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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109619/obesity-and-heart-failure-focus-on-the-obesity-paradox
#1
REVIEW
Salvatore Carbone, Carl J Lavie, Ross Arena
The escalating prevalence of obesity has been linked to substantial increases in both metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Nevertheless, the direct effects of obesity on cardiovascular health and function require further exploration. In particular, the relationship between obesity and cardiac function has received intense scrutiny. Although obesity increases the risk for development of heart failure (HF), it appears to exert a protective effect in patients in whom HF has already been diagnosed (the "obesity paradox")...
January 5, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109422/improving-the-nutritional-impact-of-the-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-perspectives-from-the-participants
#2
Cindy W Leung, Aviva A Musicus, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm
INTRODUCTION: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is the largest federal food assistance program designed to alleviate food insecurity and improve dietary intake. This study assessed the opinions of SNAP participants and food-insufficient nonparticipants on their perceptions of the program and strategies to improve its nutritional impact. METHODS: This study surveyed 387 individuals via Amazon Mechanical Turk, of whom 118 were SNAP participants and 269 were food insufficient but not enrolled in SNAP (nonparticipants)...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109413/biobehavioral-factors-that-shape-nutrition-in-low-income-populations-a-narrative-review
#3
EDITORIAL
Barbara A Laraia, Tashara M Leak, June M Tester, Cindy W Leung
Although evidence exists for an association between income level and diet quality, a causal relationship has not been established. A number of studies found that the price of nutritious food and the time cost to prepare foods are economically driven reasons for this relationship. However, in addition to economic constraints, low-income individuals and families face a number of additional challenges linked with food choice, eating behaviors, and diet-related chronic conditions that contribute to diet quality and health...
February 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109272/opinions-about-the-new-law-on-end-of-life-issues-in-a-sample-of-french-patients-receiving-palliative-care
#4
Augustin Boulanger, Théo Chabal, Marie Fichaux, Mireille Destandau, Jean Marc La Piana, Pascal Auquier, Karine Baumstarck, Sébastien Salas
BACKGROUND: In February 2nd 2016, the French government enacted the Claeys-Leonetti law that forbade euthanasia and established the right to deep and continuous sedation for end-of-life patients. Moreover, the law also obliges clinicians to abide by any advance directives regarding treatment and investigation, except in cases where they are "obviously inappropriate" in a given medical situation, or in cases of emergency, in order to allow medical staff to take time to assess the patient's situation...
January 21, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107445/beta-glucans-supplementation-associates-with-reduction-in-p-cresyl-sulfate-levels-and-improved-endothelial-vascular-reactivity-in-healthy-individuals
#5
Carmela Cosola, Maria De Angelis, Maria Teresa Rocchetti, Eustacchio Montemurno, Valentina Maranzano, Giuseppe Dalfino, Carlo Manno, Annapaola Zito, Michele Gesualdo, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Marco Gobbetti, Loreto Gesualdo
BACKGROUND: Oat and barley beta-glucans are prebiotic fibers known for their cholesterol-lowering activity, but their action on the human gut microbiota metabolism is still under research. Although the induction of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) following their ingestion has previously been reported, no study has investigated their effects on proteolytic uremic toxins p-cresyl sulfate (pCS) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) levels, while others have failed to demonstrate an effect on the endothelial function measured through flow-mediated dilation (FMD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107380/novel-tools-in-determining-the-physiological-demands-and-nutritional-practices-of-ontario-firerangers-during-fire-deployments
#6
A H Robertson, C Larivière, C R Leduc, Z McGillis, T Eger, A Godwin, M Larivière, S C Dorman
INTRODUCTION: The seasonal profession of wildland fire fighting in Canada requires individuals to work in harsh environmental conditions that are physically demanding. The purpose of this study was to use novel technologies to evaluate the physiological demands and nutritional practices of Canadian FireRangers during fire deployments. METHODS: Participants (n = 21) from a northern Ontario Fire Base volunteered for this study and data collection occurred during the 2014 fire season and included Initial Attack (IA), Project Fire (P), and Fire Base (B) deployments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106512/endoglucanase-and-xylanase-production-by-bacillus-sp-ar03-in-co-culture-glycosyl-hydrolases-by-bacillus-sp-ar03-in-co-culture
#7
Johan S Hero, José H Pisa, Nora I Perotti, Cintia M Romero, María A Martínez
The behaviour of three isolates retrieved from different cellulolytic consortia, Bacillus sp. AR03, Paenibacillus sp. AR247 and Achromobacter sp. AR476-2, were examined individually and as co-cultures in order evaluate their ability to produce extracellular cellulases and xylanases. Utilizing a peptone-based medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), an increase estimated of 1.30 and 1.50 times was obtained by the co-culture containing the strains AR03 and AR247, with respect to enzyme titles registered by their individual cultivation...
