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epidemiology and health statistics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550518/racial-ethnic-differences-in-perception-of-need-for-mental-health-treatment-in-a-us-national-sample
#1
Joshua Breslau, Matthew Cefalu, Eunice C Wong, M Audrey Burnam, Gerald P Hunter, Karen R Florez, Rebecca L Collins
PURPOSE: To resolve contradictory evidence regarding racial/ethnic differences in perceived need for mental health treatment in the USA using a large and diverse epidemiologic sample. METHODS: Samples from 6 years of a repeated cross-sectional survey of the US civilian non-institutionalized population were combined (N = 232,723). Perceived need was compared across three non-Hispanic groups (whites, blacks and Asian-Americans) and two Hispanic groups (English interviewees and Spanish interviewees)...
May 26, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549512/infection-prevention-workforce-potential-benefits-to-educational-diversity
#2
Sara M Reese, Heather M Gilmartin
BACKGROUND: Nurses have historically occupied the infection preventionist (IP) role. As the knowledge and skills needed to advance the field expand, professionals from public health and the laboratory sciences have become IPs. Our study describes the characteristics of current IPs and assesses for relationships between background, certification, experience, and type of work performed. METHODS: The data were drawn from an existing dataset collected in the conduct of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549511/infection-prevention-outside-of-the-acute-care-setting-results-from-the-megasurvey-of-infection-preventionists
#3
Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, Ericka L Kalp
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been a significant shift of health care delivery to nonacute care settings. However, research on staffing and resources dedicated to infection prevention and control (IPC) in these settings is lacking. METHODS: The data for this analysis come from the 2015 APIC MegaSurvey. Descriptive statistics were computed to describe infection preventionists (IPs) employed in nonacute care settings. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine differences in facility and demographic characteristics by type of nonacute care setting...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549510/understanding-the-current-state-of-infection-preventionists-through-competency-role-and-activity-self-assessment
#4
Ericka L Kalp, James F Marx, James Davis
BACKGROUND: The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey, administered in 2015, was completed by approximately 4,079 APIC members. The survey sought to gain a better understanding the current state of 4 components of infection prevention practice: demographic characteristics, compensation, organizational structure, and practice and competency. METHODS: The data for this analysis come from the APIC MegaSurvey Practice and Competency domain...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547375/the-effects-of-ozone-on-human-health
#5
Daniela Nuvolone, Davide Petri, Fabio Voller
Ozone is a highly reactive, oxidative gas associated with adverse health outcome, including mortality and morbidity. Data from monitoring sites worldwide show levels of ozone often exceeding EU legislation threshold and the more restrictive WHO guidelines for the protection of human health. Well-established evidence has been produced for short-term effects, especially on respiratory and cardiovascular systems, associated to ozone exposure. Less conclusive is the evidence for long-term effects, reporting suggestive associations with respiratory mortality, new-onset asthma in children and increased respiratory symptom effects in asthmatics...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543517/intermediate-and-advanced-topics-in-multilevel-logistic-regression-analysis
#6
Peter C Austin, Juan Merlo
Multilevel data occur frequently in health services, population and public health, and epidemiologic research. In such research, binary outcomes are common. Multilevel logistic regression models allow one to account for the clustering of subjects within clusters of higher-level units when estimating the effect of subject and cluster characteristics on subject outcomes. A search of the PubMed database demonstrated that the use of multilevel or hierarchical regression models is increasing rapidly. However, our impression is that many analysts simply use multilevel regression models to account for the nuisance of within-cluster homogeneity that is induced by clustering...
May 23, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541558/drinking-water-contamination-from-perfluoroalkyl-substances-pfas-an-ecological-mortality-study-in-the-veneto-region-italy
#7
Marina Mastrantonio, Edoardo Bai, Raffaella Uccelli, Vincenzo Cordiano, Augusto Screpanti, Paolo Crosignani
: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a heterogeneous group of highly stable man-made chemicals, have been widely used since 1960s and can be detected almost ubiquitously in all environmental matrices. In Italy, on January 2014, drinking water contamination in an area of the Veneto Region was detected mainly due to the drain of fluorinated chemicals by a manufacturing company operating since 1964. : The present ecological mortality study was aimed at comparing mortality for some causes of death selected on the basis of previous reported associations, during the period 1980-2013, in municipalities with PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated drinking water on the basis of the levels indicated by the Italian National Health Institute (ISS)...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539117/bmi-for-age-graphs-with-severe-obesity-percentile-curves-tools-for-plotting-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-youth-bmi-data
#8
Susan B Racette, Liyang Yu, Nicholas C DuPont, B Ruth Clark
BACKGROUND: Severe obesity is an important and distinct weight status classification that is associated with disease risk and is increasing in prevalence among youth. The ability to graphically present population weight status data, ranging from underweight through severe obesity class 3, is novel and applicable to epidemiologic research, intervention studies, case reports, and clinical care. METHODS: The aim was to create body mass index (BMI) graphing tools to generate sex-specific BMI-for-age graphs that include severe obesity percentile curves...
