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Didier Astruc, Christophe Deraedt, Rodrigue Djeda, Catia Ornelas, Xiang Liu, Amalia Rapakousiou, Jaime Ruiz, Yanlan Wang, Qi Wang
Dentromer s (from dentro, δεντρο: tree in Greek), and meros (μεροσ, in greek: part) are introduced as a family of dendrimers constructed according to successive divergent 1 → 3 branching. The smaller dentromers have 27 terminal branches. With alcohol termini they were originally named arborols by Newkome, who pioneered 1 → 3 constructions of dendrimers and dendrons. Giant dentromers have been constructed and decorated in particular with ferrocene and other redox active groups...
April 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hong-Mei Wang, Jian-Ming Zhou, Yao-Zhong Lv, Jun Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wen-Zhe Huang, Peng-Fei Tu, Wei Xiao
To observe the protective effect of Longxue Tongluo capsule (LTC) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EAhy.926 cells) injury induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, 100 mg·L⁻¹). The effect of the cell viability of LTCin alleviating OX-LDL-induced endothelial cell injury was determined by MTT and LDH assay. The effect of LTC on lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), nitric oxide (NO), super oxide dlsmutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were detected by corresponding assay kits according to manufacturer's instruction...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Yide Zhang, Prakash D Nallathamby, Genevieve D Vigil, Aamir A Khan, Devon E Mason, Joel D Boerckel, Ryan K Roeder, Scott S Howard
Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is an important tool in biomedical research for its ability to discern features smaller than the diffraction limit. However, due to its difficult implementation and high cost, the super-resolution microscopy is not feasible in many applications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a saturation-based super-resolution fluorescence microscopy technique that can be easily implemented and requires neither additional hardware nor complex post-processing. The method is based on the principle of stepwise optical saturation (SOS), where M steps of raw fluorescence images are linearly combined to generate an image with a [Formula: see text]-fold increase in resolution compared with conventional diffraction-limited images...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Keisuke Toda, Keisuke Isobe, Kana Namiki, Hiroyuki Kawano, Atsushi Miyawaki, Katsumi Midorikawa
Super-resolution microscopy has become a powerful tool for biological research. However, its spatial resolution and imaging depth are limited, largely due to background light. Interferometric temporal focusing (ITF) microscopy, which combines structured illumination microscopy and three-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy, can overcome these limitations. Here, we demonstrate ITF microscopy using three-photon excitation fluorescence, which has a spatial resolution of 106 nm at an imaging depth of 100 µm with an excitation wavelength of 1060 nm...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
P M Myrow, M P Lamb, R C Ewing
Earth's most severe climate changes occurred during global-scale snowball-Earth glaciations, which profoundly altered Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere. Extreme rates of glacio-eustatic sea-level rise are a fundamental prediction of the snowball Earth hypothesis, but supporting geologic evidence is lacking. We use paleohydraulic analysis of wave ripples and tidal laminae of the Elatina Formation, Australia - deposited following the Marinoan glaciation ca. 635Ma - to show that water depths of 9-16m remained nearly constant for ~100yrs throughout 27m of sediment accumulation...
April 19, 2018: Science
Ashesh Mahto, Anshu Kumar, Jai Prakash Chaudhary, Madhuri Bhatt, Atul Kumar Sharma, Parimal Paul, Sanna Kotrappanavar Nataraj, Ramavatar Meena
Here we demonstrate, a simple and solvent-free synthetic route for the production of FeS/Fe(0) functionalized graphene nanocomposite (G-Fe) via a one-step pyrolysis of seaweed biomass (Ulva fasciata). It is proposed that the natural abundance of both inorganic and organic sulfur in the seaweed induces the reduction of exfoliated graphitic sheets at elevated temperatures. FeCl3 was employed both as the iron precursor as well as the templating agent. Iron doping played a dual-faceted role of exfoliating as well as activating agent, producing composite with high adsorption capacity for Pb2+ (645 ± 10 mg/g), CR (970 mg/g), CV(909 mg/g), MO (664 mg/g), MB (402 mg/g) dyes and good recyclability (8 cycles)...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ingrid Chamma, Olivier Thoumine
Synaptic adhesion molecules not only provide a physical link between pre- and post-synaptic membranes, but also contribute to synaptic differentiation and plasticity by organizing functional elements, in particular neurotransmitter receptors. The wealth of existing adhesive protein families including many isoforms and splice variants, calls for systematic identification of the levels and exchange rates of each of those protein members at specific synapse types. Complementary to electron microscopy to identify individual synaptic contacts and biochemistry to reveal protein-protein interactions, recent super-resolution light microscopy methods combined with appropriate fluorescent labeling provide a way to measure the dynamics and sub-micron organization of selective molecular components, and their inter-relations at the synapse...