January 20, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105733/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-sickle-cell-disease
#8
REVIEW
Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Adinegara Bl Abas, Nan Nitra Than, Han Ni, Jaspal Singh, Abdul Razzak Bin Mohd Said, Ifeyinwa Osunkwo
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is a genetic chronic haemolytic and pro-inflammatory disorder. The clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease result from the presence of mutations on the beta globin genes that generate an abnormal haemoglobin product (called haemoglobin S) within the red blood cell. Sickle cell disease can lead to many complications such as acute chest syndrome, stroke, acute and chronic bone complications (including painful vaso-occlusive crisis, osteomyelitis, osteonecrosis and osteoporosis)...
January 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104998/clinical-assessments-and-care-interventions-to-promote-oral-hydration-amongst-older-patients-a-narrative-systematic-review
#9
Lloyd L Oates, Christopher I Price
BACKGROUND: Older patients in hospital may be unable to maintain hydration by drinking, leading to intravenous fluid replacement, complications and a longer length of stay. We undertook a systematic review to describe clinical assessment tools which identify patients at risk of insufficient oral fluid intake and the impact of simple interventions to promote drinking, in hospital and care home settings. METHOD: MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases and two internet search engines (Google and Google Scholar) were examined...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104924/the-adaptive-nature-of-culture-a-cross-cultural-analysis-of-the-returns-of-local-environmental-knowledge-in-three-indigenous-societies
#10
Victoria Reyes-García, Maximilien Guèze, Isabel Díaz-Reviriego, Romain Duda, Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares, Sandrine Gallois, Lucentezza Napitupulu, Martí Orta-Martínez, Aili Pyhälä
Researchers have argued that the behavioral adaptations that explain the success of our species are partially cultural, i.e., cumulative and socially transmitted. Thus, understanding the adaptive nature of culture is crucial to understand human evolution. We use a cross-cultural framework and empirical data purposely collected to test whether culturally transmitted and individually appropriated knowledge provides individual returns in terms of hunting yields and health and, by extension, to nutritional status, a proxy for individual adaptive success...
December 2016: Current Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103960/knowing-your-genes-does-this-impact-behaviour-change
#11
Clare B O'Donovan, Marianne C Walsh, Michael J Gibney, Lorraine Brennan, Eileen R Gibney
It is postulated that knowledge of genotype may be more powerful than other types of personalised information in terms of motivating behaviour change. However, there is also a danger that disclosure of genetic risk may promote a fatalistic attitude and demotivate individuals. The original concept of personalised nutrition (PN) focused on genotype-based tailored dietary advice; however, PN can also be delivered based on assessment of dietary intake and phenotypic measures. Whilst dietitians currently provide PN advice based on diet and phenotype, genotype-based PN advice is not so readily available...
January 20, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103061/cardiometabolic-mortality-by-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-participation-and-eligibility-in-the-united-states
#12
Zach Conrad, Colin D Rehm, Parke Wilde, Dariush Mozaffarian
OBJECTIVES: To investigate total and cause-specific cardiometabolic mortality among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants, SNAP-eligible nonparticipants, and SNAP-ineligible individuals overall and by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and other characteristics. METHODS: We performed a prospective study with nationally representative survey data from the National Health Interview Survey (2000-2009), merged with subsequent Public-Use Linked Mortality Files (2000-2011)...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102495/pregnancy-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-nutritional-and-biochemical-aspects
#13
Jessica Cristina Gimenes, Carolina Ferreira Nicoletti, Marcela Augusta de Souza Pinhel, Bruno Affonso Parenti de Oliveira, Wilson Salgado Júnior, Júlio Sérgio Marchini, Carla Barbosa Nonino
INTRODUCTION: Although pregnancy after bariatric surgery is related to risk reduction, nutritional complications may occur. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and biochemical indicators of women who became pregnant after Roux en Y gastric bypass (RYGB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study with women who became pregnant after RYGB. We evaluated anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary intake indicators in the preoperative period and before, during, and after pregnancy by analysis of medical records...