May 24, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538830/subjective-memory-complaints-and-their-relation-with-verbal-fluency-in-active-older-people
#9
Flavia Rodrigues Bernardes, Camila Kretzer Machado, Monique Coan Souza, Marcos José Machado, Aline Megumi Arakawa Belaunde
Purpose: To verify subjective memory complaints and their relation to verbal fluency in older people participating in community groups. Methods: An epidemiological quantitative study performed in community groups for older people in Florianópolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Data were collected by structured interview using the Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) and the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) by semantic categories "animals/minute". For an inferential descriptive analysis, data with p < 5% were considered...
May 22, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538777/tuberculosis-recurrence-in-a-priority-city-in-the-state-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#10
Amadeu Antonio Vieira, Danila Torres Leite, Solange Adreoni
Objective: To describe cases of tuberculosis recurrence (TBR), stratified by temporal classification (early or late TBR), and to identify possible predictors of such recurrence. Methods: This was an analytical retrospective observational epidemiological study involving a cohort of 963 new cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, reported and treated via the Tuberculosis Control Program in the city of Carapicuíba, Brazil. The study period was from 2000 to 2010. All of the pulmonary tuberculosis patients who successfully completed the treatment (with or without confirmation of cure) were selected and followed until December 31, 2012...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534830/calculation-of-haem-iron-intake-and-its-role-in-the-development-of-iron-deficiency-in-young-women-from-the-australian-longitudinal-study-on-women-s-health
#11
Angela J Reeves, Mark A McEvoy, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Daniel Barker, John Attia, Allison M Hodge, Amanda J Patterson
Total iron intake is not strongly associated with iron stores, but haem iron intake may be more predictive. Haem iron is not available in most nutrient databases, so experimentally determined haem contents were applied to an Australian Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate haem iron intake in a representative sample of young women (25-30 years). The association between dietary haem iron intakes and incident self-reported diagnosed iron deficiency over six years of follow-up was examined. Haem iron contents for Australian red meats, fish, and poultry were applied to haem-containing foods in the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies V2 (DQESv2) FFQ...
May 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531360/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-for-cardiovascular-diseases-present-past-and-future
#12
Yasuhiro Watanabe, Ichiro Tatsuno
Large-scale epidemiological studies on Greenlandic, Canadian and Alaskan Eskimos have examined the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids consumed as part of the diet, and found statistically significant relative reduction in cardiovascular risk in people consuming omega-3 fatty acids. Areas covered: This article reviews studies on omega-3 fatty acids during the last 50 years, and identifies issues relevant to future studies on cardiovascular (CV) risk. Expert Commentary: Although a meta-analysis of large-scale prospective cohort studies and randomized studies reported that fish and fish oil consumption reduced coronary heart disease-related mortality and sudden cardiac death, omega-3 fatty acids have not yet been shown to be effective in secondary prevention trials on patients with multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors...
May 20, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528753/healthcare-access-and-quality-index-based-on-mortality-from-causes-amenable-to-personal-health-care-in-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2015-a-novel-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#13
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015...
May 18, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523412/epidemiological-risk-factors-for-animal-influenza-a-viruses-overcoming-species-barriers
#14
REVIEW
Kate A Harris, Gudrun S Freidl, Olga S Munoz, Sophie von Dobschuetz, Marco De Nardi, Barbara Wieland, Marion P G Koopmans, Katharina D C Stärk, Kristien van Reeth, Gwen Dauphin, Adam Meijer, Erwin de Bruin, Ilaria Capua, Andy A Hill, Rowena Kosmider, Jill Banks, Kim Stevens, Sylvie van der Werf, Vincent Enouf, Karen van der Meulen, Ian H Brown, Dennis J Alexander, Andrew C Breed
Drivers and risk factors for Influenza A virus transmission across species barriers are poorly understood, despite the ever present threat to human and animal health potentially on a pandemic scale. Here we review the published evidence for epidemiological risk factors associated with influenza viruses transmitting between animal species and from animals to humans. A total of 39 papers were found with evidence of epidemiological risk factors for influenza virus transmission from animals to humans; 18 of which had some statistical measure associated with the transmission of a virus...
