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anesthetic neuroscience

William M Armstead
This article provides a review of cerebral autoregulation, particularly as it relates to the clinician scientist experienced in neuroscience in anesthesia and critical care. Topics covered are biological mechanisms; methods used for assessment of autoregulation; effects of anesthetics; role in control of cerebral hemodynamics in health and disease; and emerging areas, such as role of age and sex in contribution to dysautoregulation. Emphasis is placed on bidirectional translational research wherein the clinical informs the study design of basic science studies, which, in turn, informs the clinical to result in development of improved therapies for treatment of central nervous system conditions...
September 2016: Anesthesiology Clinics
Roberta T Chow, Patricia J Armati
OBJECTIVE: This review examines the evidence of neural inhibition as a mechanism underlying pain relief and anesthetic effect of photobiomodulation (PBM). BACKGROUND: PBM for pain relief has also been used for more than 30 years; however, the mechanism of its effectiveness has not been well understood. METHODS: We review electrophysiological studies in humans and animal models and cell culture studies to examine neural responses to PBM. RESULTS: Evidence shows that PBM can inhibit nerve function in vivo, in situ, ex vivo, and in culture...
July 15, 2016: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Michelle J LeBlancq, Ty L McKinney, Clayton T Dickson
UNLABELLED: Protein kinase M ζ (PKMζ), an atypical isoform of protein kinase C, has been suggested to be necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term memory (LTM). This evidence is heavily based on the use of ζ inhibitory peptide (ZIP), a supposed specific inhibitor of PKMζ that interferes with both LTP and LTM. Problematically, both LTP and LTM are unaffected in both constitutive and conditional PKMζ knock-out mice, yet both are still impaired by ZIP application, suggesting a nonspecific mechanism of action...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Leila Etemadi, Mohsin Mohammed, Palmi Thor Thorbergsson, Joakim Ekstrand, Annika Friberg, Marcus Granmo, Lina M E Pettersson, Jens Schouenborg
Neural interfaces which allow long-term recordings in deep brain structures in awake freely moving animals have the potential of becoming highly valuable tools in neuroscience. However, the recording quality usually deteriorates over time, probably at least partly due to tissue reactions caused by injuries during implantation, and subsequently micro-forces due to a lack of mechanical compliance between the tissue and neural interface. To address this challenge, we developed a gelatin embedded neural interface comprising highly flexible electrodes and evaluated its long term recording properties...
2016: PloS One
Marija M Petrinovic, Georges Hankov, Aileen Schroeter, Andreas Bruns, Markus Rudin, Markus von Kienlin, Basil Künnecke, Thomas Mueggler
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has revolutionized neuroscience by opening a unique window that allows neurocircuitry function and pathological alterations to be probed non-invasively across brain disorders. Here we report a novel sustainable anesthesia procedure for small animal neuroimaging that overcomes shortcomings of anesthetics commonly used in rodent fMRI. The significantly improved preservation of cerebrovascular dynamics enhances sensitivity to neural activity changes for which it serves as a proxy in fMRI readouts...
2016: Scientific Reports
S R Zukin
Some 40 years ago phencyclidine (PCP) was developed as the prototype of a proposed new class of 'dissociative' general anesthetics, so called because it induced a marked dissociation from the environment without complete loss of consciousness. In the earliest clinical trials of PCP anesthesia, it was observed that as many as half the subjects experienced severe psychotic reactions during and beyond emergence. This striking clinical observation at once marked the failure of PCP as a suitable general anesthetic, and the beginning of a remarkable new era in basic and clinical neuroscience which can serve as an example of the interaction between clinical observation and basic science...
June 1997: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Tamara Tošić, Kristin K Sellers, Flavio Fröhlich, Mariia Fedotenkova, Peter Beim Graben, Axel Hutt
For decades, research in neuroscience has supported the hypothesis that brain dynamics exhibits recurrent metastable states connected by transients, which together encode fundamental neural information processing. To understand the system's dynamics it is important to detect such recurrence domains, but it is challenging to extract them from experimental neuroscience datasets due to the large trial-to-trial variability. The proposed methodology extracts recurrent metastable states in univariate time series by transforming datasets into their time-frequency representations and computing recurrence plots based on instantaneous spectral power values in various frequency bands...
