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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889022/advanced-mr-imaging-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-clinical-applications
#1
REVIEW
Maarten Lequin, Jeroen Hendrikse
Advanced MR imaging techniques, such as spectroscopy, perfusion, diffusion, and functional imaging, have improved the diagnosis of brain tumors in children and also play an important role in defining surgical as well as therapeutic responses in these patients. In addition to the anatomic or structural information gained with conventional MR imaging sequences, advanced MR imaging techniques also provide physiologic information about tumor morphology, metabolism, and hemodynamics. This article reviews the physiology, techniques, and clinical applications of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion MR imaging, susceptibility-weighted imaging, and functional MR imaging in the setting of neuro-oncology...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889021/neuroimaging-of-peptide-based-vaccine-therapy-in-pediatric-brain-tumors-initial-experience
#2
REVIEW
Andre D Furtado, Rafael Ceschin, Stefan Blüml, Gary Mason, Regina I Jakacki, Hideho Okada, Ian F Pollack, Ashok Panigrahy
The potential benefits of peptide-based immunotherapy for pediatric brain tumors are under investigation. Treatment-related heterogeneity has resulted in radiographic challenges, including pseudoprogression. Conventional MR imaging has limitations in assessment of different forms of treatment-related heterogeneity, particularly regarding distinguishing true tumor progression from efficacious treatment responses. Advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion magnetic resonance (MR), perfusion MR, and MR spectroscopy, may add value in the assessment of treatment-related heterogeneity...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836541/substituted-e-2-2-benzylidenehydrazinyl-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylates-as-dual-inhibitors-of-15-lipoxygenase-carbonic-anhydrase-ii-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-docking-studies
#3
Aamer Saeed, Shafi Ullah Khan, Parvez Ali Mahesar, Pervaiz Ali Channar, Ghulam Shabir, Jamshed Iqbal
15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) plays a major role in many inflammatory lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and chronic bronchitis. Over-expression of 15-LOX is related with some specific carcinomas including pancreatic, gastric and brain tumor. Similarly among different isozymes of carbonic anhydrase (CA), CA II is expressed in pancreatic, gastric carcinomas as well as in brain tumors. Therefore, novel potent inhibitors of both 15-LOX and CA II are required to explore the role of these enzymes further and to enable the drug discovery efforts...
November 8, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834593/an-mrs-and-pet-guided-biopsy-tool-for-intraoperative-neuronavigational-systems
#4
Matthew Grech-Sollars, Babar Vaqas, Gerard Thompson, Tara Barwick, Lesley Honeyfield, Kevin O'Neill, Adam D Waldman
OBJECTIVE Glioma heterogeneity and the limitations of conventional structural MRI for identifying aggressive tumor components can limit the reliability of stereotactic biopsy and, hence, tumor characterization, which is a hurdle for developing and selecting effective treatment strategies. In vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) and PET enable noninvasive imaging of cellular metabolism relevant to proliferation and can detect regions of more highly active tumor. Here, the authors integrated presurgical PET and MRS with intraoperative neuronavigation to guide surgical biopsy and tumor sampling of brain gliomas with the aim of improving intraoperative tumor-tissue characterization and imaging biomarker validation...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815224/minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-children-with-chronic-liver-disease-prevalence-pathogenesis-and-magnetic-resonance-based-diagnosis
#5
Anshu Srivastava, Saurabh Chaturvedi, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Rohan Malik, Amrita Mathias, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan, Sunil Jain, Chandra Mani Pandey, Surender Kumar Yachha, Ram Kishor Singh Rathore
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Data on minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in children is scanty. We evaluated children with chronic liver disease (CLD) to determine prevalence of MHE, its correlation with changes in brain metabolites by magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)HMRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived metrics, blood ammonia (BA) and inflammatory cytokines and the accuracy of MR based investigations for diagnosis METHODS: 67(38 boys; age 13[7-18] years) CLD and 37 healthy children were evaluated with neuropsychological tests (NPT), BA, interleukin-6 [IL6], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNFα], magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),(1)HMRS and DTI...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748711/mr-molecular-imaging-of-brain-cancer-metabolism-using-hyperpolarized-13c-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#6
Chloé Najac, Sabrina M Ronen
Metabolic reprogramming is an important hallmark of cancer. Alterations in many metabolic pathways support the requirement for cellular building blocks that are essential for cancer cell proliferation. This metabolic reprogramming can be imaged using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). H MRS can inform on alterations in the steady-state levels of cellular metabolites, but the emergence of hyperpolarized C MRS has now also enabled imaging of metabolic fluxes in real-time, providing a new method for tumor detection and monitoring of therapeutic response...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742117/adult-brain-tumors-clinical-applications-of-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#7
