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Ji-Yuan Liang, Jun-Yun Wu, Ming-Yeh Yang, Anren Hu, Liang-Yü Chen
Polyphenols are associated with a wide range of physiological properties. Catechin is a flavan-3-ol with five phenolic hydroxyl groups. After blue light illumination, the transparent solution of catechin became yellowish. The effects of visible light illumination (400-800nm) were investigated on molecular structures and antioxidant capacities of catechin. Under the neutral or alkaline aqueous with the illumination of blue light, the photolysis and polymerization of catechin were observed in this study. A chromogenic catechin dimer was separated and identified as a proanthocyanidin by the chromatographic technique and mass spectrometry...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Christine Gross, Veit Wiesmann, Sebastian Millen, Martina Kalmer, Thomas Wittenberg, Jan Gettemans, Andrea K Thoma-Kress
The delta-retrovirus Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission. Viruses are transmitted by polarized budding and by transfer of viral biofilms at the virological synapse (VS). Formation of the VS requires the viral Tax protein and polarization of the host cytoskeleton, however, molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission remain incompletely understood. Recently, we could show Tax-dependent upregulation of the actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN-1) in HTLV-1-infected T-cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Max Denis, Adriana Gregory, Mahdi Bayat, Robert T Fazzio, Dana H Whaley, Karthik Ghosh, Sejal Shah, Mostafa Fatemi, Azra Alizad
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study is to correlate quantitatively measured tumor stiffness with immunohistochemical (IHC) subtypes of breast cancer. Additionally, the influence of prognostic histologic features (cancer grade, size, lymph node status, and histological type and grade) to the tumor elasticity and IHC profile relationship will be investigated. METHODS: Under an institutional review board (IRB) approved protocol, B-mode ultrasound (US) and comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) were performed on 157 female patients with suspicious breast lesions...
2016: PloS One
Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Amy B Wilfert, Katherine R Chao, Madhurima Kaushal, Sanjay Jain, Sebastian Zöllner, David R Adams, Donald F Conrad
Standard techniques from genetic epidemiology are ill-suited to formally assess the significance of variants identified from a single case. We developed a statistical inference framework for identifying unusual functional variation from a single exome or genome, what we refer to as the 'n-of-one' problem. Using this approach we assessed our ability to identify the causal genotypes in over 5 million simulated cases of Mendelian disease, identifying 39% of disease genotypes as the most damaging unit in a typical exome background...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Jinghui Zhang, Kelly McCastlain, Hiroki Yoshihara, Beisi Xu, Yunchao Chang, Michelle L Churchman, Gang Wu, Yongjin Li, Lei Wei, Ilaria Iacobucci, Yu Liu, Chunxu Qu, Ji Wen, Michael Edmonson, Debbie Payne-Turner, Kerstin B Kaufmann, Shin-Ichiro Takayanagi, Erno Wienholds, Esmé Waanders, Panagiotis Ntziachristos, Sofia Bakogianni, Jingjing Wang, Iannis Aifantis, Kathryn G Roberts, Jing Ma, Guangchun Song, John Easton, Heather L Mulder, Xiang Chen, Scott Newman, Xiaotu Ma, Michael Rusch, Pankaj Gupta, Kristy Boggs, Bhavin Vadodaria, James Dalton, Yanling Liu, Marcus L Valentine, Li Ding, Charles Lu, Robert S Fulton, Lucinda Fulton, Yashodhan Tabib, Kerri Ochoa, Meenakshi Devidas, Deqing Pei, Cheng Cheng, Jun Yang, William E Evans, Mary V Relling, Ching-Hon Pui, Sima Jeha, Richard C Harvey, I-Ming L Chen, Cheryl L Willman, Guido Marcucci, Clara D Bloomfield, Jessica Kohlschmidt, Krzysztof Mrózek, Elisabeth Paietta, Martin S Tallman, Wendy Stock, Matthew C Foster, Janis Racevskis, Jacob M Rowe, Selina Luger, Steven M Kornblau, Sheila A Shurtleff, Susana C Raimondi, Elaine R Mardis, Richard K Wilson, John E Dick, Stephen P Hunger, Mignon L Loh, James R Downing, Charles G Mullighan
Chromosomal rearrangements deregulating hematopoietic transcription factors are common in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Here we show that deregulation of the homeobox transcription factor gene DUX4 and the ETS transcription factor gene ERG is a hallmark of a subtype of B-progenitor ALL that comprises up to 7% of B-ALL. DUX4 rearrangement and overexpression was present in all cases and was accompanied by transcriptional deregulation of ERG, expression of a novel ERG isoform, ERGalt, and frequent ERG deletion...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Elisabeth Salzer, Deniz Cagdas, Miroslav Hons, Emily M Mace, Wojciech Garncarz, Özlem Yüce Petronczki, René Platzer, Laurène Pfajfer, Ivan Bilic, Sol A Ban, Katharina L Willmann, Malini Mukherjee, Verena Supper, Hsiang Ting Hsu, Pinaki P Banerjee, Papiya Sinha, Fabienne McClanahan, Gerhard J Zlabinger, Winfried F Pickl, John G Gribben, Hannes Stockinger, Keiryn L Bennett, Johannes B Huppa, Loïc Dupré, Özden Sanal, Ulrich Jäger, Michael Sixt, Ilhan Tezcan, Jordan S Orange, Kaan Boztug
RASGRP1 is an important guanine nucleotide exchange factor and activator of the RAS-MAPK pathway following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. The consequences of RASGRP1 mutations in humans are unknown. In a patient with recurrent bacterial and viral infections, born to healthy consanguineous parents, we used homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing to identify a biallelic stop-gain variant in RASGRP1. This variant segregated perfectly with the disease and has not been reported in genetic databases. RASGRP1 deficiency was associated in T cells and B cells with decreased phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal-regulated serine kinase ERK, which was restored following expression of wild-type RASGRP1...
