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Melanoma treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782872/oxyfadichalcone-c-inhibits-melanoma-a375-cell-proliferation-and-metastasis-via-suppressing-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-erk-pathways
#1
Xiaolin Peng, Zhengming Wang, Yang Liu, Xin Peng, Yao Liu, Shan Zhu, Zhe Zhang, Yuling Qiu, Meihua Jin, Ran Wang, Qingying Zhang, Dexin Kong
AIMS: Melanoma remains to be one of the most incurable cancers. Discovery of novel antitumor agent for melanoma therapy is expected. We recently isolated Oxyfadichalcone C from Oxytropis falcate and investigated the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic activity on human melanoma A375 cells in vitro. MAIN METHODS: Cell viability was determined using MTT assay and soft agar cloning formation assay. The effect of Oxyfadichalcone C on cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry...
May 18, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782381/high-baseline-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-worse-outcome-in-patients-with-metastatic-braf-positive-melanoma-treated-with-braf-and-mek-inhibitors
#2
Paweł Teterycz, Paulina Jagodzińska-Mucha, Bożena Cybulska-Stopa, Anna Mariuk-Jarema, Katarzyna Kozak, Hanna Koseła-Paterczyk, Anna M Czarnecka, Marcin Rajczykowski, Robert Dziura, Łukasz Galus, Jacek Mackiewicz, Tomasz Świtaj, Anna Klimczak, Slawomir Falkowski, Rafał Suwiński, Marek Ziobro, Iwona Ługowska, Piotr Rutkowski
Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to be prognostic in several solid malignancies. There are limited data regarding its value during novel therapies in patients with melanoma. The aim of the study was to assess the practical utility of this ratio in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma treated with a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors (BRAFi/MEKi). We included 215 patients with inoperable or metastatic melanoma who underwent BRAFi/MEKi treatment between October 2015 and June 2017. Baseline NLR and other complete blood count-derived inflammatory markers were tested for association with overall survival and progression-free survival in univariate and multivariate models...
May 18, 2018: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782304/role-of-in-vivo-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-the-analysis-of-melanocytic-lesions
#3
Elena-Daniela Serban, Francesca Farnetani, Giovanni Pellacani, Maria Magdalena Constantin
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781871/early-onset-of-diffuse-melanosis-cutis-under-pembrolizumab-therapy-illustrates-the-limitations-of-anti-pd-1-checkpoint-inhibitors
#4
Alexander Thiem, Patrick Schummer, Simon Ueberschaar, Andreas Kerstan, Hermann Kneitz, David Schrama, Silke Appenzeller, Svenja Meierjohann, Bastian Schilling, Matthias Goebeler, Anja Gesierich
Anti-PD-1 targeted immunotherapies have revolutionized the treatment of advanced melanoma and other tumor entities, and long disease-free intervals have been reported in responding patients. However, a considerable number of patients still progress rapidly after the start of anti-PD-1 antibodies. Here, we document two patients, 78 and 85-year old, who suffered from advanced BRAF-V600 wild-type melanoma and received pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks as the first systemic treatment. After only one, respectively, two infusions of pembrolizumab, both patients developed melanuria and diffuse melanosis cutis (DMC) on sun-exposed areas of their skin...
May 17, 2018: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780921/is-it-melanoma-associated-retinopathy-or-drug-toxicity-bilateral-cystoid-macular-edema-posing-a-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-dilemma
#5
Sachi R Patel, Stavros N Moysidis, Nicole Koulisis, Philip P Storey, Amir H Kashani, Narsing A Rao, Damien C Rodger
Purpose: To report the clinical presentation, multimodal imaging, and management of a patient with metastatic melanoma who presented with cystoid macular edema (CME). Observations: We report a case of a 71-year-old Caucasian male with metastatic melanoma who presented with bilateral cystoid macular edema after being on treatment with a programmed T cell death ligand 1 inhibitor, MPDL3280, for 1 year. Multimodal imaging techniques, including color fundus photographs, autofluorescence, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), fluorescein angiography (Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany), and spectral-domain OCT angiography (Zeiss; California, USA) were performed to evaluate the etiology of his CME and to monitor his response to treatment...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778737/cancer-immunotherapy-efficacy-and-patients-sex-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Fabio Conforti, Laura Pala, Vincenzo Bagnardi, Tommaso De Pas, Marco Martinetti, Giuseppe Viale, Richard D Gelber, Aron Goldhirsch
BACKGROUND: Despite the acknowledged sex-related dimorphism in immune system response, little is known about the effect of patients' sex on the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors as cancer treatments. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the heterogeneity of immune checkpoint inhibitor efficacy between men and women. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus, from database inception to Nov 30, 2017, for randomised controlled trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors (inhibitors of PD-1, CTLA-4, or both) that had available hazard ratios (HRs) for death according to patients' sex...