2015: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Eric H Holbrook, Lina Rebeiz, James E Schwob
BACKGROUND: Requests from researchers for olfactory mucosal biopsies are increasing as a result of advances in the fields of neuroscience and stem cell biology. Published studies report variable rates of success in obtaining true olfactory tissue, often below 50%. In cases where biopsies are not obtained carefully and confirmed through histological techniques, erroneous conclusions are made. Attention to the epithelium alone without submucosal analysis may add to the confusion. A consistent biopsy technique can help rhinologists obtain higher yields of olfactory mucosa...
June 2016: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Fan Wu, Eran Stark, Pei-Cheng Ku, Kensall D Wise, György Buzsáki, Euisik Yoon
We report a scalable method to monolithically integrate microscopic light emitting diodes (μLEDs) and recording sites onto silicon neural probes for optogenetic applications in neuroscience. Each μLED and recording site has dimensions similar to a pyramidal neuron soma, providing confined emission and electrophysiological recording of action potentials and local field activity. We fabricated and implanted the four-shank probes, each integrated with 12 μLEDs and 32 recording sites, into the CA1 pyramidal layer of anesthetized and freely moving mice...
December 16, 2015: Neuron
Sabina Jagdevan, Kamath Sriganesh, Paritosh Pandey, Madhusudan Reddy, G S Umamaheswara Rao
BACKGROUND: Moya Moya disease (MMD) is one of the most common cerebro-vascular diseases in children resulting in stroke. Surgical revascularization aims at improving the perfusion to the 'at-risk' ischemic brain. Several factors including peri-operative anesthetic related ones, affect the outcome in these children. This study was performed with the aim to explore the role of anesthetic techniques, pharmacological agents and perioperative management strategies on the neurological outcome following an indirect revascularization procedure for the treatment of MMD...
September 2015: Neurology India
Jose A Fernandez-Leon, Arun Parajuli, Robert Franklin, Michael Sorenson, Daniel J Felleman, Bryan J Hansen, Ming Hu, Valentin Dragoi
OBJECTIVE: Studying the brain in large animal models in a restrained laboratory rig severely limits our capacity to examine brain circuits in experimental and clinical applications. APPROACH: To overcome these limitations, we developed a high-fidelity 96-channel wireless system to record extracellular spikes and local field potentials from the neocortex. A removable, external case of the wireless device is attached to a titanium pedestal placed in the animal skull...
October 2015: Journal of Neural Engineering
Chia-Chun Hung, Cecil C Yen, Jennifer L Ciuchta, Daniel Papoti, Nicholas A Bock, David A Leopold, Afonso C Silva
The visual brain is composed of interconnected subcortical and cortical structures that receive and process image information originating in the retina. The visual system of nonhuman primates, in particular macaques, has been studied in great detail in order to elucidate principles of human sensation and perception. The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World monkey of growing interest as a primate model for neuroscience. Marmosets have advantages over macaques because of their small size, lissencephalic cortex, and growing potential for viral and genetic manipulations...
October 15, 2015: NeuroImage
Niraj S Desai, Jennifer J Siegel, William Taylor, Raymond A Chitwood, Daniel Johnston
Automation has been an important part of biomedical research for decades, and the use of automated and robotic systems is now standard for such tasks as DNA sequencing, microfluidics, and high-throughput screening. Recently, Kodandaramaiah and colleagues (Nat Methods 9: 585-587, 2012) demonstrated, using anesthetized animals, the feasibility of automating blind patch-clamp recordings in vivo. Blind patch is a good target for automation because it is a complex yet highly stereotyped process that revolves around analysis of a single signal (electrode impedance) and movement along a single axis...
August 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
Michelle R Rebello, Padma Kandukuru, Justus V Verhagen
The neuroscience of flavor perception is hence becoming increasingly important to understand food flavor perception that guides food selection, ingestion and appreciation. We recently provided evidence that rats can use the retronasal mode of olfaction, an essential element of human flavor perception. We showed that in rats, like humans, odors can acquire a taste. We and others also defined how the input of the olfactory bulb (OB) -not functionally imageable in humans- codes retronasal smell in anesthetized rat...
