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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342702/apigenin-attenuates-oxidative-stress-and-neuronal-apoptosis-in-early-brain-injury-following-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#1
Yuwei Han, Tingting Zhang, Jingyuan Su, Yuan Zhao, Chenchen, Wang, Xiaoming Li
Apigenin (API) is a naturally occurring plant flavone that exhibits powerful antioxidant and antiapoptosis. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The potential anti-oxidative and anti-apoptosis effects of API on EBI following SAH, however, have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to assess whether API alleviates EBI after SAH via its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects. The endovascular puncture model was used to induce SAH and all the rats were subsequently sacrificed at 24h after SAH...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340338/a-phase-separation-model-for-transcriptional-control
#2
REVIEW
Denes Hnisz, Krishna Shrinivas, Richard A Young, Arup K Chakraborty, Phillip A Sharp
Phase-separated multi-molecular assemblies provide a general regulatory mechanism to compartmentalize biochemical reactions within cells. We propose that a phase separation model explains established and recently described features of transcriptional control. These features include the formation of super-enhancers, the sensitivity of super-enhancers to perturbation, the transcriptional bursting patterns of enhancers, and the ability of an enhancer to produce simultaneous activation at multiple genes. This model provides a conceptual framework to further explore principles of gene control in mammals...
March 23, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340332/super-elongation-complex-promotes-early-hiv-transcription-and-its-function-is-modulated-by-p-tefb
#3
Alona Kuzmina, Simona Krasnopolsky, Ran Taube
Early work on the control of transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) laid the foundation for our current knowledge of how RNA Polymerase II is released from promoter-proximal pausing sites and transcription elongation is enhanced. The viral Tat activator recruits Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) and Super Elongation Complex (SEC) that jointly drive transcription elongation. While substantial progress in understanding the role of SEC in HIV gene transcription elongation has been obtained, defining of the mechanisms that govern SEC functions is still limited, and the role of SEC in controlling HIV transcription in the absence of Tat is less clear...
February 17, 2017: Transcription
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340243/finite-time-parametric-identification-for-the-model-representing-the-metabolic-and-genetic-regulatory-effects-of-sequential-aerobic-respiration-and-anaerobic-fermentation-processes-in-escherichia-coli
#4
Alfonso Sepúlveda-Gálvez, Jesús Agustín Badillo-Corona, Isaac Chairez
Mathematical modelling applied to biological systems allows for the inferring of changes in the dynamic behaviour of organisms associated with variations in the environment. Models based on ordinary differential equations are most commonly used because of their ability to describe the mechanisms of biological systems such as transcription. The disadvantage of using this approach is that there is a large number of parameters involved and that it is difficult to obtain them experimentally. This study presents an algorithm to obtain a finite-time parameter characterization of the model used to describe changes in the metabolic behaviour of Escherichia coli associated with environmental changes...
March 17, 2017: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339237/current-noise-from-a-magnetic-moment-in-a-helical-edge
#5
Jukka I Väyrynen, Leonid I Glazman
We calculate the two-terminal current noise generated by a magnetic moment coupled to a helical edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator. When the system is symmetric with respect to in-plane spin rotation, the noise is dominated by the Nyquist component even in the presence of a voltage bias V. The corresponding noise spectrum S(V,ω) is determined by a modified fluctuation-dissipation theorem with the differential conductance G(V,ω) in place of the linear one. The differential noise ∂S/∂V, commonly measured in experiments, is strongly dependent on frequency on a small scale τ_{K}^{-1}≪T set by the Korringa relaxation rate of the local moment...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338475/evidence-of-a-permanent-electric-polarisation-in-highly-strained-cr2o3-clusters-measured-by-a-second-harmonic-generation-technique
#6
Mohamad Hamieh, Kokoo Dorkenoo, Gregory Taupier, Yves Henry, David Halley
We investigate the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal in strained Cr2O3 clusters. We show that the SHG signal generated by nanometric Cr2O3 clusters embedded in MgO varies under an applied electric field, at room temperature. The variation of the intensity follows a Langevin law as a function of the electric field, which is consistent with a super-paraelectric clusters assembly. This reveals the presence of a weak spontaneous electric dipole in Cr2O3 when in the shape of highly strained epitaxial clusters, whereas this material does not posses any permanent electric dipole in the bulk phase...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338473/impact-absorption-properties-of-carbon-fiber-reinforced-bucky-sponges
#7
Ramathasan Thevamaran, Deepika Saini, Mehmet Karakaya, Jingyi Zhu, Ramakrishna Podila, Apparao Rao, Chiara Daraio
We describe the super compressible and highly recoverable response of bucky sponges as they are struck by a heavy flat-punch striker. The bucky sponges studied here are structurally stable, self-assembled mixtures of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon fibers (CFs). We engineered the microstructure of the sponges by controlling their porosity using different CF contents. Their mechanical properties and energy dissipation characteristics during impact loading are presented as a function of their composition...