May 16, 2018: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778085/braf-and-mek-inhibitor-therapy-eliminates-nestin-expressing-melanoma-cells-in-human-tumors
#7
Deon B Doxie, Allison R Greenplate, Jocelyn S Gandelman, Kirsten E Diggins, Caroline E Roe, Kimberly B Dahlman, Jeffrey A Sosman, Mark C Kelley, Jonathan M Irish
Little is known about the in vivo impacts of targeted therapy on melanoma cell abundance and protein expression. Here, 21 antibodies were added to an established melanoma mass cytometry panel to measure 32 cellular features, distinguish malignant cells, and characterize dabrafenib and trametinib responses in BRAFV 600mut melanoma. Tumor cells were biopsied before neoadjuvant therapy and compared to cells surgically resected from the same site after 4 weeks of therapy. Approximately 50,000 cells per tumor were characterized by mass cytometry and computational tools t-SNE/viSNE, FlowSOM, and MEM...
May 19, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777421/lymph-node-metastasis-in-melanoma-a-debate-on-the-significance-of-nodal-metastases-conditional-survival-analysis-and-clinical-trials
#8
Mark B Faries, Dale Han, Michael Reintgen, Lauren Kerivan, Douglas Reintgen, Corrado Caracò
While there is no doubt that regional lymph node metastases are an enormously important factor in melanoma staging and treatment, the biology behind this significance and its precise implications for treatment planning have been a leading controversy in melanoma and other solid tumors for over a century. Recent clinical data, including data from prospective randomized clinical trials have refined our understanding of the process of nodal metastases and the advantages and disadvantages of different clinical management strategies...
May 18, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776637/an-update-regarding-the-molecular-genetics-of-melanocytic-neoplasms-and-the-current-applications-of-molecular-genetic-technologies-in-their-diagnosis-and-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Katrin Kiavash, Martin H Bluth, Andrew David Thompson
Molecular genetic technologies are used to aid in diagnosis and treatment of borderline melanocytic tumors as an adjuvant to the gold standard histopathologic evaluation. A specific set of fluorescence in situ hybridization probes is widely used to aid in diagnosing challenging melanocytic lesions. New melanoma probe cocktails have revealed increased sensitivity and specificity in ambiguous melanocytic cases. Array comparative genomic hybridization is a more complex technology used for the work-up of diagnostically problematic Spitzoid melanocytic proliferations...
