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epidemiology and health statistics

Andras P Durko, Ruben L Osnabrugge, Nicolas M Van Mieghem, Milan Milojevic, Darren Mylotte, Vuyisile T Nkomo, A Pieter Kappetein
Aims: The number of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures is rapidly increasing. This has a major impact on health care resource planning. However, the annual numbers of TAVI candidates per country are unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate current and future number of annual TAVI candidates in 27 European countries, the USA and Canada. Methods and results: Systematic literature searches and meta-analyses were performed on aortic stenosis (AS) epidemiology and decision-making in severe symptomatic AS...
March 12, 2018: European Heart Journal
Eiman Zargaran, Richard Spence, Lauren Adolph, Andrew Nicol, Nadine Schuurman, Pradeep Navsaria, Damon Ramsey, S Morad Hameed
Importance: Collection and analysis of up-to-date and accurate injury surveillance data are a key step in the maturation of trauma systems. Trauma registries have proven to be difficult to establish in low- and middle-income countries owing to the burden of trauma volume, cost, and complexity. Objective: To determine whether an electronic trauma health record (eTHR) used by physicians can serve as simultaneous clinical documentation and data acquisition tools. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-part quality improvement study included (1) preimplementation and postimplementation eTHR study with assessments of satisfaction by 41 trauma physicians, time to completion, and quality of data collected comparing paper and electronic charting; and (2) prospective ecologic study describing the burden of trauma seen at a Level I trauma center, using real-time data collected by the eTHR on consecutive patients during a 12-month study period...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Mikko Koivu-Jolma, Arto Annila
Mathematical epidemiology is a well-recognized discipline to model infectious diseases. It also provides guidance for public health officials to limit outbreaks. Nevertheless, epidemics take societies by surprise every now and then, for example, when the Ebola virus epidemic raged seemingly unrestrained in Western Africa. We provide insight to this capricious character of nature by describing the epidemic as a natural process, i.e., a phenomenon governed by thermodynamics. Our account, based on statistical mechanics of open systems, clarifies that it is impossible to predict accurately epidemic courses because everything depends on everything else...
March 10, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Tieba Millogo, Brice W Bicaba, Joseph Kouesyandé Soubeiga, Estelle Dabiré, Isaie Médah, Séni Kouanda
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is reportedly growing fast in sub-Saharan Africa. There is however a scarcity of epidemiologic data on DM in Burkina Faso. We carried out a secondary analysis of the first survey conducted in Burkina Faso on a nationally representative sample following the World Health Organization (WHO) Stepwise approach to risk factors Surveillance (STEPS) for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) with the aims of identifying the prevalence of NCDs and the prevalence of common risk factors for NCDs...
March 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Francles Blanco-Guillot, M Lucía Castañeda-Cediel, Pablo Cruz-Hervert, Leticia Ferreyra-Reyes, Guadalupe Delgado-Sánchez, Elizabeth Ferreira-Guerrero, Rogelio Montero-Campos, Miriam Bobadilla-Del-Valle, Rosa Areli Martínez-Gamboa, Pedro Torres-González, Norma Téllez-Vazquez, Sergio Canizales-Quintero, Mercedes Yanes-Lane, Norma Mongua-Rodríguez, Alfredo Ponce-de-León, José Sifuentes-Osornio, Lourdes García-García
BACKGROUND: Genotyping and georeferencing in tuberculosis (TB) have been used to characterize the distribution of the disease and occurrence of transmission within specific groups and communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes mellitus (DM) and pulmonary TB may occur in spatial and molecular aggregations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of patients with pulmonary TB. The study area included 12 municipalities in the Sanitary Jurisdiction of Orizaba, Veracruz, México...
