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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102327/super-strong-materials-for-temperatures-exceeding-2000%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c
#1
Laura Silvestroni, Hans-Joachim Kleebe, William G Fahrenholtz, Jeremy Watts
Ceramics based on group IV-V transition metal borides and carbides possess melting points above 3000 °C, are ablation resistant and are, therefore, candidates for the design of components of next generation space vehicles, rocket nozzle inserts, and nose cones or leading edges for hypersonic aerospace vehicles. As such, they will have to bear high thermo-mechanical loads, which makes strength at high temperature of great importance. While testing of these materials above 2000 °C is necessary to prove their capabilities at anticipated operating temperatures, literature reports are quite limited...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100793/super-sensitive-seal-whiskers-feel-fish-breath
#2
Kathryn Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100664/rab1-interacts-with-golph3-and-controls-golgi-structure-and-contractile-ring-constriction-during-cytokinesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#3
Stefano Sechi, Anna Frappaolo, Roberta Fraschini, Luisa Capalbo, Marco Gottardo, Giorgio Belloni, David M Glover, Alan Wainman, Maria Grazia Giansanti
Cytokinesis requires a tight coordination between actomyosin ring constriction and new membrane addition along the ingressing cleavage furrow. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vesicle trafficking to the equatorial site and how this process is coupled with the dynamics of the contractile apparatus are poorly defined. Here we provide evidence for the requirement of Rab1 during cleavage furrow ingression in cytokinesis. We demonstrate that the gene omelette (omt) encodes the Drosophila orthologue of human Rab1 and is required for successful cytokinesis in both mitotic and meiotic dividing cells of Drosophila melanogaster We show that Rab1 protein colocalizes with the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex Cog7 subunit and the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate effector GOLPH3 at the Golgi stacks...
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100172/integrated-genomics-based-mapping-reveals-the-genetics-underlying-maize-flavonoid-biosynthesis
#4
Min Jin, Xuehai Zhang, Mingchao Zhao, Min Deng, Yuanhao Du, Yang Zhou, Shouchuang Wang, Takayuki Tohge, Alisdair R Fernie, Lothar Willmitzer, Yariv Brotman, Jianbing Yan, Weiwei Wen
BACKGROUND: Flavonoids constitute a diverse class of secondary metabolites which exhibit potent bioactivities for human health and have been indicated to play an important role in plant development and defense. However, accumulation and variation of flavonoid content in diverse maize lines and the genes responsible for their biosynthesis in this important crop remain largely unknown. In this study, we combine genetic mapping, metabolite profiling and gene regulatory network analysis to further enhance understanding of the maize flavonoid pathway...
January 18, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098824/fabrication-of-a-miniature-multi-parameter-sensor-chip-for-water-quality-assessment
#5
Bo Zhou, Chao Bian, Jianhua Tong, Shanhong Xia
Water contamination is a main inducement of human diseases. It is an important step to monitor the water quality in the water distribution system. Due to the features of large size, high cost, and complicated structure of traditional water determination sensors and devices, it is difficult to realize real-time water monitoring on a large scale. In this paper, we present a multi-parameter sensor chip, which is miniature, low-cost, and robust, to detect the pH, conductivity, and temperature of water simultaneously...
January 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098556/genetic-defects-in-%C3%AE-spectrin-and-tau-sensitize-c-elegans-axons-to-movement-induced-damage-via-torque-tension-coupling
#6
Michael Krieg, Jan Stühmer, Juan G Cueva, Richard Fetter, Kerri A Spliker, Daniel Cremers, Kang Shen, Alexander R Dunn, Miriam B Goodman
Our bodies are in constant motion and so are the neurons that invade each tissue. Motion-induced neuron deformation and damage are associated with several neurodegenerative conditions. Here, we investigated the question of how the neuronal cytoskeleton protects axons and dendrites from mechanical stress, exploiting mutations in UNC-70 β-spectrin, PTL-1 tau/MAP2-like and MEC-7 β-tubulin proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that mechanical stress induces supercoils and plectonemes in the sensory axons of spectrin and tau double mutants...