Lara A Brandão, Mauricio Castillo
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) may be helpful in suggesting tumor histology and tumor grade and may better define tumor extension and the ideal site for biopsy compared with conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A multifunctional approach with diffusion-weighted imaging, perfusion-weighted imaging, and permeability maps, along with H-MRS, may enhance the accuracy of the diagnosis and characterization of brain tumors and estimation of therapeutic response. Integration of advanced imaging techniques with conventional MR imaging and the clinical history help to improve the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in differentiating tumors and nonneoplastic lesions...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742109/multiparametric-imaging-analysis-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#8
O Rapalino, E M Ratai
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a magnetic resonance-based imaging modality that allows noninvasive sampling of metabolic changes in normal and abnormal brain parenchyma. MRS is particularly useful in the differentiation of developmental or non-neoplastic disorders from neoplastic processes. MRS is also useful during routine imaging follow-up after radiation treatment or during antiangiogenic treatment and for predicting outcomes and treatment response. The objective of this article is to provide a concise but thorough review of the basic physical principles, important applications of MRS in brain tumor imaging, and future directions...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712798/advanced-mr-imaging-techniques-in-daily-practice
#9
Marc C Mabray, Soonmee Cha
This article presents a summary of advanced MR imaging techniques and their use in the evaluation of patients with brain tumors. It reviews diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion-tensor imaging, T2* susceptibility-sensitive imaging, MR spectroscopy, MR perfusion, and functional MR imaging, and discusses their current roles in the evaluation of patients with brain tumors.
November 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705917/reciprocal-regulation-of-the-cholinic-phenotype-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-glioblastoma-cells
#10
Katharina Koch, Rudolf Hartmann, Friederike Schröter, Abigail Kora Suwala, Donata Maciaczyk, Andrea Caroline Krüger, Dieter Willbold, Ulf Dietrich Kahlert, Jaroslaw Maciaczyk
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor with very limited therapeutic options. Standard multimodal treatments, including surgical resection and combined radio-chemotherapy do not target the most aggressive subtype of glioma cells, brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). BTSCs are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and relapse. Furthermore, they have been associated with the expression of mesenchymal features as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) thereby inducing tumor dissemination and chemo resistance...
September 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688935/a-review-of-novel-analytical-diagnostics-for-liquid-biopsies-spectroscopic-and-spectrometric-serum-profiling-of-primary-and-secondary-brain-tumors
#11
Katie Spalding, Ruth Board, Timothy Dawson, Michael D Jenkinson, Matthew J Baker
INTRODUCTION: Spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis of biological samples is regarded as quick, cost effective, easy to operate, and spectroscopic sample preparation involves minimal sample preparation. RESULTS: Techniques like infrared (IR) spectroscopy, surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI)-mass spectroscopy (MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) -MS could enable early diagnosis of cancer, disease monitoring, and assessment of treatment responses allowing refinement, if required...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659824/advanced-mr-imaging-in-hemispheric-low-grade-gliomas-before-surgery-the-indications-and-limits-in-the-pediatric-age
#12
Simona Gaudino, Rosellina Russo, Tommaso Verdolotti, Massimo Caulo, Cesare Colosimo
INTRODUCTION: Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is an umbrella term that includes diffusion (DWI) and diffusion tensor (DTI), perfusion (PWI), spectroscopy (MRS), and functional (fMRI) imaging. These advanced modalities have improved the imaging of brain tumors and provided valuable additional information for treatment planning. Despite abundant literature on advanced MRI techniques in adult brain tumors, few reports exist for pediatric brain ones, potentially because of technical challenges...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659543/non-invasive-detection-of-2-hydroxyglutarate-in-idh-mutated-gliomas-using-two-dimensional-localized-correlation-spectroscopy-2d-l-cosy-at-7-tesla
#13
Gaurav Verma, Suyash Mohan, MacLean P Nasrallah, Steven Brem, John Y K Lee, Sanjeev Chawla, Sumei Wang, Rajakumar Nagarajan, M Albert Thomas, Harish Poptani
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme are present in a majority of lower-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas. This mis-sense mutation results in the neomorphic reduction of isocitrate dehydrogenase resulting in an accumulation of the "oncometabolite" 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Detection of 2HG can thus serve as a surrogate biomarker for these mutations, with significant translational implications including improved prognostication. Two dimensional localized correlated spectroscopy (2D L-COSY) at 7T is a highly-sensitive non-invasive technique for assessing brain metabolism...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649026/progress-in-neuro-imaging-of-brain-tumors