June 2018: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776373/metabolic-therapy-with-peg-arginase-induces-a-sustained-complete-remission-in-immunotherapy-resistant-melanoma
#10
Carmela De Santo, Paul Cheng, Andrew Beggs, Sharon Egan, Alberto Bessudo, Francis Mussai
BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with a poor prognosis. Current treatment strategies for high-stage melanoma are based around the use of immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors such as anti-PDL1 or anti-CTLA4 antibodies to stimulate anti-cancer T cell responses, yet a number of patients will relapse and die of disease. Here, we report the first sustained complete remission in a patient with metastatic melanoma who failed two immunotherapy strategies, by targeting tumour arginine metabolism...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775404/evaluation-of-chromosomal-aberrations-induced-by-188-re-dendrimer-nanosystem-on-b16f1-melanoma-cells
#11
Marcos Tassano, Natalia Oddone, Marcelo Fernández, Williams Porcal, María Fernanda García, Wilner Martínez, Juan Claudio Benech, Pablo Cabral
PURPOSE: Study of rhenium-188 labeling of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) generation 4 (G4) dendrimer and its evaluation on biodistribution and chromosomal aberrations in melanoma cells induced by ionizing radiation as potential treatment agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dendrimers were first conjugated with Suc-HYNIC (Succinimidyl 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid hydrochloride). Dendrimer-HYNIC was then incubated with 188 ReO4 - . Biodistribution were performed administrating 188 Re-dendrimer to normal (NM) or melanoma-bearing mice (MBM)...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775310/fragment-based-discovery-of-a-potent-orally-bioavailable-inhibitor-which-modulates-the-phosphorylation-and-catalytic-activity-of-erk1-2
#12
Tom D Heightman, Valerio Berdini, Hannah Braithwaite, Ildiko Maria Buck, Megan Cassidy, Juan Castro, Aurelie Courtin, James E H Day, Charlotte East, Lynsey Fazal, Brent Graham, Charlotte M Griffiths-Jones, John F Lyons, Vanessa Martins, Sandra Muench, Joanne M Munck, David Norton, Marc O'Reilly, Nick Palmer, Puja Pathuri, Michael Reader, David C Rees, Sharna J Rich, Caroline Richardson, Harpreet Saini, Neil T Thompson, Nicola G Wallis, Hugh Walton, Nicola E Wilsher, Alison J-A Woolford, Michael Cooke, David Cousin, Stuart Onions, Jonathan Shannon, John Watts, Christopher W Murray
Aberrant activation of the MAPK pathway drives cell proliferation in multiple cancers. Inhibitors of BRAF and MEK kinases are approved for the treatment of BRAF mutant melanoma, but resistance frequently emerges, often mediated by increased signalling through ERK1/2. Here we describe the fragment based generation of ERK1/2 inhibitors which block catalytic phosphorylation of downstream substrates such as RSK but also modulate phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by MEK without directly inhibiting MEK. X-ray crystallographic and biophysical fragment screening followed by structure-guided optimization and growth from the hinge into a pocket proximal to the C-α helix afforded highly potent ERK1/2 inhibitors with excellent kinome selectivity...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774360/histologic-mimics-of-malignant-melanoma
#13
Caroline Bsirini, Bruce R Smoller
Although spongiotic (eczematous), psoriatic and cutaneous skin infections are among the most common dermatology consultations, melanocytic lesions - including the different types of nevi and melanomas - are among those that cause a great deal of concern and stress to patients and their clinicians. A diagnosis of benign melanocytic nevus carries a very good prognosis. However, a diagnosis of melanoma might imply more aggressive treatment, lifelong surveillance and a worse prognosis. Differentiating between these conditions is not always a straightforward process for clinicians and pathologists...
May 18, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773080/adjuvant-ny-eso-1-vaccine-immunotherapy-in-high-risk-resected-melanoma-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#14
Michael Lattanzi, Joseph Han, Una Moran, Kierstin Utter, Jeremy Tchack, Rachel Lubong Sabado, Russell Berman, Richard Shapiro, Hsin-Hui Huang, Iman Osman, Nina Bhardwaj, Anna C Pavlick
BACKGROUND: Cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is a highly immunogenic melanoma antigen which has been incorporated into adjuvant vaccine clinical trials. Three such early-phase trials were conducted at our center among patients with high-risk resected melanoma. We herein report on the pooled long-term survival outcomes of these patients in comparison to historical controls. METHODS: All melanoma patients treated at NYU Langone Health under any of three prospective adjuvant NY-ESO-1 vaccine trials were retrospectively pooled into a single cohort...