May 18, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520197/integrated-uncertainty-analysis-for-ambient-pollutant-health-risk-assessment-a-case-study-of-ozone-mortality-risk
#15
Anne E Smith, Garrett Glasgow
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses health risk assessment to help inform its decisions in setting national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS). EPA's standard approach is to make epidemiologically-based risk estimates based on a single statistical model selected from the scientific literature, called the "core" model. The uncertainty presented for "core" risk estimates reflects only the statistical uncertainty associated with that one model's concentration-response function parameter estimate(s)...
May 18, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513800/sociodemographic-factors-and-functional-capacity-of-elderly-affected-by-stroke
#16
Michelinne Oliveira Machado Dutra, Alexsandro Silva Coura, Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França, Bertha Cruz Enders, Mayara Araújo Rocha
Introduction: Diseases of old age have shown increasing prevalence in society. One of them is stroke, which can be conceptualized as the interruption of cerebral blood supply due to a leakage or blood vessel obstruction caused by clots. Objective: To verify the associations between sociodemographic factors and the functional capacity of elderly affected by stroke. Methods: This is an epidemiological, cross-sectional, and quantitative study, including 118 elderly people with paralyses due to stroke, who were registered in one of the Family Health Strategies units of Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513796/adequacy-of-sphygmomanometer-cuff-to-brachial-circumference-of-people-attended-in-primary-health-care-centers
#17
Rafaela Marin Destefano, Felipe Reis de Abreu Schmitt, Siegmar Starke, Ernani Tiaraju de Santa Helena
Objective: To evaluate the adequacy of sphygmomanometer cuff to brachial circumference (BC) of individuals treated at Primary Health Care Centers. Methods: Epidemiological, observational, and quantitative cross-sectional study. A total of 381 blood pressure (BP) readings conducted by nursing professionals were observed at 18 service units selected by drawing, considering two modalities of care centers. The correct use of the cuff was the main outcome variable. The BC was measured using inelastic measuring tape...
January 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511097/the-relationship-between-social-desirability-bias-and-self-reports-of-health-substance-use-and-social-network-factors-among-urban-substance-users-in-baltimore-maryland
#18
Carl A Latkin, Catie Edwards, Melissa A Davey-Rothwell, Karin E Tobin
BACKGROUND: Social desirability response bias may lead to inaccurate self-reports and erroneous study conclusions. The present study examined the relationship between social desirability response bias and self-reports of mental health, substance use, and social network factors among a community sample of inner-city substance users. METHODS: The study was conducted in a sample of 591 opiate and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland from 2009 to 2013. Modified items from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale were included in the survey, which was conducted face-to-face and using Audio Computer Self Administering Interview (ACASI) methods...
May 9, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507414/a-reducing-trend-of-fasciolosis-in-slaughtered-animals-based-on-abattoir-data-in-south-of-iran
#19
Manoochehr Shabani Kordshooli, Kavous Solhjoo, Belal Armand, Hamidreza Dowlatkhah, Masoud Esmi Jahromi
AIM: Fascioliasis is a zoonosis infection caused by the liver trematodes (Fasciola spp.) which have been considered to be an important disease in livestock. After several large outbreaks, fascioliasis remains one of the serious health concerns of Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and possible trends of fascioliasis in slaughtered animals in South of Iran based on abattoir data during a period of 5 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The daily records for cattle, sheep, and goats slaughtered in the abattoir were extracted from the archived documents of the recent 5 years (2011-2015) and used as the source of data...
April 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506288/visualizing-statistical-significance-of-disease-clusters-using-cartograms
#20
Barry J Kronenfeld, David W S Wong
BACKGROUND: Health officials and epidemiological researchers often use maps of disease rates to identify potential disease clusters. Because these maps exaggerate the prominence of low-density districts and hide potential clusters in urban (high-density) areas, many researchers have used density-equalizing maps (cartograms) as a basis for epidemiological mapping. However, we do not have existing guidelines for visual assessment of statistical uncertainty. To address this shortcoming, we develop techniques for visual determination of statistical significance of clusters spanning one or more districts on a cartogram...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
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