January 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098405/shielding-engineered-islets-with-mesenchymal-stem-cells-enhance-survival-under-hypoxia
#7
Bhawna Chandravanshi, Ramesh Ramchandra Bhonde
In the present study we focused on the improvisation of islet survival in hypoxia.The Islet like cell aggregates (ICAs) derived from wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ MSC) were cultured with and without WJ MSC for 48h in hypoxia and normoxia and tested for their direct trophic effect on β cell survival. The WJ MSCs themselves secreted insulin upon glucose challenge and expressed the pancreatic markers at both transcription and translational level (C-peptide, Insulin,Glucagon and Glut 2). Direct contact of MSCs with ICAs facilitated highest viability under hypoxia as evidenced by fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide(MTT) assay...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098072/near-infrared-image-guided-super-selective-intra-arterial-infusion-of-high-dose-cisplatin-for-squamous-cell-carcinoma-on-the-lower-lip
#8
Kenji Yokota, Takaaki Matsumoto, Yoshie Murakami, Masashi Akiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Dermatology: EJD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096469/super-resolution-visualization-of-caveolae-deformation-in-response-to-osmotic-stress
#9
Lu Yang, Suzanne Scarlata
Caveolae are protein dense plasma membrane domains structurally composed of caveolin -1 or -3 along with other proteins. Our previous studies have shown that caveolae enhance calcium signals generated through the Gαq/phospholipase Cβ signaling pathway, and that subjecting cells to hypo-osmotic stress reverses this enhancement. In this study, we have used super-resolution fluorescence microscopy supplemented by fluorescence correlation studies to determine the structural factors that underlie this behavior...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095792/multi-contrast-brain-magnetic-resonance-image-super-resolution-using-the-local-weight-similarity
#10
Hong Zheng, Xiaobo Qu, Zhengjian Bai, Yunsong Liu, Di Guo, Jiyang Dong, Xi Peng, Zhong Chen
BACKGROUND: Low-resolution images may be acquired in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to limited data acquisition time or other physical constraints, and their resolutions can be improved with super-resolution methods. Since MRI can offer images of an object with different contrasts, e.g., T1-weighted or T2-weighted, the shared information between inter-contrast images can be used to benefit super-resolution. METHODS: In this study, an MRI image super-resolution approach to enhance in-plane resolution is proposed by exploring the statistical information estimated from another contrast MRI image that shares similar anatomical structures...
January 17, 2017: BMC Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095545/real-time-high-resolution-in-vivo-characterization-of-superficial-skin-with-microscopy-using-ultraviolet-surface-excitation-muse
#11
Derek Ho, Farzad Fereidouni, Richard M Levenson, Jared Jagdeo
BACKGROUND: Skin care products make up the largest part (36%) of the cosmetic market globally, of which the United States plays the largest role. In 2015, approximately 115 billion USD was spent globally on skin care products. Skin care products, in contradistinction to pharmaceuticals, are not strictly regulated by the FDA. A key factor for evaluation of a skin care product or topical drug is skin barrier function and effect on super cial skin. Thus, it is critical to have quantitative and qualitative methods to study the effects of skin care products on skin barrier and the super cial skin...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095539/a-proposed-method-for-upper-eyelid-and-infrabrow-tightening-using-a-transcutaneous-temperature-controlled-radiofrequency-device-with-opaque-plastic-eye-shields
#12
Douglas J Key, Lauren Boudreaux
BACKGROUND: Laxity of the eyelid and periorbital area, a common manifestation of aging, is usually addressed via blepharoplasty and/ or fat transfer. Given the trend toward safer, less invasive treatments preferred by those patients reticent to undergo more invasive procedures, viable alternatives have been sought. Transcutaneous temperature controlled radiofrequency (TTCRF) integrates non- invasive super cial RF treatment with automatic temperature feedback control of energy deposition, as a stimulator of overall collagen remodeling; however, the globe of the eye is particularly sensitive to RF energy...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095387/mri-of-cerebellar-infarction
#13
Laurens J L De Cocker, Karl-Olof Lövblad, Jeroen Hendrikse
BACKGROUND: MRI is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing brain infarction. Because of few or atypical clinical symptoms and a relatively low sensitivity of CT scans, many cerebellar infarctions may be detected only with MRI. With adequate recognition of cerebellar infarction on MRI and prompt initiation or optimisation of preventive therapeutic measures, more dramatic strokes may be avoided in selected cases. SUMMARY: We first briefly review the clinical presentation of cerebellar infarctions, followed by a short refresher on cerebellar anatomy and pathophysiological mechanisms of cerebellar infarcts...
January 18, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095095/joint-association-of-complement-component-3-and-cc-cytokine-ligand2-ccl2-or-complement-component-3-and-cfh-polymorphisms-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#14
Mortaza Bonyadi, Mohammad Hossein Jabbarpoor Bonyadi, Mehdi Yaseri, Tahereh Mohammadian, Nikou Fotouhi, Alireza Javadzadeh, Masoud Soheilian
BACKGROUND: To determine the joint effect of complement component 3(C3 R102G) with CC-cytokine ligand2 (CCL2-2518) or complement factor H (CFH) Y402H polymorphisms on advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: In this case-control study, 233 patients with advanced AMD and 159 unrelated healthy controls enrolled for evaluation. Selected polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS: A combination of AA CCL2 (rs1024611) and GG C3 (R102G) genotypes resulted in a super-additivity of the risks: OR = 10...