2015: PloS One
Sachine Yoshida, Yuya Morimoto, Taishi Tonooka, Shoji Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: Mouse pups are invaluable model animals for understanding the molecular and neural basis underlying behavioral development. Stereotaxic operations with anesthetic control are useful tools in systems neuroscience. However, there are no commercially available anesthetic or stereotaxic devices for mouse pups. Current devices have several problems such as invasive approach for stabilization, poor sanitary control, and less flexibility to combine other surgical apparatuses. NEW METHOD: Here, we developed an inhalation anesthetic device equipped with stereotaxic function for mouse pups, by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
March 30, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Bowen Dempsey, Anita J Turner, Sheng Le, Qi-Jian Sun, Lama Bou Farah, Andrew M Allen, Ann K Goodchild, Simon McMullan
Genetic tools that permit functional or connectomic analysis of neuronal circuits are rapidly transforming neuroscience. The key to deployment of such tools is selective transfection of target neurons, but to date this has largely been achieved using transgenic animals or viral vectors that transduce subpopulations of cells chosen according to anatomical rather than functional criteria. Here, we combine single-cell transfection with conventional electrophysiological recording techniques, resulting in three novel protocols that can be used for reliable delivery of conventional dyes or genetic material in vitro and in vivo...
January 1, 2015: Physiological Reports
C A Cordeiro, M G de Vries, W Ngabi, P E Oomen, T I F H Cremers, B H C Westerink
Enzyme-based amperometric biosensors are widely used for monitoring key biomarkers. In experimental neuroscience there is a growing interest in in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of metabolism-related biomarkers, like glucose, lactate and pyruvate. The use of multiplex biosensors will provide better understanding of brain energy metabolism and its role in neuropathologies such as diabetes, ischemia, and epilepsy. We have developed and characterized an implantable multiplex microbiosensor device (MBD) for simultaneous and continuous in vivo monitoring of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate...
May 15, 2015: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Abhijeet Gummadavelli, Joshua E Motelow, Nicholas Smith, Qiong Zhan, Nicholas D Schiff, Hal Blumenfeld
OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural mechanisms that support human consciousness is an important frontier in neuroscience and medicine. We previously developed a rodent model of temporal lobe seizures that recapitulates the human electroencephalography (EEG) signature of ictal and postictal neocortical slow waves associated with behavioral impairments in level of consciousness. The mechanism of slow-wave production in epilepsy may involve suppression of the subcortical arousal systems including the brainstem and intralaminar thalamic nuclei...
January 2015: Epilepsia
Vivien Szabo, Cathie Ventalon, Vincent De Sars, Jonathan Bradley, Valentina Emiliani
Correlating patterned neuronal activity to defined animal behaviors is a core goal in neuroscience. Optogenetics is one large step toward achieving this goal, yet optical methods to control neural activity in behaving rodents have so far been limited to perturbing all light-sensitive neurons in a large volume. Here we demonstrate an all-optical method for precise spatial control and recording of neuronal activity in anesthetized and awake freely behaving mice. Photoactivation patterns targeted to multiple neuronal somata, produced with computer-generated holography, were transmitted to the mouse brain using a micro-objective-coupled fiber bundle...
December 17, 2014: Neuron
Xudong Lin, Shiqi Wang, Xudong Yu, Zhuguo Liu, Fei Wang, Wai Tsun Li, Shuk Han Cheng, Qiuyun Dai, Peng Shi
The reconstruction of neural activity across complete neural circuits, or brain activity mapping, has great potential in both fundamental and translational neuroscience research. Larval zebrafish, a vertebrate model, has recently been demonstrated to be amenable to whole brain activity mapping in behaving animals. Here we demonstrate a microfluidic array system ("Fish-Trap") that enables high-throughput mapping of brain-wide activity in awake larval zebrafish. Unlike the commonly practiced larva-processing methods using a rigid gel or a capillary tube, which are laborious and time-consuming, the hydrodynamic design of our microfluidic chip allows automatic, gel-free, and anesthetic-free processing of tens of larvae for microscopic imaging with single-cell resolution...
February 7, 2015: Lab on a Chip
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