April 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Qinggong Tang, Tadanobu Nagaya, Yi Liu, Hannah Horng, Jonathan Lin, Kazuhide Sato, Hisataka Kobayashi, Yu Chen
As a novel low-side-effect cancer therapy, photo-immunotherapy (PIT) is based on conjugating monoclonal antibody (mAb) with a near-infrared (NIR) phthalocyanine dye IRDye700DX (IR 700). IR700 is not only fluorescent to be used as an imaging agent, but also phototoxic. When illuminating with NIR light, PIT can induce highly-selective cancer cell death while leaving most of tumor blood vessels unharmed, leading to an effect termed super-enhanced permeability and retention (SUPR), which can significantly improve the effectiveness of anti-cancer drug...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Manuel Pérez-Ruiz, Pilar Rallo, M Rocío Jiménez, Miguel Garrido-Izard, M Paz Suárez, Laura Casanova, Constantino Valero, Jorge Martínez-Guanter, Ana Morales-Sillero
New super-high-density (SHD) olive orchards designed for mechanical harvesting using over-the-row harvesters are becoming increasingly common around the world. Some studies regarding olive SHD harvesting have focused on the effective removal of the olive fruits; however, the energy applied to the canopy by the harvesting machine that can result in fruit damage, structural damage or extra stress on the trees has been little studied. Using conventional analyses, this study investigates the effects of different nominal speeds and beating frequencies on the removal efficiency and the potential for fruit damage, and it uses remote sensing to determine changes in the plant structures of two varieties of olive trees (‘Manzanilla Cacereña’ and ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’) planted in SHD orchards harvested by an over-the-row harvester...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
Zenghua Chang, Jiantao Wang, Zhaohui Wu, Min Gao, Shuaijin Wu, Shigang Lu
Silicon is a promising material for anodes in energy storage devices. However, excessive growth of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) caused by the severe volume change during the (de)lithiation processes lead to a dramatic capacity fading. Here we report a super-concentrated electrolyte composed of Lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) and propylene carbonate (PC) with a molar ratio of 1 to 2 to improve the cycling performance of silicon nano particles (SiNPs). The SiNP electrode shows a remarkably improved cycling performance with an initial delithiation capacity of ca...
April 19, 2018: ChemSusChem
Shi Yin, Xinge You, Xin Yang, Qinmu Peng, Ziqi Zhu, Xiao-Yuan Jing
PURPOSE: Low signal-to-noise-ratio and limited scan time of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) in current clinical settings impede obtaining images with high spatial and angular resolution (HSAR) for a reliable fiber reconstruction with fine anatomical details. To overcome this problem, we propose a joint space-angle regularization approach to reconstruct HSAR diffusion signals from a single 4D low resolution (LR) dMRI, which is down-sampled in both 3D-space and q-space. METHODS: Different from the existing works which combine multiple 4D LR diffusion images acquired using specific acquisition protocols, the proposed method reconstructs HSAR dMRI from only a single 4D dMRI by exploring and integrating two key priors, that is, the nonlocal self-similarity in the spatial domain as a prior to increase spatial resolution and ridgelet approximations in the diffusion domain as another prior to increase the angular resolution of dMRI...
April 19, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Mengfei Gao, Riccardo Maraspini, Oliver Beutel, Amin Zehtabian, Britta Eickholt, Alf Honigmann, Helge Ewers
Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy is routinely used to resolve the ultrastructure of cells with a ∼10-fold higher resolution compared to diffraction limited imaging. While STED microscopy is based on preparing the excited state of fluorescent probes with light, the recently developed expansion microscopy (ExM) provides subdiffraction resolution by physically enlarging the sample before microscopy. The expansion of the fixed cells by cross-linking and swelling of hydrogels easily enlarges the sample ∼4-fold and hence increases the effective optical resolution by this factor...