January 17, 2017: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094910/activated-carbon-fiber-paper-based-electrodes-with-high-electrocatalytic-activity-for-vanadium-flow-batteries-with-improved-power-density
#15
Tao Liu, Xianfeng Li, Chi Xu, Huamin Zhang
Vanadium flow batteries (VFBs) have received high attention for large scale energy storage due to their advantages of flexibility design, long cycle life, high efficiency and high safety. However, commercial progress of VFBs has so far been limited by its high cost induced by its low power density. Ultrathin carbon paper is believed to be a very promising electrode for VFB since it illustrates super low ohmic polarization, however, is limited by its low electrocatalytic activity. In this paper, a kind of carbon paper (CP) with super high electrocatalytic activity was fabricated via a universal and simple CO2 activation method...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094529/protonation-behavior-of-1-1-bi-2-naphthol-and-insights-into-its-acid-catalyzed-atropisomerization
#16
Alexander M Genaev, George E Salnikov, Andrey V Shernyukov, Zhongwei Zhu, Konstantin Yu Koltunov
The behavior of 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) in variety of (super)acid media has been studied by NMR. The results are combined with the theoretical (DFT) study of the role of mono- and diprotonated forms of BINOL in the acid-catalyzed atropisomerization of this compound. It is demonstrated that the process of enantiomeric configuration exchange proceeds mainly via internal rotation around the C1(sp(3))-C1'(sp(3)) bond in intermediates such as C1-monoprotonated keto or C1,C1'-diprotonated forms of BINOL, depending on the acidity level...
January 17, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094471/cleanable-air-filter-transferring-moisture-and-effectively-capturing-pm2-5
#17
Xinglei Zhao, Yuyao Li, Ting Hua, Pan Jiang, Xia Yin, Jianyong Yu, Bin Ding
The lethal danger of particulate matter (PM) pollution on health leads to the development of challenging individual protection materials that should ideally exhibit a high PM2.5 purification efficiency, low air resistance, an important moisture-vapor transmission rate (MVTR), and an easy-to-clean property. Herein, a cleanable air filter able to rapidly transfer moisture and efficiently capture PM2.5 is designed by electrospinning superhydrophilic polyacrylonitrile/silicon-dioxide fibers as the adsorption-desorption vector for moisture-vapor, and hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride fibers as the repellent components to avoid the formation of capillary water under high humidity...
January 17, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094292/chromatin-organization-revealed-by-nanostructure-of-irradiation-induced-%C3%AE-h2ax-53bp1-and-rad51-foci
#18
Judith Reindl, Stefanie Girst, Dietrich W M Walsh, Christoph Greubel, Benjamin Schwarz, Christian Siebenwirth, Guido A Drexler, Anna A Friedl, Günther Dollinger
The spatial distribution of DSB repair factors γH2AX, 53BP1 and Rad51 in ionizing radiation induced foci (IRIF) in HeLa cells using super resolution STED nanoscopy after low and high linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation was investigated. 53BP1 and γH2AX form IRIF with same mean size of (540 ± 40) nm after high LET irradiation while the size after low LET irradiation is significantly smaller. The IRIF of both repair factors show nanostructures with partial anti-correlation. These structures are related to domains formed within the chromatin territories marked by γH2AX while 53BP1 is mainly situated in the perichromatin region...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093559/gradation-approx-10-size-states-of-synaptic-strength-by-quantal-addition-of-structural-modules
#19
Kang K L Liu, Michael F Hagan, John E Lisman
Memory storage involves activity-dependent strengthening of synaptic transmission, a process termed long-term potentiation (LTP). The late phase of LTP is thought to encode long-term memory and involves structural processes that enlarge the synapse. Hence, understanding how synapse size is graded provides fundamental information about the information storage capability of synapses. Recent work using electron microscopy (EM) to quantify synapse dimensions has suggested that synapses may structurally encode as many as 26 functionally distinct states, which correspond to a series of proportionally spaced synapse sizes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093558/glutamatergic-synapses-are-structurally-and-biochemically-complex-because-of-multiple-plasticity-processes-long-term-potentiation-long-term-depression-short-term-potentiation-and-scaling
#20
REVIEW
John Lisman
Synapses are complex because they perform multiple functions, including at least six mechanistically different forms of plasticity. Here, I comment on recent developments regarding these processes. (i) Short-term potentiation (STP), a Hebbian process that requires small amounts of synaptic input, appears to make strong contributions to some forms of working memory. (ii) The rules for long-term potentiation (LTP) induction in CA3 have been clarified: induction does not depend obligatorily on backpropagating sodium spikes but, rather, on dendritic branch-specific N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) spikes...
March 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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