March 24, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336464/new-insights-into-the-codon-usage-patterns-of-the-bactericidal-permeability-increasing-bpi-gene-across-nine-species
#8
Wei-Yun Qin, Li-Na Gan, Ri-Wei Xia, Shou-Yong Sun, Guo-Qiang Zhu, Sheng-Long Wu, Wen-Bin Bao
Bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) protein is a member of a new generation of proteins known as super-antibiotics that are implicated as endotoxin neutralising agents. Non-uniform usage of synonymous codons for a specific amino acid during translation of a protein is known as codon usage bias (CUB). Analysis of CUB and compositional dynamics of coding sequences could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism and the evolution of a particular gene. In this study, we performed CUB analysis of the complete coding sequences of the BPI gene from nine different species...
March 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335497/ginsenoside-ppd-s-antitumor-effect-via-down-regulation-of-mtor-revealed-by-super-resolution-imaging
#9
Bo Teng, Junguang Jiang, Lijing Zhao, Jing Gao, Junyu Chen, Zhe Liu, Hongda Wang, Binfeng Lu
Derived from Panax ginseng, the natural product 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) has been reported for its cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines. The molecular mechanism is, however, not well understood. Here we show that PPD significantly inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and causes G2/M cell cycle arrest in human laryngeal carcinoma cells (Hep-2 cells). PPD also decreases the levels of proteins related to cell proliferation. Moreover, PPD-induced apoptosis is characterized by a dose-dependent down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax, and is accompanied by the activation of Caspase-3 as well...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335482/improved-wallis-dodging-algorithm-for-large-scale-super-resolution-reconstruction-remote-sensing-images
#10
Chong Fan, Xushuai Chen, Lei Zhong, Min Zhou, Yun Shi, Yulin Duan
A sub-block algorithm is usually applied in the super-resolution (SR) reconstruction of images because of limitations in computer memory. However, the sub-block SR images can hardly achieve a seamless image mosaicking because of the uneven distribution of brightness and contrast among these sub-blocks. An effectively improved weighted Wallis dodging algorithm is proposed, aiming at the characteristic that SR reconstructed images are gray images with the same size and overlapping region. This algorithm can achieve consistency of image brightness and contrast...
March 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335360/super-hydrophobic-icephobic-coatings-based-on-silica-nanoparticles-modified-by-self-assembled-monolayers
#11
Junpeng Liu, Zaid A Janjua, Martin Roe, Fang Xu, Barbara Turnbull, Kwing-So Choi, Xianghui Hou
A super-hydrophobic surface has been obtained from nanocomposite materials based on silica nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (POTS) using spin coating and chemical vapor deposition methods. Scanning electron microscope images reveal the porous structure of the silica nanoparticles, which can trap small-scale air pockets. An average water contact angle of 163° and bouncing off of incoming water droplets suggest that a super-hydrophobic surface has been obtained based on the silica nanoparticles and POTS coating...
December 2, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335331/the-use-of-spray-dried-mn%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-c-composites-as-electrocatalysts-for-li-o%C3%A2-batteries
#12
Hong-Kai Yang, Chih-Chun Chin, Jenn-Shing Chen
The electrocatalytic activities of Mn₃O₄/C composites are studied in lithium-oxygen (Li-O₂) batteries as cathode catalysts. The Mn₃O₄/C composites are fabricated using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) with organic surfactants as the carbon sources. The physical and electrochemical performance of the composites is characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, elemental analysis, galvanostatic charge-discharge methods and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) measurements...
November 7, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335211/noise-removal-with-maintained-spatial-resolution-in-raman-images-of-cells-exposed-to-submicron-polystyrene-particles
#13
Linnea Ahlinder, Susanne Wiklund Lindström, Christian Lejon, Paul Geladi, Lars Österlund
The biodistribution of 300 nm polystyrene particles in A549 lung epithelial cells has been studied with confocal Raman spectroscopy. This is a label-free method in which particles and cells can be imaged without using dyes or fluorescent labels. The main drawback with Raman imaging is the comparatively low spatial resolution, which is aggravated in heterogeneous systems such as biological samples, which in addition often require long measurement times because of their weak Raman signal. Long measurement times may however induce laser-induced damage...