January 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101619/-all-rounder-vitamin%C3%A2-d
#14
S Unholzer, A Rothmund, E Haen
BACKGROUND: Many indications are discussed for vitamin D substitution, such as osteoporosis, autoimmune diseases, cancer and psychiatric diseases. Also discussed is the fact that the majority of the German population suffer from a vitamin D deficiency. OBJECTIVE: Review of the study results for these individual diseases and a critical analysis of the currently established therapeutic reference range, which defines a vitamin D deficiency. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was carried out in the statements of the German Society for Nutrition, in scientific publications and journals...
January 18, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100920/within-country-variation-of-salt-intake-assessed-via-urinary-excretion-in-japan-a-multilevel-analysis-in-all-47-prefectures
#15
Ken Uechi, Keiko Asakura, Shizuko Masayasu, Satoshi Sasaki
Salt intake in Japan remains high; therefore, exploring within-country variation in salt intake and its cause is an important step in the establishment of salt reduction strategies. However, no nationwide evaluation of this variation has been conducted by urinalysis. We aimed to clarify whether within-country variation in salt intake exists in Japan after adjusting for individual characteristics. Healthy men (n=1027) and women (n=1046) aged 20-69 years were recruited from all 47 prefectures of Japan. Twenty-four-hour sodium excretion was estimated using three spot urine samples collected on three nonconsecutive days...
January 19, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100361/-the-relationship-between-nutritional-status-and-oxidative-stress-markers-pulmonary-function-in-patients-with-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
X L Jiang, P Zhong, C L Huang, F He, X M Fan, X R Chen
Objective: To investigate the association between the nutritional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the levels of serum oxidative stress markers protein carbonyls (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and pulmonary function. Methods: 200 patients with stable COPD (the COPD group) and 100 healthy individuals (the control group) who visited during June 2014 and August 2014 were enrolled in our study. The levels of PC, MDA, 8-OHdG and TAC in serum were detected...
January 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100316/optimizing-nutrition-of-the-preterm-infant
#17
William W Jr Hay
The goal of nutrition of the preterm infant is to meet the growth rate of the healthy fetus of the same gestational age and to produce the same body composition of the healthy fetus in terms of organ growth, tissue components, and cell number and structure. Nutritional quantity and quality are fundamental for normal growth and development of preterm infants, including neurodevelopmental outcomes. Failure to provide the necessary amounts of all of the essential nutrients has produced not only growth failure, but also increased morbidity and less than optimal neurodevelopment...
January 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100170/interaction-between-acyl-ghrelin-and-bmi-predicts-clinical-outcomes-in-hemodialysis-patients
#18
Ilia Beberashvili, Inna Sinuani, Ada Azar, Gregory Shapiro, Leonid Feldman, Keren Doenyas-Barak, Kobi Stav, Shai Efrati
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin, a gastric orexigenic peptide, and body mass index (BMI) are known as inversely associated to each other and are both linked to cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, it is unclear whether the interaction between ghrelin and BMI is associated with a risk of all-cause and CV death in this population. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed on 261 MHD outpatients (39% women, mean age 68...
January 18, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099773/comparison-of-green-and-albino-individuals-of-the-partially-mycoheterotrophic-orchid-epipactis-helleborine-on-molecular-identities-of-mycorrhizal-fungi-nutritional-modes-and-gene-expression-in-mycorrhizal-roots
#19
Kenji Suetsugu, Masahide Yamato, Chihiro Miura, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Kazuya Takahashi, Yoshiko Ida, Shuji Shigenobu, Hironori Kaminaka
Some green orchids obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi, as well as from photosynthesis. These partially mycoheterotrophic orchids sometimes produce fully achlorophyllous, leaf-bearing (albino) variants. Comparing green and albino individuals of these orchids will help to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with mycoheterotrophy. We compared green and albino Epipactis helleborine by molecular barcoding of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient sources based on (15) N and (13) C abundances, and gene expression in their mycorrhizae by RNA-seq and cDNA de novo assembly...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097614/comprehensive-and-medically-appropriate-food-support-is-associated-with-improved-hiv-and-diabetes-health
#20
Kartika Palar, Tessa Napoles, Lee L Hufstedler, Hilary Seligman, Fredrick M Hecht, Kimberly Madsen, Mark Ryle, Simon Pitchford, Edward A Frongillo, Sheri D Weiser
Food insecurity is associated with negative chronic health outcomes, yet few studies have examined how providing medically appropriate food assistance to food-insecure individuals may improve health outcomes in resource-rich settings. We evaluated a community-based food support intervention in the San Francisco Bay Area for people living with HIV and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential impact of the intervention on nutritional, mental health, disease management, healthcare utilization, and physical health outcomes...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
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