-cd-contaminated-soil
#2
Muhammad Afzal Chhajro, Qingling Fu, Muhammad Shaaban, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan, Jun Zhu, Abdus Salam, Kashif Ali Kubar, Saqib Bashir, Hongqing Hu, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro
Synthetic chelators play an important role in boosting the microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and heavy metal solubility in a contaminated soil towards a sustainability of environment for agricultural crops. Castor was selected as a potential cadmium (Cd) accumulator in different levels of Cd (-Cd and +Cd) contamination with using three chelating agents, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (H4EDTA), nitriloacetic acid (H3 NTA) and NH4 citrate (ammonium citrate) were added to soil at rates of 10, 15 and 25 mmol in 5 kg of soil per pot...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643161/nonlinear-biotic-ligand-model-for-assessing-alleviation-effects-of-ca-mg-and-k-on-cd-toxicity-to-soybean-roots
#3
Bo-Ching Chen, Pin-Jie Wang, Pei-Chi Ho, Kai-Wei Juang
Developing a nonlinear biotic ligand model (BLM) that considers the geometrical constraints for binding of different cations on biotic ligands will provide more reliable details about the hypothetical mechanism governing the alleviation of cadmium (Cd) toxicity by coexistent cations. Soybean seedlings under Cd stress produced by various activities of coexistent cations such as calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), and potassium (K(+)) were hydroponically assayed for Cd toxicity to soybean roots. The Cd(2+) activity resulting in 50% reduction of root elongation (RE), EA 50, was used for assessing the Cd toxicity to the soybean seedling...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643085/exogenous-application-of-nitric-oxide-modulates-osmolyte-metabolism-antioxidants-enzymes-of-ascorbate-glutathione-cycle-and-promotes-growth-under-cadmium-stress-in-tomato
#4
Parvaiz Ahmad, Mohammed Abass Ahanger, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Leonard Wijaya, Pravej Alam
Experiments were carried out to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in ameliorating the negative effects of cadmium stress in tomato seedlings. Plants treated with cadmium (CdCl2, 150 μM) showed reduced growth, biomass yield, pigment content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and gas exchange parameters. Exogenous application of NO donor (sodium nitroprusside) with nutrient solution protected chlorophyll pigments, restored chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange parameters, and caused significant enhancements in growth and biomass yield...
June 22, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638400/integration-of-cadmium-accumulation-subcellular-distribution-and-physiological-responses-to-understand-cadmium-tolerance-in-apple-rootstocks
#5
Jiangtao Zhou, Huixue Wan, Jiali He, Deguo Lyu, Huifeng Li
Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential and highly toxic element causing agricultural problems. However, little information is available about the variation in Cd tolerance among apple rootstocks and its underlying physiological regulation mechanisms. This study investigated Cd accumulation, subcellular distribution, and chemical forms as well as physiological changes among four apple rootstocks exposed to either 0 or 300 μM CdCl2. The results showed that variations in Cd tolerance existed among these rootstocks. Cd exposure caused decline in photosynthesis, chlorophyll and biomass in four apple rootstocks, which was less pronounced in M...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635264/cadmium-accumulation-risk-in-vegetables-and-rice-in-southern-china-insights-from-solid-solution-partitioning-and-plant-uptake-factor
#6
Yang Yang, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen, Yanling Li, Chi Peng
Solid-solution partitioning coefficient (Kd) and plant uptake factor (PUF) largely determine the solubility and mobility of soil Cd to food crops. A four-year regional investigation was conducted in contaminated vegetable and paddy fields of southern China to quantify the variability in Kd and PUF. The distributions of Kd and PUF characterizing transfers of Cd from soil to vegetable and rice are probabilistic in nature. Dynamics in soil pH and soil Zn greatly affected the variations of Kd. In addition to soil pH, soil organic matter had a major influence on PUF variations in vegetables...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633105/effects-of-triacontanol-on-ascorbate-glutathione-cycle-in-brassica-napus-l-exposed-to-cadmium-induced-oxidative-stress
#7
Elham Asadi Karam, Viviana Maresca, Sergio Sorbo, Batool Keramat, Adriana Basile
The ability of exogenous triacontanol (TRIA), a plant growth regulator, to reduce Cd toxicity was studied in canola (Brassica napus L.) plants. The following biological parameters were examined in canola seedlings to investigate TRIA-induced tolerance to Cd toxicity: seedling growth, chlorophyll damage and antioxidant response. In particular, TRIA application reduced Cd-induced oxidative damage, as shown by reduction of ROS content, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and lipid peroxidation level. TRIA pretreatment increased non-enzymatic antioxidant contents (ascorbate, AsA, glutathione and GSH), phytochelatin content (PCs) and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydro ascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), so reducing the oxidative stress...
