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anesthetic neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891911/delineating-the-trajectory-of-cognitive-recovery-from-general-anesthesia-in-older-adults-design-and-rationale-of-the-torie-trajectory-of-recovery-in-the-elderly-project
#1
Joshua S Mincer, Mark G Baxter, Patrick J McCormick, Mary Sano, Arthur E Schwartz, Jess W Brallier, Heather G Allore, Bradley N Delman, Margaret C Sewell, Prantik Kundu, Cheuk Ying Tang, Angela Sanchez, Stacie G Deiner
BACKGROUND: Mechanistic aspects of cognitive recovery after anesthesia and surgery are not yet well characterized, but may be vital to distinguishing the contributions of anesthesia and surgery in cognitive complications common in the elderly such as delirium and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This article describes the aims and methodological approach to the ongoing study, Trajectory of Recovery in the Elderly (TORIE), which focuses on the trajectory of cognitive recovery from general anesthesia...
September 7, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676745/bottom-up-and-top-down-mechanisms-of-general-anesthetics-modulate-different-dimensions-of-consciousness
#2
George A Mashour, Anthony G Hudetz
There has been controversy regarding the precise mechanisms of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness, with two salient approaches that have emerged within systems neuroscience. One prominent approach is the "bottom up" paradigm, which argues that anesthetics suppress consciousness by modulating sleep-wake nuclei and neural circuits in the brainstem and diencephalon that have evolved to control arousal states. Another approach is the "top-down" paradigm, which argues that anesthetics suppress consciousness by modulating the cortical and thalamocortical circuits involved in the integration of neural information...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654034/use-of-a-piglet-model-for-the-study-of-anesthetic-induced-developmental-neurotoxicity-aidn-a-translational-neuroscience-approach
#3
Emmett E Whitaker, Christopher Z Zheng, Bruno Bissonnette, Andrew D Miller, Tanner L Koppert, Joseph D Tobias, Christopher R Pierson, Fedias L Christofi
Anesthesia cannot be avoided in many cases when surgery is required, particularly in children. Recent investigations in animals have raised concerns that anesthesia exposure may lead to neuronal apoptosis, known as anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity (AIDN). Furthermore, some clinical studies in children have suggested that anesthesia exposure may lead to neurodevelopmental deficits later in life. Nonetheless, an ideal animal model for preclinical study has yet to be developed. The neonatal piglet represents a valuable model for preclinical study, as they share a striking number of developmental similarities with humans...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615334/diffusion-weighted-tractography-in-the-common-marmoset-monkey-at-9-4t
#4
David J Schaeffer, Ramina Adam, Kyle M Gilbert, Joseph S Gati, Alex X Li, Ravi S Menon, Stefan Everling
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate that is becoming increasingly popular in the neurosciences as an animal model of preclinical human disease. With several major disorders characterized by alterations in neural white matter (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia), proposed to be transgenically modeled using marmosets, the ability to isolate and characterize reliably major white matter fiber tracts with MRI will be of use for evaluating structural brain changes related to disease processes and symptomatology...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611601/lack-of-responsiveness-during-the-onset-and-offset-of-sevoflurane-anesthesia-is-associated-with-decreased-awake-alpha-oscillation-power
#5
Kara J Pavone, Lijuan Su, Lei Gao, Ersne Eromo, Rafael Vazquez, James Rhee, Lauren E Hobbs, Reine Ibala, Gizem Demircioglu, Patrick L Purdon, Emery N Brown, Oluwaseun Akeju
Anesthetic drugs are typically administered to induce altered states of arousal that range from sedation to general anesthesia (GA). Systems neuroscience studies are currently being used to investigate the neural circuit mechanisms of anesthesia-induced altered arousal states. These studies suggest that by disrupting the oscillatory dynamics that are associated with arousal states, anesthesia-induced oscillations are a putative mechanism through which anesthetic drugs produce altered states of arousal. However, an empirical clinical observation is that even at relatively stable anesthetic doses, patients are sometimes intermittently responsive to verbal commands during states of light sedation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588463/looking-for-the-self-phenomenology-neurophysiology-and-philosophical-significance-of-drug-induced-ego-dissolution
#6
Raphaël Millière
There is converging evidence that high doses of hallucinogenic drugs can produce significant alterations of self-experience, described as the dissolution of the sense of self and the loss of boundaries between self and world. This article discusses the relevance of this phenomenon, known as "drug-induced ego dissolution (DIED)", for cognitive neuroscience, psychology and philosophy of mind. Data from self-report questionnaires suggest that three neuropharmacological classes of drugs can induce ego dissolution: classical psychedelics, dissociative anesthetics and agonists of the kappa opioid receptor (KOR)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386682/-update-in-neuroanesthesiology-key-publications
#7
V-S Eckle, G Schneider
One of the aims of the Scientific Working Group Neuroanesthesia (WAKNA) of the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine is to disseminate new findings in the field of neuroscience and neuroanesthesia and to propagate novel therapeutic and diagnostic options into clinical practice. Once a year, the WAKNA displays and discusses recent noteworthy publications from the past 12 months at the German Anesthesia Meeting. In 2016, a new pharmacologic strategy with dexmedetomidine to prevent postoperative pain after craniotomy, the impact of the widely used anesthetic drug propofol on GABA receptor surface expression, a study highlighting the ultrasound-guided detection of increased intracranial pressure, and an article showing the interactions of neuromuscular blocking drugs on the BIS neuromonitoring were presented...