April 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Michaela Frolikova, Pavla Manaskova-Postlerova, Jiri Cerny, Jana Jankovicova, Ondrej Simonik, Alzbeta Pohlova, Petra Secova, Jana Antalikova, Katerina Dvorakova-Hortova
Proteins CD9 and CD81 are members of the tetraspanin superfamily and were detected in mammalian sperm, where they are suspected to form an active tetraspanin web and to participate in sperm⁻egg membrane fusion. The importance of these two proteins during the early stages of fertilization is supported by the complete sterility of CD9/CD81 double null female mice. In this study, the putative mechanism of CD9/CD81 involvement in tetraspanin web formation in sperm and its activity prior to fertilization was addressed...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gregory B McKenna
Rubber networks are important and form the basis for materials with properties ranging from rubber tires to super absorbents and contact lenses. The development of the entropy ideas of rubber deformation thermodynamics provides a powerful framework from which to understand and to use these materials. In addition, swelling of the rubber in the presence of small molecule liquids or solvents leads to materials that are very soft and 'gel' like in nature. The review covers the thermodynamics of polymer networks and gels from the perspective of the thermodynamics and mechanics of the strain energy density function...
April 19, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Tatjana Opacic, Stefanie Dencks, Benjamin Theek, Marion Piepenbrock, Dimitri Ackermann, Anne Rix, Twan Lammers, Elmar Stickeler, Stefan Delorme, Georg Schmitz, Fabian Kiessling
Super-resolution imaging methods promote tissue characterization beyond the spatial resolution limits of the devices and bridge the gap between histopathological analysis and non-invasive imaging. Here, we introduce motion model ultrasound localization microscopy (mULM) as an easily applicable and robust new tool to morphologically and functionally characterize fine vascular networks in tumors at super-resolution. In tumor-bearing mice and for the first time in patients, we demonstrate that within less than 1 min scan time mULM can be realized using conventional preclinical and clinical ultrasound devices...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
Robert Witte, Vardan Andriasyan, Fanny Georgi, Artur Yakimovich, Urs F Greber
Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding of virus–host interactions. Here, we provide an overview of recent technology for imaging cells and viruses by light microscopy, in particular fluorescence microscopy in static and live-cell modes. The review lays out guidelines for how novel fluorescent chemical probes and proteins can be used in light microscopy to illuminate cells, and how they can be used to study virus infections...
April 18, 2018: Viruses
Svetlana V Boriskina, Yoichiro Tsurimaki
Spectrally-tailored interactions of light with material interfaces offer many exciting applications in sensing, photo-detection, and optical energy conversion. In particular, complete suppression of light reflectance at select frequencies accompanied by sharp phase variations in the reflected signal forms the basis for the development of ultra-sensitive singular-phase optical detection schemes such as Brewster and surface plasmon interferometry. However, both the Brewster effect and surface-plasmon-mediated absorption on planar interfaces are limited to one polarization of the incident light and oblique excitation angles, and may have limited bandwidth dictated by the material dielectric index and plasma frequency...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Chiara Povolo, Alberto Foschini, Giovanni Ribaudo
Novel food, super food, wolfberry, the Himalayan longevity fruit. Several different and, even more, colourful names define the fruits of Lycium barbarum L., one of the most popular food supplements and anti-aging remedies of the recent years. Goji derivatives find application at the interface between food and medicine thanks to the claimed antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Aiming at identifying the most effective extraction protocol for processing different goji berries samples (fresh and dried, commercial and from an Italian cultivar), combinations of extractive and analytical techniques were attempted...
April 18, 2018: Natural Product Research
Bjørn Hofmann
New emerging biotechnologies, such as gene editing, vastly extend our ability to alter the human being. This comes together with strong aspirations to improve humans not only physically, but also mentally, morally, and socially. These conjoined ambitions aggregate to what can be labelled "the gene editing of super-ego." This article investigates a general way used to argue for new biotechnologies, such as gene-editing: if it is safe and efficacious to implement technology X for the purpose of a common good Y, why should we not do so? This is a rhetorical question with a conditional, and may be dismissed as such...
April 17, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Jianhui Wu, Qingdong Zeng, Qilin Wang, Shengjie Liu, Shizhou Yu, Jingmei Mu, Shuo Huang, Hanan Sela, Assaf Distelfeld, Lili Huang, Dejun Han, Zhensheng Kang
NGS-assisted super pooling emerging as powerful tool to accelerate gene mapping and haplotype association analysis within target region uncovering specific linkage SNPs or alleles for marker-assisted gene pyramiding. Conventional gene mapping methods to identify genes associated with important agronomic traits require significant amounts of financial support and time. Here, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based mapping approach, RNA-Seq and SNP array assisted super pooling analysis, was used for rapid mining of a candidate genomic region for stripe rust resistance gene Yr26 that has been widely used in wheat breeding programs in China...
April 17, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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