October 24, 2016: Nature Immunology
Monika B Dolinska, Nicole Kus, Katie Farney, Paul T Wingfield, Brian P Brooks, Yuri V Sergeev
: Oculocutaneous albinism Type 1 (OCA1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the tyrosinase gene. Two subtypes of OCA1 have been described: severe OCA1A with complete absence of tyrosinase activity and less severe OCA1B with residual tyrosinase activity. Here, we characterize the recombinant human tyrosinase intra-melanosomal domain and mutant variants, which mimic genetic changes in both subtypes of OCA1 patients. Proteins were prepared using site-directed mutagenesis, expressed in insect larvae, purified by chromatography, and characterized by enzymatic activities- tryptophan fluorescence, and Gibbs free energy changes...
October 24, 2016: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Sanjay K Agarwal, Dipankar Bhowmik, Sandeep Mahajan, Soumita Bagchi
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipient (RTR). Immunosuppressive drugs are one of the most important risk factor for post-transplant tuberculosis (PTTB). A paucity of data exists about the impact of the type of calcineurin inhibitor on PTTB. METHODS: In this retrospective study, all adult patients on calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression were included. Patients receiving TB chemoprophylaxis were excluded...
October 24, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Laura Campbell-Sills, Peter P Roy-Byrne, Michelle G Craske, Alexander Bystritsky, Greer Sullivan, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Many patients with anxiety disorders remain symptomatic after receiving evidence-based treatment, yet research on treatment-resistant anxiety is limited. We evaluated effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on outcomes of patients with medication-resistant anxiety disorders using data from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) trial. METHODS: Primary care patients who met study entry criteria (including DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, or social anxiety disorder) despite ongoing pharmacotherapy of appropriate type, dose, and duration were classified as medication resistant (n = 227)...
October 24, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
Pablo Alonso-González, Alexey Y Nikitin, Yuanda Gao, Achim Woessner, Mark B Lundeberg, Alessandro Principi, Nicolò Forcellini, Wenjing Yan, Saül Vélez, Andreas J Huber, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Félix Casanova, Luis E Hueso, Marco Polini, James Hone, Frank H L Koppens, Rainer Hillenbrand
Terahertz (THz) fields are widely used for sensing, communication and quality control. In future applications, they could be efficiently confined, enhanced and manipulated well below the classical diffraction limit through the excitation of graphene plasmons (GPs). These possibilities emerge from the strongly reduced GP wavelength, λp, compared with the photon wavelength, λ0, which can be controlled by modulating the carrier density of graphene via electrical gating. Recently, GPs in a graphene/insulator/metal configuration have been predicted to exhibit a linear dispersion (thus called acoustic plasmons) and a further reduced wavelength, implying an improved field confinement, analogous to plasmons in two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) near conductive substrates...
October 24, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
J N Sheets, M Iwanicki, J F Liu, B E Howitt, M S Hirsch, J A A Gubbels, R Drapkin, K A Egland
The cause of death among the majority of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients involves passive dissemination of cancer cells within the peritoneal cavity and subsequent implantation of cancer spheroids into adjacent organs. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that mediate EOC metastasis and implantation, including clearance of the mesothelium. Sushi domain containing 2 (SUSD2) encodes a type I transmembrane protein containing several functional domains inherent to adhesion molecules. Immunohistochemical analysis determined the presence of SUSD2 in several subtypes of EOC, with the strongest staining observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs)...
October 24, 2016: Oncogenesis
Vera Pader, Sanika Hakim, Kimberley L Painter, Sivaramesh Wigneshweraraj, Thomas B Clarke, Andrew M Edwards
Daptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic of last resort for serious infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(1,2). Although resistance is rare, treatment failure can occur in more than 20% of cases(3,4) and so there is a pressing need to identify and mitigate factors that contribute to poor therapeutic outcomes. Here, we show that loss of the Agr quorum-sensing system, which frequently occurs in clinical isolates, enhances S. aureus survival during daptomycin treatment. Wild-type S...