June 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624948/metal-release-from-contaminated-leaf-litter-and-leachate-toxicity-for-the-freshwater-crustacean-gammarus-fossarum
#8
Florence Maunoury-Danger, Vincent Felten, Clément Bojic, Fabrice Fraysse, Mar Cosin Ponce, Odile Dedourge-Geffard, Alain Geffard, François Guérold, Michael Danger
Industrialization has left large surfaces of contaminated soils, which may act as a source of pollution for contiguous ecosystems, either terrestrial or aquatic. When polluted sites are recolonized by plants, dispersion of leaf litter might represent a non-negligible source of contaminants, especially metals. To evaluate the risks associated to contaminated leaf litter dispersion in aquatic ecosystems, we first measured the dynamics of metal loss from leaf litter during a 48-h experimental leaching. We used aspen (Populus tremula L...
June 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624942/toxicity-of-56-substances-to-trees
#9
Lauge Peter Westergaard Clausen, Stefan Trapp
Toxicity data of substances to higher plants is needed for the purpose of risk assessment, site evaluation, phytoremediation, and plant protection. However, the results from the most common phytotoxicity tests, like the OECD algae and Lemna test, are not necessarily valid for higher terrestrial plants. The willow tree toxicity test uses inhibition of transpiration (aside of growth and water use efficiency) of willow cuttings grown in spiked solutions or soils as end point to quantify toxicity. This overview presents results from 60 studies including 24 new unpublished experiments for 56 different chemicals or substrates...
June 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623252/natural-variation-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-cd-responses-and-the-detection-of-quantitative-trait-loci-affecting-cd-tolerance
#10
Sina Fischer, Thomas Spielau, Stephan Clemens
Metal tolerance is often a result of metal storage or distribution. Thus, with the goal of advancing the molecular understanding of such metal homeostatic mechanisms, natural variation of metal tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. Substantial variation exists in tolerance of excess copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). Two accessions, Col-0 and Bur-0, and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from these parents were chosen for further analysis of Cd and Zn tolerance variation, which is evident at different plant ages in various experimental systems and appears to be genetically linked...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622373/a-versatile-and-low-cost-open-source-pipetting-robot-for-automation-of-toxicological-and-ecotoxicological-bioassays
#11
Sebastian Steffens, Leonie Nüßer, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Nadine Ruchter, Mark Schumann, Ricarda Döring, Catrina Cofalla, Avi Ostfeld, Elad Salomons, Holger Schüttrumpf, Henner Hollert, Markus Brinkmann
In the past decades, bioassays and whole-organism bioassay have become important tools not only in compliance testing of industrial chemicals and plant protection products, but also in the monitoring of environmental quality. With few exceptions, such test systems are discontinuous. They require exposure of the biological test material in small units, such as multiwell plates, during prolonged incubation periods, and do not allow online read-outs. It is mostly due to these shortcomings that applications in continuous monitoring of, e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621830/phytochelatin-synthase-ospcs1-plays-a-crucial-role-in-reducing-arsenic-levels-in-rice-grains
#12
Shimpei Hayashi, Masato Kuramata, Tadashi Abe, Hiroki Takagi, Kenjirou Ozawa, Satoru Ishikawa
Reduction of the levels of arsenic (As) in rice grains is an important challenge for agriculture. A recent study reported that the OsABCC1 transporter prevents As accumulation in grains by sequestering As-phytochelatin complexes into vacuoles in the upper nodes. However, how phytochelatins are provided in response to As remains unclear. Here, we show that the phytochelatin synthase OsPCS1 plays a crucial role in reducing As levels in rice grains. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated two rice mutants (has1 and has2) in which As levels were much higher in grains but significantly lower in node I in comparison with the wild type...
June 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620728/contents-of-heavy-metals-in-chinese-edible-herbs-evidence-from-a-case-study-of-epimedii-folium
#13
Xiao-Hua Yang, Hua-Feng Zhang, Li-Li Niu, Ying Wang, Jiang-Hua Lai
Toxic heavy metal contamination in Chinese edible herbs has raised a worldwide concern. In this study, heavy metals in Epimedii Folium, an edible medicinal plant in China, were quantitatively analyzed. Variations of heavy metals in different species, in various organs (i.e., leaves, stems, and roots), in wild-growing and cultivated plants, and in 35 market samples of Epimedii Folium, were systematically investigated. In all of Epimedium samples, Hg (mercury) was not detectable (0.00 μg/g). Four species, Epimedium pubescens, Epimedium sagittatum, Epimedium brevicornu, and Epimedium wushanense, were found to contain Cu (copper) and Pb (lead)...
June 16, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620726/determination-of-the-cadmium-chromium-nickel-and-lead-ions-relays-in-selected-polish-medicinal-plants-and-their-infusion
#14
Janusz Mirosławski, Andrzej Paukszto
Concentration of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb were determined in peppermint leaves (Folium Menthae piperitae), chamomile blossom (Anthodium Chamomillae), and their infusions by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after microwave digestion of plants samples. Peppermint and chamomile preparations by five different producers were purchased at various pharmacies in Poland. Infusions were made from herbs according to prescription for patients, provided by the producer of medicine on the package. Results show that in exam of medicinal plants the content of cadmium exceeds World Health Organization (WHO) standards...