#14
Antonella Castellano, Andrea Falini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely employed in the diagnosis and clinical management of brain tumors. This review provides an overview of the advancements in the field of MRI, with a particular focus on the quantitative assessment by advanced physiological magnetic resonance techniques in light of the new molecular classification of brain tumor. RECENT FINDINGS: Understanding how molecular phenotypes of brain tumors are reflected in noninvasive imaging is the goal of radiogenomics, which aims at determining the association between imaging features and molecular markers in neuro-oncology...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630921/clinical-relevance-of-single-voxel-1-h-mrs-metabolites-in-discriminating-suprasellar-tumors
#15
A Einstien, Rahul A Virani
INTRODUTION: Spatially resolved metabolic data obtained from Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) provides information which increases the diagnostic accuracy of imaging sequences in predicting the histology of suprasellar tumors. AIM: To evaluate the role of (1)H MRS in the diagnosis of various suprasellar tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty cases of various suprasellar, hypothalamic and third ventricular neoplasms were investigated with long-echo single voxel (1)H -MRS using 1...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599686/-adaptative-radiotherapy-the-case-for-mri-guided-radiotherapy
#16
P Maingon
The concept of image-guided radiotherapy benefits from the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) associated with different capacities of tissue analyses such as spectroscopy or diffusion analysis. The production of devices allowing the repositioning of patients through MRI represents a strong added value without delivering any additional dose to the patient while the optimization of the adaptative strategies are facilitated by a better contrast of the soft tissues compared to the scanner. The advantages of MRI are well demonstrated for brain tumours, head and neck carcinomas, pelvic tumors, mediastinal malignancies, gastrointestinal tract diseases...
October 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579610/origin-and-quantification-of-differences-between-normal-and-tumor-tissues-observed-by-terahertz-spectroscopy
#17
Sayuri Yamaguchi, Yasuko Fukushi, Oichi Kubota, Takeaki Itsuji, Toshihiko Ouchi, Seiji Yamamoto
The origin of the differences in the refractive index observed between normal and tumor tissues using terahertz spectroscopy has been described quantitatively. To estimate water content differences in tissues, we prepared fresh and paraffin-embedded samples from rats. An approximately 5% increase of water content in tumor tissues was calculated from terahertz time domain spectroscopy measurements compared to normal tissues. A greater than 15% increase in percentage of cell nuclei per unit area in tumor tissues was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stained samples, which generates a higher refractive index of biological components other than water...
September 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576442/advanced-mri-manifestations-of-trigeminal-ganglioneuroma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Xiaojuan Deng, Jingqin Fang, Qingya Luo, Haipeng Tong, Weiguo Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ganglioneuroma is a rare benign tumor originating from the sympathetic nerves, and its origination from the trigeminal nerves is even rarer. Only 4 cases of ganglioneuroma originating from the trigeminal nerve have previously been reported, and these studies only reported conventional MRI manifestations. To our knowledge, the advanced MRI features of trigeminal ganglioneuroma have not been reported thus far. CASE PRESENTATION: This study reports a case of trigeminal ganglioneuroma in the left cerebellopontine angle...
2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560009/spectroscopic-characterization-of-gliosarcomas-do-they-differ-from-glioblastomas-and-metastases
#19
Peter Raab, Ulrich Pilatus, Elke Hattingen, Kea Franz, Elvis Hermann, Friedhelm E Zanella, Heinrich Lanfermann
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the spectroscopic pattern of gliosarcomas for differentiation from glioblastomas or metastases. METHODS: H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic intermediate echo time data of 5 patients with histologically proven gliosarcomas were compared with data of 17 metastases and 54 glioblastomas. Specialized H-NMR spectroscopy analysis software was used offline. Lipid and macromolecular resonances between 0.9 ppm and 1.4 ppm were compared besides the main metabolites using the Mann-Whitney U test...
September 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27541025/creatine-cest-mri-for-differentiating-gliomas-with-different-degrees-of-aggressiveness
#20
Kejia Cai, Rong-Wen Tain, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, Frederick C Damen, Alessandro M Scotti, Hari Hariharan, Harish Poptani, Ravinder Reddy
PURPOSE: Creatine (Cr) is a major metabolite in the bioenergetic system. Measurement of Cr using conventional MR spectroscopy (MRS) suffers from low spatial resolution and relatively long acquisition times. Creatine chemical exchange saturation transfer (CrCEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging molecular imaging method for tissue Cr measurements. Our previous study showed that the CrCEST contrast, obtained through multicomponent Z-spectral fitting, was lower in tumors compared to normal brain, which further reduced with tumor progression...
August 19, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
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