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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915474/racial-differences-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-prostate-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Giuliano Di Pietro, Ganna Chornokur, Nagi B Kumar, Chemar Davis, Jong Y Park
Disparities between African American and Caucasian men in prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and treatment in the United States have been well established, with significant racial disparities documented at all stages of PCa management, from differences in the type of treatment offered to progression-free survival or death. These disparities appear to be complex in nature, involving biological determinants as well as socioeconomic and cultural aspects. We present a review of the literature on racial disparities in the diagnosis of PCa, treatment, survival, and genetic susceptibility...
November 2016: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915430/protection-zone-in-a-diffusive-predator-prey-model-with-beddington-deangelis-functional-response
#2
Xiao He, Sining Zheng
In any reaction-diffusion system of predator-prey models, the population densities of species are determined by the interactions between them, together with the influences from the spatial environments surrounding them. Generally, the prey species would die out when their birth rate is too low, the habitat size is too small, the predator grows too fast, or the predation pressure is too high. To save the endangered prey species, some human interference is useful, such as creating a protection zone where the prey could cross the boundary freely but the predator is prohibited from entering...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915426/impact-of-a-medication-therapy-management-service-on-the-clinical-status-of-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
Kirla B Detoni, Isabela V Oliveira, Mariana M G Nascimento, Thaís R Caux, Mateus R Alves, Djenane Ramalho-de-Oliveira
Background At this moment, there is no information in the literature showing the impact of comprehensive medication management (CMM) service delivered to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Objective This study aims to present the clinical outcomes of this service provided to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Settings Public specialty pharmacy where high cost drug treatments are provided for medical conditions not covered by the primary care such as COPD, located in Minas Gerais State, Brazil...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915411/saccharothrix-ghardaiensis-sp-nov-an-actinobacterium-isolated-from-saharan-soil
#4
Khaoula Bouznada, Noureddine Bouras, Salim Mokrane, Fawzia Chaabane Chaouch, Abdelghani Zitouni, Gabriele Pötter, Cathrin Spröer, Hans-Peter Klenk, Nasserdine Sabaou
The taxonomic position of a new Saccharothrix strain, designated MB46(T), isolated from a Saharan soil sample collected in Mzab region (Ghardaïa province, South Algeria) was established following a polyphasic approach. The novel microorganism has morphological and chemical characteristics typical of the members of the genus Saccharothrix and formed a phyletic line at the periphery of the Saccharothrix espanaensis subcluster in the 16S rRNA gene dendrograms. Results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that strain MB46(T) shares high degrees of similarity with S...
December 3, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915212/rapid-detection-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-legionella-pneumophila-serogroup-1-sequence-type-47
#5
M Mentasti, P Cassier, S David, C Ginevra, L Gomez-Valero, A Underwood, B Afshar, J Etienne, J Parkhill, V Chalker, C Buchrieser, T G Harrison, S Jarraud
OBJECTIVES: Legionella pneumophia serogroup 1 (Lp1) sequence type 47 is the leading cause of legionellosis in North-Western Europe but surprisingly it is rarely isolated from environmental samples. Comparative genomics was applied to develop a PCR assay and to better understand the evolution of this strain. METHODS: Comparative analysis of 36 genomes representative of the Lp species was used to identify specific PCR targets which were then evaluated in silico on 545 sequenced genomes, and in vitro on 436 Legionella strains, 106 respiratory samples and three environmental samples from proven ST47 sources...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915195/hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-a-unique-and-effective-method-for-ms-fragmentation-behavior-elucidation-of-ginkgolides-and-its-application-to-systematic-research-in-ginkgo-biloba
#6
Xingliang Niu, Jun Luo, Deran Xu, Hongyan Zou, Lingyi Kong
Ginkgolides, the main active constituents of Ginkgo biloba, possess significant selectively inhibition on platelet-activating factor and pancreatic lipase and attract wide attention in pharmacological research area. In our study, an effective hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange method was developed by exchanging the α-Hs of lactone groups in ginkgolides with Ds, which was very useful for the elucidation of the fragmentation patterns of ginkgolides in Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS), especially in accurately distinguishing the type and position of substituent in framework of ginkgolides...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915149/trans-and-paracellular-calcium-transport-along-the-small-and-large-intestine-in-horses
#7
M R Wilkens, L Marholt, N Eigendorf, A S Muscher-Banse, K Feige, B Schröder, G Breves, A Cehak
Intestinal calcium absorption plays a key role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis and may either occur by paracellular or transcellular mechanisms. The horse has some unique peculiarities in calcium homeostasis compared to other species including a high absorptive capacity for calcium in the intestine, high plasma calcium concentrations, high renal excretion, and low plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. So far, knowledge about the underlying mechanisms and the regulation of intestinal calcium absorption is still limited concerning this species...