June 15, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617190/experimental-and-theoretical-studies-of-cadmium-ions-absorption-by-a-new-reduced-recombinant-defensin
#15
Karim Mahnam, Samira Foruzandeh, Neda Mirakhorli, Behnaz Saffar
Heavy metal pollutants such as Cd, Hg, Pb, As and Se are considered as both a global problem and a growing threat to the humanity. Being strongly poisonous to the metal-sensitive enzymes and leading to the growth inhibition and death of organisms, these metals have a toxic impact on the plants and animals. Inducing the metal-binding cysteine-rich peptides such as metallothioneins, phytochelatins, and defensins, higher organisms like plants and animals usually react to the heavy metal stress. In this study, a recombinant defensin protein was expressed in bean and its ability in the cadmium absorption was determined...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614756/photosynthetic-antioxidative-molecular-and-ultrastructural-responses-of-young-cacao-plants-to-cd-toxicity-in-the-soil
#16
Romária Pereira de Araújo, Alex-Alan Furtado de Almeida, Lidiane Silva Pereira, Pedro A O Mangabeira, José Olimpio Souza, Carlos P Pirovani, Dário Ahnert, Virupax C Baligar
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic metal for plants, even at low concentrations in the soil. The annual production of world cocoa beans is approximately 4 million tons. Most of these fermented and dried beans are used in the manufacture of chocolate. Recent work has shown that the concentration of Cd in these beans has exceeded the critical level (0.6mgkg(-1) DM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of Cd in young plants of CCN 51 cacao genotype grown in soil with different concentrations of Cd (0, 0...
June 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611799/endophytic-paecilomyces-formosus-lhl10-augments-glycine-max-l-adaptation-to-ni-contamination-through-affecting-endogenous-phytohormones-and-oxidative-stress
#17
Saqib Bilal, Abdul L Khan, Raheem Shahzad, Sajjad Asaf, Sang-Mo Kang, In-Jung Lee
This study investigated the Ni-removal efficiency of phytohormone-producing endophytic fungi Penicillium janthinellum, Paecilomyces formosus, Exophiala sp., and Preussia sp. Among four different endophytes, P. formosus LHL10 was able to tolerate up to 1 mM Ni in contaminated media as compared to copper and cadmium. P. formosus LHL10 was further assessed for its potential to enhance the phytoremediation of Glycine max (soybean) in response to dose-dependent increases in soil Ni (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 mM). Inoculation with P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609847/soil-contamination-with-cadmium-consequences-and-remediation-using-organic-amendments
#18
REVIEW
Muhammad Amjad Khan, Sardar Khan, Anwarzeb Khan, Mehboob Alam
Cadmium (Cd) contamination of soil and food crops is a ubiquitous environmental problem that has resulted from uncontrolled industrialization, unsustainable urbanization and intensive agricultural practices. Being a toxic element, Cd poses high threats to soil quality, food safety, and human health. Land is the ultimate source of waste disposal and utilization therefore, Cd released from different sources (natural and anthropogenic), eventually reaches soil, and then subsequently bio-accumulates in food crops...
June 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602857/current-health-risk-assessment-practice-for-dietary-cadmium-data-from-different-countries
#19
REVIEW
Soisungwan Satarug, David A Vesey, Glenda C Gobe
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant with high rates of soil-to-plant transference. This makes exposure to Cd through the food-chain contamination a public health concern. Cd accumulates in kidneys, and the most frequently reported adverse effect of long-term Cd intake is injury to kidneys. The FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives established a tolerable dietary intake level and a threshold to safeguard population health. The FAO/WHO tolerable intake was set at 25 μg per kg body weight per month (58 μg per day for a 70-kg person) with urinary Cd threshold at 5...
June 8, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595096/occurrence-and-mobility-of-toxic-elements-in-coals-from-endemic-fluorosis-areas-in-the-three-gorges-region-sw-china
#20
Yan Xiong, Tangfu Xiao, Yizhang Liu, Jianming Zhu, Zengping Ning, Qingxiang Xiao
Fluorine (F) is a topic of great interest in coal-combustion related endemic fluorosis areas. However, little extent research exists regarding the environmental geochemistry of toxic elements that are enriched in coals and coal wastes in traditional endemic fluorosis areas, particularly focusing on their occurrences and mobilities during the weathering-leaching processes of coals and coal wastes in the surface environment. This paper addressed the issue of toxic elements in coals and coal wastes in the Three Gorges Region, Southwest (SW) China, where endemic fluorosis has historically prevailed, and investigated the distribution, occurrence, mobility features, and associated potential health risks...
June 5, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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