April 29, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335007/a-class-of-circadian-long-non-coding-rnas-mark-enhancers-modulating-long-range-circadian-gene-regulation
#14
Zenghua Fan, Meng Zhao, Parth D Joshi, Ping Li, Yan Zhang, Weimin Guo, Yichi Xu, Haifang Wang, Zhihu Zhao, Jun Yan
Circadian rhythm exerts its influence on animal physiology and behavior by regulating gene expression at various levels. Here we systematically explored circadian long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in mouse liver and examined their circadian regulation. We found that a significant proportion of circadian lncRNAs are expressed at enhancer regions, mostly bound by two key circadian transcription factors, BMAL1 and REV-ERBα. These circadian lncRNAs showed similar circadian phases with their nearby genes. The extent of their nuclear localization is higher than protein coding genes but less than enhancer RNAs...
March 8, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334928/functional-assessment-of-ctcf-sites-at-cytokine-sensing-mammary-enhancers-using-crispr-cas9-gene-editing-in-mice
#15
Hye Kyung Lee, Michaela Willi, Chaochen Wang, Chul Min Yang, Harold E Smith, Chengyu Liu, Lothar Hennighausen
The zinc finger protein CTCF has been invoked in establishing boundaries between genes, thereby controlling spatial and temporal enhancer activities. However, there is limited genetic evidence to support the concept that these boundaries restrict the search space of enhancers. We have addressed this question in the casein locus containing five mammary and two non-mammary genes under the control of at least seven putative enhancers. We have identified two CTCF binding sites flanking the locus and two associated with a super-enhancer...
March 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334083/susceptibility-of-seven-selected-tomato-cultivars-to-tuta-absoluta-lepidoptera-gelechiidae-implications-for-its-management
#16
Saeedeh Ghaderi, Yaghoub Fathipour, Shahriar Asgari
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious pest originating from South America that affects tomato production in many countries, particularly in Iran (since 2010). In this study, by using age-stage, two-sex life-table parameters, the resistance of seven tomato cultivars, namely, 'Primo Early', 'Rio Grande', 'Cal JN3', 'Petomech', 'Early Urbana Y', 'Super 2270', and 'Super Strain B' to T. absoluta, was evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h)...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333635/blind-facial-image-quality-enhancement-using-non-rigid-semantic-patches
#17
Ester Hait, Guy Gilboa
We propose a new way to solve a very general blind inverse problem of multiple simultaneous degradations such as blur, resolution reduction, noise and contrast changes, without explicitly estimating the degradation. The proposed concept is based on combining semantic non-rigid patches, problem-specific high quality prior data and non-rigid registration tools. We show how a significant quality enhancement can be achieved, both visually and quantitatively, in the case of facial images. The method is demonstrated on the problem of cellular photography quality enhancement of dark facial images for different identities, expressions and poses, and is compared to state-of-the-art denoising, deblurring, super-resolution and colorcorrection methods...
March 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333229/escherichia-coli-cattle-and-the-propagation-of-disease
#18
Richard A Stein, David E Katz
Several early models describing host-pathogen interaction have assumed that each individual host has approximately the same likelihood of becoming infected or of infecting others. More recently, a concept that has been increasingly emphasized in many studies is that for many infectious diseases, transmission is not homogeneous but highly skewed at the level of populations. In what became known as the "20/80 rule", about 20% of the hosts in a population were found to contribute to about 80% of the transmission potential...
March 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333166/effect-of-probe-diffusion-on-the-sofi-imaging-accuracy
#19
Wim Vandenberg, Peter Dedecker
Live-cell super-resolution fluorescence imaging is becoming commonplace for exploring biological systems, though sample dynamics can affect the imaging quality. In this work we evaluate the effect of probe diffusion on super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI), using a theoretical model and numerical simulations based on the imaging of live cells labelled with photochromic fluorescent proteins. We find that, over a range of physiological conditions, fluorophore diffusion results in a change in the amplitude of the SOFI signal...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332868/is-autoimmunology-a-discipline-of-its-own-a-big-data-based-bibliometric-and-scientometric-analyses
#20
Abdulla Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Shaye Kivity, Naim Mahroum, Miri Blank, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Autoimmunology is a super-specialty of immunology specifically dealing with autoimmune disorders. To assess the extant literature concerning autoimmune disorders, bibliometric and scientometric analyses (namely, research topics/keywords co-occurrence, journal co-citation, citations, and scientific output trends - both crude and normalized, authors network, leading authors, countries, and organizations analysis) were carried out using open-source software, namely, VOSviewer and SciCurve. A corpus of 169,519 articles containing the keyword "autoimmunity" was utilized, selecting PubMed/MEDLINE as bibliographic thesaurus...
March 23, 2017: Autoimmunity
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