November 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915069/systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-of-particulate-vs-non-particulate-corticosteroids-in-epidural-injections
#8
REVIEW
Priyesh Mehta, Isaac Syrop, Jaspal Ricky Singh, Jonathan Kirschner
OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze published studies in regards to the comparative efficacy of particulate versus non-particulate corticosteroids for cervical and lumbosacral epidural steroid injections (ESI) in reducing pain and improving function. TYPE: Systematic Review LITERATURE SURVEY: MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched from the period of 1950 to December 2015. METHODOLOGY: Criteria for inclusion in this review were: 1) Randomized controlled trials and 2) Retrospective studies comparing particulate versus non-particulate medication in fluoroscopically guided injections using a transforaminal (TF) or interlaminar (IL) approach...
November 30, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914860/microplastics-ingestion-by-a-common-tropical-freshwater-fishing-resource
#9
Jacqueline Santos Silva-Cavalcanti, José Diego B Silva, Elton José de França, Maria Christina Barbosa de Araújo, Felipe Gusmão
Microplastics pollution is widespread in marine ecosystems and a major threat to biodiversity. Nevertheless, our knowledge of the impacts of microplastics in freshwater environments and biota is still very limited. The interaction of microplastics with freshwater organisms and the risks associated with the human consumption of organisms that ingested microplastics remain major knowledge gaps. In this study, we assessed the ingestion of microplastics by Hoplosternum littorale, a common freshwater fish heavily consumed by humans in semi-arid regions of South America...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914847/the-three-dimensional-glenohumeral-subluxation-index-in-primary-osteoarthritis-of-the-shoulder
#10
Matthijs Jacxsens, Alexander Van Tongel, Heath B Henninger, Robert Z Tashjian, Lieven De Wilde
BACKGROUND: Assessment of glenohumeral subluxation is essential in preoperative planning of total shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a 3-dimensional (3D) glenohumeral subluxation index (GHSI) in shoulders with primary osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship with morbid glenoid retroversion. METHODS: The 3D computed tomography reconstructions of 120 healthy shoulders and 110 shoulders with primary glenohumeral arthritis (OA group), classified according to Walch's glenoid morphology, were analyzed...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914830/dermatophagoides-pteronyssinus-changes-in-sensitisation-in-the-past-11-years-and-comparison-with-other-centres-in-mexico
#11
E M Navarrete-Rodríguez, J R Fernández-Soto, B E Del Rio-Navarro, O J Saucedo-Ramírez, J J L Sienra-Monge
BACKGROUND: House dust mites are a ubiquitous air allergen in the human habitat. It has been shown that exposure to them is a fundamental factor in sensitisation and development of atopic disease. The objective of the study was to analyse changes in sensitisation to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p.) in children treated in a tertiary level care hospital in Mexico City for a period of 11 years and compare with other studies carried out in Mexico. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at the Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez (HIMFG)...
November 30, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914729/operative-team-communication-during-simulated-emergencies-too-busy-to-respond
#12
W Austin Davis, Seth Jones, Adrianna M Crowell-Kuhnberg, Dara O'Keeffe, Kelly M Boyle, Suzanne B Klainer, Douglas S Smink, Steven Yule
BACKGROUND: Ineffective communication among members of a multidisciplinary team is associated with operative error and failure to rescue. We sought to measure operative team communication in a simulated emergency using an established communication framework called "closed loop communication." We hypothesized that communication directed at a specific recipient would be more likely to elicit a check back or closed loop response and that this relationship would vary with changes in patients' clinical status...
November 30, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914656/chronic-oral-study-of-myosin-activation-to-increase-contractility-in-heart-failure-cosmic-hf-a-phase-2-pharmacokinetic-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
John R Teerlink, G Michael Felker, John J V McMurray, Scott D Solomon, Kirkwood F Adams, John G F Cleland, Justin A Ezekowitz, Assen Goudev, Peter Macdonald, Marco Metra, Veselin Mitrovic, Piotr Ponikowski, Pranas Serpytis, Jindrich Spinar, János Tomcsányi, Hans J Vandekerckhove, Adriaan A Voors, Maria Laura Monsalvo, James Johnston, Fady I Malik, Narimon Honarpour
BACKGROUND: Impaired contractility is a feature of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. We assessed the pharmacokinetics and effects on cardiac function and structure of the cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind study, done at 87 sites in 13 countries, we recruited patients with stable, symptomatic chronic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction 40% or lower. Patients were randomly assigned equally, via an interactive web response system, to receive 25 mg oral omecamtiv mecarbil twice daily (fixed-dose group), 25 mg twice daily titrated to 50 mg twice daily guided by pharmacokinetics (pharmacokinetic-titration group), or placebo for 20 weeks...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914621/glycolipid-crosslinking-is-required-for-cholera-toxin-to-partition-into-and-stabilize-ordered-domains
#14
Krishnan Raghunathan, Tiffany H Wong, Daniel J Chinnapen, Wayne I Lencer, Michael G Jobling, Anne K Kenworthy
Current models of lipid rafts propose that lipid domains exist as nanoscale compositional fluctuations and these fluctuations can potentially be stabilized into larger domains, consequently better compartmentalizing cellular functions. However, the mechanisms governing stabilized raft assembly and function remain unclear. Here, we test the role of glycolipid crosslinking as a raft targeting and ordering mechanism using the well-studied raft marker cholera toxin B pentamer (CTxB) that binds up to five GM1 glycosphingolipids to enter host cells...