May 18, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772645/anticancer-activity-of-euplotin-c-isolated-from-the-marine-ciliate-euplotes-crassus-against-human-melanoma-cells
#15
Sara Carpi, Beatrice Polini, Giulio Poli, Gabriela Alcantara Barata, Stefano Fogli, Antonella Romanini, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Graziano Guella, Francesco Paolo Frontini, Paola Nieri, Graziano Di Giuseppe
Cutaneous melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, so new cytotoxic weapons against novel targets in melanoma are of great interest. Euplotin C (EC), a cytotoxic secondary metabolite of the marine ciliate Euplotes crassus , was evaluated in the present study on human cutaneous melanoma cells to explore its anti-melanoma activity and to gain more insight into its mechanism of action. EC exerted a marked cytotoxic effect against three different human melanoma cell lines (A375, 501Mel and MeWo) with a potency about 30-fold higher than that observed in non-cancer cells (HDFa cells)...
May 16, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772048/palladium-103-brachytherapy-for-choroidal-melanoma-in-a-pregnant-woman
#16
Ekaterina Semenova, Paul T Finger, Nina Kalach, Walter Choi
The authors present a case of a pregnant woman with uveal melanoma treated with plaque brachytherapy. Her calculated fetal radiation dose was significantly below accepted levels. The use of the authors' novel, custom-made lead chin shield further diminished irradiation of the fetus. This patient had uncomplicated treatment course, delivered a healthy child full term, achieved local tumor control, and maintained 20/25 vision at 1-year follow-up. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:364-368.].
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772037/a-review-of-fabry-disease
#17
A Cinats, E Heck
The class of medications known as Janus kinase inhibitors block cytokine-mediated signaling via the Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway, which plays an important role in immunoregulation and normal cell growth. This class includes the drugs tofacitinib, approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and ruxolitinib, approved for the treatment of myelofibrosis and polycythemia rubra vera. The most common adverse events (AEs) reported in patients taking tofacitinib are infections, whereas the most common AEs in patients taking ruxolitinib are anemia and thrombocytopenia...
May 2018: Skin Therapy Letter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771785/cutaneous-melanoma-risk-among-people-with-hiv-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#18
Elizabeth L Yanik, Raúl U Hernández-Ramírez, Li Qin, Haiqun Lin, Wendy Leyden, Romain S Neugebauer, Michael A Horberg, Richard D Moore, W Christopher Mathews, Amy C Justice, Nancy A Hessol, Angel M Mayor, M John Gill, John T Brooks, Jing Sun, Keri N Althoff, Eric A Engels, Michael J Silverberg, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma incidence may be modestly elevated in people with HIV (PWH) versus people without HIV. However, little is known about the relationship of immunosuppression, HIV replication, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) with melanoma risk. METHODS: PWH of white race in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design were included. A standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated comparing risk with the white general population, standardizing by age, sex, and calendar period...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770129/cutaneous-papillomaviruses-and-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-causal-agents-or-innocent-bystanders
#19
REVIEW
Daniel Hasche, Sabrina E Vinzón, Frank Rösl
There is still controversy in the scientific field about whether certain types of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally involved in the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Deciphering the etiological role of cutaneous HPVs requires - besides tissue culture systems - appropriate preclinical models to match the obtained results with clinical data from affected patients. Clear scientific evidence about the etiology and underlying mechanisms involved in NMSC development is fundamental to provide reasonable arguments for public health institutions to classify at least certain cutaneous HPVs as group 1 carcinogens...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769707/comparison-of-direct-and-indirect-cold-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-methods-in-the-b-16-f-10-melanoma-cancer-cells-treatment
#20
Fariba Saadati, Hamed Mahdikia, Hojjat-Allah Abbaszadeh, Mohammad-Amin Abdollahifar, Maryam Sadat Khoramgah, Babak Shokri
In this study a novel method was implemented and investigated in order to destroy cancer cells inside the mouse body on a clinical level. In the case of in-vitro study, MTT assay was employed to discover an effective dose of applied plasma and distinguish the plasma effect in direct and in indirect treatments. Tumor growth was also measured in in-vivo section so that the effectiveness of direct and indirect treatments could be compared. Furthermore, an investigation was conducted to study the interferences between a conventional method (chemotherapy) and plasma treatment so as to increase the effectiveness of treatment inside the body...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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