2018: PloS One
Doroodgar Moein, Doroodgar Masoud, Mahboobi Saeed, Doroodgar Abbas
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) can be seen in 2 forms, zoonotic and anthroponotic, in Iran. In this study, epidemiological aspects of CL were studied during an 8-year period (2009-2016) in city of Kashan, central Iran. The demographic and epidemiological data, including age, sex, occupation, number and site of the lesions, treatment regimen, past history of CL, and season of all patients were gathered from the health centers. Descriptive statistics were used to describe features of the study data. Total 2,676 people with CL were identified...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Mary H Kosmidis, George S Vlachos, Costas A Anastasiou, Mary Yannakoulia, Efthimios Dardiotis, Georgios Hadjigeorgiou, Paraskevi Sakka, Eva Ntanasi, Nikolaos Scarmeas
INTRODUCTION: Study of the epidemiology of dementia to gain insight into putative predisposing and prophylactic factors is the first step toward establishing effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for this ever-growing public health problem. Relevant data in Greece are scattered and outdated. METHODS: We investigated dementia prevalence as part of a population-representative epidemiological study [Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet (HELIAD)] in 2 Greek regions...
March 9, 2018: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
L O Gonçalves, M M Lopes, E R Rezende, G Rs Segundo
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in childhood. The study aim is to determine the incidence of EoE in pediatric patients submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), with analysis of epidemiological data regarding sex, age, symptomatology, the frequency of atopy and endoscopic and histological findings. METHODS: A retrospective, observational and analytical study performed with an evaluation of medical records of patients aged 0 to 14 years who underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a tertiary hospital from January 2004 to January 2014...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Yu-Tang Chang, Hsiang-Lin Tsai, Ya-Ting Kung, Yung-Sung Yeh, Ching-Wen Huang, Cheng-Jen Ma, Herng-Chia Chiu, Jaw-Yuan Wang
BACKGROUND: Increasing bodies of evidence suggest that metformin may be beneficial in the primary prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC), and a dose-response relationship has been reported. However, long-term epidemiological observations between the treatment period, cumulative dose, and intensity of metformin and CRC are rarely reported. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the effect of metformin and CRC development in a nationwide cohort study. METHODS: This nationwide population-based study examined a cohort of 1,000,000 patients randomly sampled from individuals enrolled in the Taiwan National Health Insurance system...
March 7, 2018: Translational Oncology
Kyla A McKay, Helen Tremlett, John D Fisk, Tingting Zhang, Scott B Patten, Lorne Kastrukoff, Trudy Campbell, Ruth Ann Marrie
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that comorbidity may influence disability outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS); we investigated the association between psychiatric comorbidity and MS disability progression in a large multiclinic population. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study accessed prospectively collected information from linked clinical and population-based health administrative databases in the Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Nova Scotia...
March 9, 2018: Neurology
Ingunn Björnsdottir, Guri Birgitte Verne
BACKGROUND: Data from large electronic databases are increasingly used in epidemiological research, but golden standards for database validation remain elusive. The Prescription Registry (IPR) and the National Health Service (NHS) databases in Iceland have not undergone formal validation, and gross errors have repeatedly been found in Icelandic statistics on pharmaceuticals. In 2015, new amphetamine tablets entered the Icelandic market, but were withdrawn half a year later due to being substandard...
February 27, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Wendy A Davis, Kirsten E Peters, Ashley Makepeace, Shaye Griffiths, Christine Bundell, Struan F A Grant, Sian Ellard, Andrew T Hattersley, S A Paul Chubb, David G Bruce, Timothy Me Davis
BACKGROUND: Accurate diabetes prevalence estimates are important for health service planning and prioritisation. Available data have limitations, suggesting that the contemporary burden of diabetes in Australia is best assessed from multiple sources. AIMS: To use systematic active detection of diabetes cases in a postcode-defined urban area through the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II (FDS2) to complement other epidemiological and survey data in estimating the national prevalence of diabetes and its types...
March 7, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Mohammed A Mohammed, Noteila M Khalid, Mariam A Aboud
BACKGROUND: Recent reports showed high numbers of visceral leishmaniasis cases in North Darfur, western Sudan. Due to a lack of previous studies, no information is available on local transmission of the disease in these areas. Therefore, a pilot entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in Al-Malha Locality during the year 2013, to investigate possibility of local transmission and places and times of the year where and when people contract the infection. METHODS: Kala-azar incidence data were obtained from records of Ministry of Health, North Darfur; Al-Malha rural hospital; and the Federal Ministry of Health, Division of Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases...