June 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276522/experimental-assessment-of-the-safety-and-potential-efficacy-of-high-irradiance-photostimulation-of-brain-tissues
#8
Senova Suhan, Scisniak Ilona, Chiang Chih-Chieh, Doignon Isabelle, Palfi Stéphane, Chaillet Antoine, Martin Claire, Pain Frédéric
Optogenetics is widely used in fundamental neuroscience. Its potential clinical translation for brain neuromodulation requires a careful assessment of the safety and efficacy of repeated, sustained optical stimulation of large volumes of brain tissues. This study was performed in rats and not in non-human primates for ethical reasons. We studied the spatial distribution of light, potential damage, and non-physiological effects in vivo, in anesthetized rat brains, on large brain volumes, following repeated high irradiance photo-stimulation...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268703/an-implantable-microelectrode-array-for-dopamine-and-electrophysiological-recordings-in-response-to-l-dopa-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Song Zhang, Yilin Song, Jun Jia, Guihua Xiao, Lili Yang, Min Sun, Mixia Wang, Xinxia Cai
Dual-mode multielectrode recordings have become routine in rodent neuroscience research. However, robust and reliable application of acute, multielectrode recording methods in brain especially for in vivo research remains a challenge. In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the efficacy of L-dopa therapy depends on its ability to restore Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the striatum. In this paper, We describe a low cost thin film 16 sites implantable microelectrode array (MEA) chip fabricated by standard lithography technology for in vivo test...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226891/an-implantable-microelectrode-array-for-dopamine-and-electrophysiological-recordings-in-response-to-l-dopa-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Song Zhang, Yilin Song, Jun Jia, Guihua Xiao, Lili Yang, Min Sun, Mixia Wang, Xinxia Cai, Song Zhang, Yilin Song, Jun Jia, Guihua Xiao, Lili Yang, Min Sun, Mixia Wang, Xinxia Cai, Xinxia Cai, Lili Yang, Guihua Xiao, Mixia Wang, Yilin Song, Song Zhang, Min Sun, Jun Jia
Dual-mode multielectrode recordings have become routine in rodent neuroscience research. However, robust and reliable application of acute, multielectrode recording methods in brain especially for in vivo research remains a challenge. In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the efficacy of L-dopa therapy depends on its ability to restore Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the striatum. In this paper, We describe a low cost thin film 16 sites implantable microelectrode array (MEA) chip fabricated by standard lithography technology for in vivo test...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221990/an-integrated-circuit-for-simultaneous-extracellular-electrophysiology-recording-and-optogenetic-neural-manipulation
#11
Chang Hao Chen, Elizabeth A McCullagh, Sio Hang Pun, Peng Un Mak, Mang I Vai, Pui In Mak, Achim Klug, Tim C Lei
OBJECTIVE: The ability to record and to control action potential firing in neuronal circuits is critical to understand how the brain functions. The objective of this study is to develop a monolithic integrated circuit (IC) to record action potentials and simultaneously control action potential firing using optogenetics. METHODS: A low-noise and high input impedance (or low input capacitance) neural recording amplifier is combined with a high current laser/light-emitting diode (LED) driver in a single IC...
March 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094959/noninvasive-targeted-transcranial-neuromodulation-via-focused-ultrasound-gated-drug-release-from-nanoemulsions
#12
Raag D Airan, Randall A Meyer, Nicholas P K Ellens, Kelly R Rhodes, Keyvan Farahani, Martin G Pomper, Shilpa D Kadam, Jordan J Green
Targeted, noninvasive neuromodulation of the brain of an otherwise awake subject could revolutionize both basic and clinical neuroscience. Toward this goal, we have developed nanoparticles that allow noninvasive uncaging of a neuromodulatory drug, in this case the small molecule anesthetic propofol, upon the application of focused ultrasound. These nanoparticles are composed of biodegradable and biocompatible constituents and are activated using sonication parameters that are readily achievable by current clinical transcranial focused ultrasound systems...