November 30, 2016: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914410/an-investigation-of-sex-differences-in-acoustic-features-in-black-capped-chickadee-poecile-atricapillus-chick-a-dee-calls
#15
Kimberley A Campbell, Allison H Hahn, Jenna V Congdon, Christopher B Sturdy
Sex differences have been identified in a number of black-capped chickadee vocalizations and in the chick-a-dee calls of other chickadee species [i.e., Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis)]. In the current study, 12 acoustic features in black-capped chickadee chick-a-dee calls were investigated, including both frequency and duration measurements. Using permuted discriminant function analyses, these features were examined to determine if any features could be used to identify the sex of the caller. Only one note type (A notes) classified male and female calls at levels approaching significance...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914300/structure-based-analysis-of-bacilli-and-plasmid-dihydrofolate-reductase-evolution
#16
Mona Alotaibi, Ben Delos Reyes, Tin Le, Phuong Luong, Faramarz Valafar, Robert P Metzger, Gary B Fogel, David Hecht
Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a key enzyme in tetrahydrofolate-mediated biosynthetic pathways, has a structural motif known to be highly conserved over a wide range of organisms. Given its critical role in purine and amino acid synthesis, DHFR is a well established therapeutic target for treating a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic infections as well as certain types of cancer. Here we present a structural-based computer analysis of bacterial (Bacilli) and plasmid DHFR evolution. We generated a structure-based sequence alignment using 7 wild-type DHFR x-ray crystal structures obtained from the RCSB Protein Data Bank and 350 chromosomal and plasmid homology models we generated from sequences obtained from the NCBI Protein Database...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914280/trace-isotope-analysis-of-ricinus-communis-seed-core-for-provenance-determination-by-laser-ablation-icp-ms
#17
Christina K Bagas, Rachel L Scadding, Cameron J Scadding, R John Watling, Warren Roberts, Simon P B Ovenden
The castor bean plant, Ricinus communis, grows wild throughout many regions of Australia. The seeds of the plant contain the schedule 1 chemical agent ricin, a type II ribosomal inhibiting protein. Currently there are limited analytical techniques that can be applied in analysis of the seeds to establish attribution. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of seeds collected from 68 plants across 38 locations around Australia. Of the 92 elemental isotopes measured, fifteen ((24)Mg, (27)Al, (44)Ca, (53)Cr, (55)Mn, (57)Fe, (60)Ni, (65)Cu, (66)Zn, (75)As, (85)Rb, (88)Sr, (98)Mo, (138)Ba and (202)Hg) yielded data that were relevant to all collection sites...
November 25, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914273/quality-of-attachment-in-infants-less-than-1500g-or-less-than-32weeks-related-factors
#18
María López-Maestro, Purificación Sierra-Garcia, Celia Diaz-Gonzalez, Ma Jose Torres-Valdivieso, David Lora-Pablos, Susana Ares-Segura, Carmen R Pallás-Alonso
BACKGROUND: Prematurity carries a high risk of mortality and sequelae, altering the bonding process and leading to repercussions in terms of attachment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the type of attachment in children under 32weeks' gestational age (GA) or below 1500g, in hospitals where development-centred care has been implemented and to study the association between various types of attachment and certain neonatal and family characteristics. METHOD: Children <1500g or <32weeks GA who were born or admitted before 48h of life to one of two hospitals in Madrid between January and December 2012 were candidates for the study...
November 30, 2016: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914199/filamin-a-synaptic-organizer-in-drosophila-determines-glutamate-receptor-composition-and-membrane-growth
#19
GaYoung Lee, Thomas L Schwarz
Filamin is a scaffolding protein that functions in many cells as an actin-crosslinker. FLN90, an isoform of the Drosophila ortholog Filamin/cheerio that lacks the actin-binding domain, is here shown to govern the growth of postsynaptic membrane folds and the composition of glutamate receptor clusters at the larval neuromuscular junction. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that FLN90 is present surrounding synaptic boutons. FLN90 is required in the muscle for localization of the kinase dPak and, downstream of dPak, for localization of the GTPase Ral and the exocyst complex to this region...
December 3, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914179/ammonothermal-synthesis-of-novel-nitrides-case-study-on-cagasin3
#20
Jonas Häusler, Lukas Neudert, Mathias Mallmann, Robin Niklaus, Anna-Carina L Kimmel, Nicolas S A Alt, Eberhard Schlücker, Oliver Oeckler, Wolfgang Schnick
The first gallium-containing nitridosilicate CaGaSiN3 was synthesized in newly developed high-pressure autoclaves using supercritical ammonia as solvent and nitriding agent. The reaction was conducted in ammonobasic environment starting from intermetallic CaGaSi with NaN3 as mineralizer. At 770 K, intermediate compounds were obtained, which were subsequently converted to the crystalline nitride at temperatures up to 1070 K (70 - 150 MPa). The impact of other mineralizers (e. g. LiN3, KN3 and CsN3) on the product formation was investigated as well...
December 3, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
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