October 24, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Katsuhiko Warita, Nana Oshima, Naoko Takeda-Okuda, Jun-Ichi Tamura, Yoshinao Z Hosaka
Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is a factor involved in the suppression of myogenic differentiation. CS comprises two repeating sugars and has different subtypes depending on the position and number of bonded sulfate groups. However, the effect of each subtype on myogenic differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we spiked cultures of C₂C12 myoblasts, cells which are capable of undergoing skeletal muscle differentiation, with one of five types of CS (CS-A, -B, -C, -D, or -E) and induced differentiation over a fixed time...
October 21, 2016: Marine Drugs
Giorgina B Piccoli, Federica Ventrella, Irene Capizzi, Federica N Vigotti, Elena Mongilardi, Giorgio Grassi, Valentina Loi, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Paolo Avagnina, Elisabetta Versino
Low-protein diets (LPDs) are often considered as contraindicated in diabetic patients, and are seldom studied. The aim of this observational study was to provide new data on this issue. It involved 149 diabetic and 300 non-diabetic patients who followed a LPD, with a personalized approach aimed at moderate protein restriction (0.6 g/day). Survival analysis was performed according to Kaplan-Meier, and multivariate analysis with Cox model. Diabetic versus non-diabetic patients were of similar age (median 70 years) and creatinine levels at the start of the diet (2...
October 21, 2016: Nutrients
Albert W Girotti
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes is a free radical molecule involved in a wide variety of normophysiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Included in the latter category are cancer promotion, progression, and resistance to therapeutic intervention. Animal tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT) studies several years ago revealed that endogenous NO can reduce PDT efficacy and that NOS inhibitors can alleviate this. Until relatively recently, little else was known about this anti-PDT effect of NO, including: (a) the underlying mechanisms; (b) type(s) of NOS involved; and (c) whether active NO was generated in vascular cells, tumor cells, or both...
October 20, 2016: Cancers
Y D Pacheco, C Lorca-García, B Berenguer, E De Tomás
INTRODUCTION: Preaxial polydactyly is one of the most common congenital malformations of the hand. The treatment is surgical and should be done early, between 6 and 12 months old. The purpose of this paper is to review our experience in terms of casuistry, treatment and functional and aesthetic results of duplicity of thumb, since 2000 until today. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with diagnosis of preaxial polydactyly from 2000 to january 2016 was performed...
October 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Athanassios Panagiotopoulos, Antonios M Douvas, Panagiotis Argitis, Athanassios G Coutsolelos
Hydrogen evolution using photocatalytic systems based on artificial photosynthesis is a major approach toward solar energy conversion and storage. In the polyoxometalate-based photocatalytic systems proposed in the past, middle/near UV light irradiation and noble-metal catalysts were mainly used. Although recently polyoxometalates were sensitized in visible light, photosensitizers or catalysts based on noble metals, and/or poor activity of polyoxometalates were generally obtained. Here we show the highly efficient [turnover number (TON)=215] hydrogen evolution induced by the zinc(II) mesotetrakis(N-methyl-pyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (ZnTMPyP(4+) ) sensitization of a series of polyoxometalate catalysts (two Dawson type, P2 Mo18 O62(6-) and P2 W18 O62(6-) anions, and one Keplerate {Mo132 } cluster) in a visible-light-driven, noble-metal-free, and fully water-soluble system...
October 24, 2016: ChemSusChem
Ryoichi Yano, Kyoko Takagi, Yoshitake Takada, Kyosuke Mukaiyama, Chigen Tsukamoto, Takashi Sayama, Akito Kaga, Toyoaki Anai, Satoru Sawai, Kiyoshi Ohyama, Kazuki Saito, Masao Ishimoto
Triterpenoid saponins are major components of secondary metabolites in soybean seeds and are divided into two groups: group A saponins and 2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one (DDMP) saponins. The aglycone moiety of group A saponins consists of soyasapogenol A (SA), which is an oxidized β-amyrin product, and the aglycone moiety of the DDMP saponins consists of soyasapogenol B (SB). Group A saponins produce a bitter and astringent aftertaste in soy products, whereas DDMP saponins have known health benefits for humans...
October 24, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Marta Sevilla, Guillermo A Ferrero, Antonio B Fuertes
A facile and environmentally friendly synthetic strategy for the production of stable and easily processable dispersions of graphene in water is presented. This strategy represents an alternative to classical chemical exfoliation methods (for example the Hummers method) that are more complex, harmful, and dangerous. The process is based on the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite and includes three simple steps: 1) the anodic exfoliation of graphite in (NH4 )2 SO4 , 2) sonication to separate the oxidized graphene sheets, and 3) reduction of oxidized graphene to graphene...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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