February 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929470/high-density-electroencephalographic-acquisition-in-a-rodent-model-using-low-cost-and-open-source-resources
#13
Andrzej Z Wasilczuk, Alexander Proekt, Max B Kelz, Andrew R McKinstry-Wu
Advanced electroencephalographic analysis techniques requiring high spatial resolution, including electrical source imaging and measures of network connectivity, are applicable to an expanding variety of questions in neuroscience. Performing these kinds of analyses in a rodent model requires higher electrode density than traditional screw electrodes can accomplish. While higher-density electroencephalographic montages for rodents exist, they are of limited availability to most researchers, are not robust enough for repeated experiments over an extended period of time, or are limited to use in anesthetized rodents...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521192/cerebral-blood-flow-autoregulation-and-dysautoregulation
#14
REVIEW
William M Armstead
This article provides a review of cerebral autoregulation, particularly as it relates to the clinician scientist experienced in neuroscience in anesthesia and critical care. Topics covered are biological mechanisms; methods used for assessment of autoregulation; effects of anesthetics; role in control of cerebral hemodynamics in health and disease; and emerging areas, such as role of age and sex in contribution to dysautoregulation. Emphasis is placed on bidirectional translational research wherein the clinical informs the study design of basic science studies, which, in turn, informs the clinical to result in development of improved therapies for treatment of central nervous system conditions...
September 2016: Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419354/photobiomodulation-implications-for-anesthesia-and-pain-relief
#15
REVIEW
Roberta T Chow, Patricia J Armati
OBJECTIVE: This review examines the evidence of neural inhibition as a mechanism underlying pain relief and anesthetic effect of photobiomodulation (PBM). BACKGROUND: PBM for pain relief has also been used for more than 30 years; however, the mechanism of its effectiveness has not been well understood. METHODS: We review electrophysiological studies in humans and animal models and cell culture studies to examine neural responses to PBM. RESULTS: Evidence shows that PBM can inhibit nerve function in vivo, in situ, ex vivo, and in culture...
December 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277798/zip-it-neural-silencing-is-an-additional-effect-of-the-pkm-zeta-inhibitor-zeta-inhibitory-peptide
#16
Michelle J LeBlancq, Ty L McKinney, Clayton T Dickson
UNLABELLED: Protein kinase M ζ (PKMζ), an atypical isoform of protein kinase C, has been suggested to be necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory (LTM). This evidence is heavily based on the use of ζ inhibitory peptide (ZIP), a supposed specific inhibitor of PKMζ that interferes with both LTP and LTM. Problematically, both LTP and LTM are unaffected in both constitutive and conditional PKMζ knock-out mice, yet both are still impaired by ZIP application, suggesting a nonspecific mechanism of action...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159159/embedded-ultrathin-cluster-electrodes-for-long-term-recordings-in-deep-brain-centers
#17
Leila Etemadi, Mohsin Mohammed, Palmi Thor Thorbergsson, Joakim Ekstrand, Annika Friberg, Marcus Granmo, Lina M E Pettersson, Jens Schouenborg
Neural interfaces which allow long-term recordings in deep brain structures in awake freely moving animals have the potential of becoming highly valuable tools in neuroscience. However, the recording quality usually deteriorates over time, probably at least partly due to tissue reactions caused by injuries during implantation, and subsequently micro-forces due to a lack of mechanical compliance between the tissue and neural interface. To address this challenge, we developed a gelatin embedded neural interface comprising highly flexible electrodes and evaluated its long term recording properties...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27080031/a-novel-anesthesia-regime-enables-neurofunctional-studies-and-imaging-genetics-across-mouse-strains
#18
Marija M Petrinovic, Georges Hankov, Aileen Schroeter, Andreas Bruns, Markus Rudin, Markus von Kienlin, Basil Künnecke, Thomas Mueggler
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revolutionized neuroscience by opening a unique window that allows neurocircuitry function and pathological alterations to be probed non-invasively across brain disorders. Here we report a novel sustainable anesthesia procedure for small animal neuroimaging that overcomes shortcomings of anesthetics commonly used in rodent fMRI. The significantly improved preservation of cerebrovascular dynamics enhances sensitivity to neural activity changes for which it serves as a proxy in fMRI readouts...
April 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26972135/phencyclidine-excitatory-amino-acids-psychiatry-and-drug-abuse-historical-perspectives-on-clinical-laboratory-interactions
#19
S R Zukin
Some 40 years ago phencyclidine (PCP) was developed as the prototype of a proposed new class of 'dissociative' general anesthetics, so called because it induced a marked dissociation from the environment without complete loss of consciousness. In the earliest clinical trials of PCP anesthesia, it was observed that as many as half the subjects experienced severe psychotic reactions during and beyond emergence. This striking clinical observation at once marked the failure of PCP as a suitable general anesthetic, and the beginning of a remarkable new era in basic and clinical neuroscience which can serve as an example of the interaction between clinical observation and basic science...
June 1997: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26834580/statistical-frequency-dependent-analysis-of-trial-to-trial-variability-in-single-time-series-by-recurrence-plots
#20
Tamara Tošić, Kristin K Sellers, Flavio Fröhlich, Mariia Fedotenkova, Peter Beim Graben, Axel Hutt
For decades, research in neuroscience has supported the hypothesis that brain dynamics exhibits recurrent metastable states connected by transients, which together encode fundamental neural information processing. To understand the system's dynamics it is important to detect such recurrence domains, but it is challenging to extract them from experimental neuroscience datasets due to the large trial-to-trial variability. The proposed methodology extracts recurrent metastable states in univariate time series by transforming datasets into their time-frequency representations and computing recurrence plots based on instantaneous spectral power values in various frequency bands...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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