March 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jemal Abdella Bultum, Niguse Yigzaw, Wubit Demeke, Mekuriaw Alemayehu
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption among patients with HIV/AIDS increases the burden of the disease. HIV/AIDS is an epidemic among Sub-Saharan African countries. Excessive use of alcohol causes a large degree of health problems, social and economic burden in societies. However, the prevalence and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among this group of people has not been studied very well. Therefore, this study sought to assess the magnitude and associated factors of alcohol use disorder among HIV patients attending the antiretroviral (ART) clinic...
2018: PloS One
Karen J Arroyo, Gabriela Ramos-Torres, Edward Mezones-Holguin, Juan E Blümel, Germán Barón, Ascanio Bencosme, Zully Benítez, Luz M Bravo, Andrés Calle, Daniel Flores, María T Espinoza, Gustavo Gómez, José A Hernández-Bueno, Mabel Martino, Selva Lima, Alvaro Monterrosa, Desiree Mostajo, Eliana Ojeda, William Onatra, Hugo Sánchez, Konstantinos Tserotas, María S Vallejo, Silvina Witis, María C Zúñiga, Peter Chedraui
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and anxiety in middle-aged women. METHODS: We carried out a secondary analysis of data from a multicenter study of women between 40 and 59 years old from 11 Latin America countries. Anxiety was assessed using the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale. WHtR was calculated according to World Health Organization standards and categorized in tertiles: upper, middle, and lower using 0...
March 5, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Maria Olsson, Gunnar Steineck, Karin Enskär, Ulrica Wilderäng, Marianne Jarfelt
PURPOSE: Previous research has established that treatments for cancer can result in short- and long-term effects on sexual function in adult cancer patients. The purpose was to investigate patient-reported physical and psychosexual complications in adolescents and young adults after they have undergone treatment for cancer. METHODS: In this population-based study, a study-specific questionnaire was developed by a method used in several previous investigations carried out by our research group, Clinical Cancer Epidemiology...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Mohammad Ziaul Islam Chowdhury, Ataul Mustufa Anik, Zaki Farhana, Piali Dey Bristi, B M Abu Al Mamun, Mohammad Jasim Uddin, Jain Fatema, Tanjila Akter, Tania Akhter Tani, Meshbahur Rahman, Tanvir C Turin
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of health problems that set the stage for serious health conditions and places individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. The worldwide prevalence of MS in the adult population is on the rise and Bangladesh is no exception. According to some epidemiological study, MS is highly prevalent in Bangladesh and has increased dramatically in last few decades. To provide a clear picture of the current situation, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with an objective to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the Bangladeshi population using data already published in the scientific literature...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
German Cano-Sancho, Léa Labrune, Stéphane Ploteau, Philippe Marchand, Bruno Le Bizec, Jean-Philippe Antignac
The gold-standard matrix for measuring the internal levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is the adipose tissue, however in epidemiological studies the use of serum is preferred due to the low cost and higher accessibility. The interpretation of serum biomarkers is tightly related to the understanding of the underlying causal structure relating the POPs, serum lipids and the disease. Considering the extended benefits of using serum biomarkers we aimed to further examine if through statistical modelling we would be able to improve the use and interpretation of serum biomarkers in the study of endometriosis...
February 21, 2018: Chemosphere
E Jurado-Tarifa, J M Daly, A Pérez-Écija, M Barba-Recreo, F J Mendoza, A M Al-Shuwaikh, I García-Bocanegra
Equine influenza is a highly contagious respiratory disease considered the most important respiratory disease in equids. Although influenza A virus (IAV) has caused outbreaks in equids worldwide, surveillance in these species in Spain has not been conducted. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the individual and herd prevalence of antibodies against H3N8 and H7N7 IAV in equids in Andalusia (southern Spain). Antibodies againsts IAV were measured by the single radial haemolysis assay. A spatial scan statistical analysis was carried out using a Bernoulli model...
March 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ting-Wu Chuang, Ka-Chon Ng, Thi Luong Nguyen, Luis Fernando Chaves
The metropolitan region of Tainan City in southern Taiwan experienced a dengue outbreak in 2015. This manuscript describes basic epidemiological features of this outbreak and uses spatial and temporal analysis tools to understand the spread of dengue during the outbreak. The analysis found that, independently of gender, dengue incidence rate increased with age, and proportionally affected more males below the age of 40 years but females above the age of 40 years. A spatial scan statistic was applied to detect clusters of disease transmission...
February 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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