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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548972/assessment-of-adult-malnutrition-and-prognosis-with-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-phase-angle-and-impedance-ratio
#1
Henry C Lukaski, Ursula G Kyle, Jens Kondrup
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Malnutrition affects prognosis in many groups of patients. Although screening tools are available to identify adults at risk for poor nutritional status, a need exists to improve the assessment of malnutrition by identifying the loss of functional tissues that can lead to frailty, compromised physical function, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly among hospitalized and ill patients and older adults. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) offers a practical approach to identify malnutrition and prognosis by assessing whole-body cell membrane quality and depicting fluid distribution for an individual...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547793/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-normal-and-abnormal-swallowing-in-oropharyngeal-dysphagia
#2
REVIEW
A Sasegbon, S Hamdy
BACKGROUND: Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus...
May 25, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545734/cup-to-disc-ratio-asymmetry-in-u-s-adults-prevalence-and-association-with-glaucoma-in-the-2005-2008-national-health-and-nutrition-examination%C3%A2-survey
#3
Mary Qiu, Michael V Boland, Pradeep Y Ramulu
PURPOSE: To describe the prevalence of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (vCDR) asymmetry in U.S. adults and assess the utility of vCDR asymmetry in the diagnosis of glaucoma. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5359 subjects aged ≥40 years from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). METHODS: Subjects completed retinal photography and had vCDR determined in both eyes, with vCDR asymmetry calculated as the absolute value of the difference between the 2 eyes...
May 22, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545589/gastrointestinal-tolerance-of-low-fodmap-oral-nutrition-supplements-in-healthy-human-subjects-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Jennifer Erickson, Renee Korczak, Qi Wang, Joanne Slavin
BACKGROUND: There has been increasing interest in utilizing a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a functional gastrointestinal disease. While studies have indicated that this diet can be effective at symptom reduction, it is a restrictive diet and patients may find it challenging to find low FODMAP products to meet their nutrient needs. The primary objective of this study was to assess the gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance of three low FODMAP oral nutrition supplements (ONS) in healthy adults...
May 25, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544235/absence-of-juvenile-hormone-signalling-regulates-the-dynamic-expression-profiles-of-nutritional-metabolism-genes-during-diapause-preparation-in-the-cabbage-beetle-colaphellus-bowringi
#5
W Liu, Q-Q Tan, L Zhu, Y Li, F Zhu, C-L Lei, X-P Wang
Temperate insects have evolved diapause, a period of programmed developmental arrest during specific life stages, to survive unfavourable conditions. During the diapause preparation phase (DPP), diapause-destined individuals generally store large amounts of fat by regulating nutrition distribution for the energy requirement during diapause maintenance and postdiapause development. Although nutritional patterns during the DPP have been investigated at physiological and biochemical levels in many insects, it remains largely unknown how nutritional metabolism is regulated during the DPP at molecular levels...
May 20, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544064/obesity-is-inversely-related-to-the-risks-of-dental-caries-in-korean-adults
#6
In-Seok Song, Kyungdo Han, Jae-Jun Ryu, Jun-Beom Park
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether obesity is linked with dental caries. The present study hypothesized that obesity may influence the number or prevalence of dental caries in Korean adults. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data was derived from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey performed at 2008-2010. Lifestyle, sociodemographic, and biochemical variables were analyzed. Indices related with obesity, sarcopenia, and metabolic syndrome were investigated...
May 20, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542740/plasma-micrornas-as-biomarkers-of-pancreatic-cancer-risk-in-a-prospective-cohort-study
#7
Eric J Duell, Leila Lujan-Barroso, Núria Sala, Samantha Deitz McElyea, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjonneland, Anja Olsen, Elisabete Weiderpass, Lill-Tove Busund, Line Moi, David Muller, Paolo Vineis, Dagfinn Aune, Giuseppe Matullo, Alessio Naccarati, Salvatore Panico, Giovanna Tagliabue, Rosario Tumino, Domenico Palli, Rudolf Kaaks, Verena A Katzke, Heiner Boeing, H B As Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H Peeters, Antonia Trichopoulou, Pagona Lagiou, Anastasia Kotanidou, Ruth C Travis, Nick Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Jose Ramon Quiros, Miguel Rodríguez-Barranco, Miren Dorronsoro, María-Dolores Chirlaque, Eva Ardanaz, Gianluca Severi, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Vinciane Rebours, Paul Brennan, Marc Gunter, Ghislaine Scelo, Greg Cote, Stuart Sherman, Murray Korc
Non-invasive biomarkers for early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) diagnosis and disease risk stratification are greatly needed. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate pre-diagnostic microRNAs (miRs) as biomarkers of subsequent PDAC risk. A panel of eight miRs (miR-10a, -10b, -21-3p, -21-5p, -30c, -106b, -155, and -212) based on previous evidence from our group was evaluated in 225 microscopically confirmed PDAC cases and 225 controls matched on center, sex, fasting status, and age/date/time of blood collection...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542615/taking-dietary-habits-into-account-a-computational-method-for-modeling-food-choices-that-goes-beyond-price
#8
Rahmatollah Beheshti, Jessica C Jones-Smith, Takeru Igusa
Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542557/sex-differences-in-hypertension-prevalence-and-control-analysis-of-the-2010-2014-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey
#9
Hayon Michelle Choi, Hyeon Chang Kim, Dae Ryong Kang
Although not fully understood, sex may affect both the prevalence and control rate of hypertension. The present study was designed to investigate factors associated with hypertension prevalence and control among Korean adults. We analyzed 27,887 individuals (12,089 males and 15,798 females) aged 30 years or older who participated in the fifth (2010-2012) and sixth (2013-2014) Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to delineate factors associated with the prevalence and control of hypertension separately for men and women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542317/systematic-review-of-dietary-salt-reduction-policies-evidence-for-an-effectiveness-hierarchy
#10
Lirije Hyseni, Alex Elliot-Green, Ffion Lloyd-Williams, Chris Kypridemos, Martin O'Flaherty, Rory McGill, Lois Orton, Helen Bromley, Francesco P Cappuccio, Simon Capewell
BACKGROUND: Non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention strategies now prioritise four major risk factors: food, tobacco, alcohol and physical activity. Dietary salt intake remains much higher than recommended, increasing blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and stomach cancer. Substantial reductions in salt intake are therefore urgently needed. However, the debate continues about the most effective approaches. To inform future prevention programmes, we systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of possible salt reduction interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541582/definition-of-a-tolerable-upper-intake-level-of-niacin-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-dose-dependent-effects-of-nicotinamide-and-nicotinic-acid-supplementation
#11
Clara Minto, Maria Gabriella Vecchio, Manfred Lamprecht, Dario Gregori
Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are soluble compounds of the vitamin B group, widely used to regulate the lipid profile in hyperlipidemic individuals. Higher doses of nicotinic acid are associated with adverse effects, especially flushing. A unique tolerable upper intake level (UL) of nicotinic acid has not been defined. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate adverse effects and their incidence after supplementation with different doses of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, comparing results with current ULs in Europe and the United States...
May 25, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541460/seminal-plasma-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-interferon-%C3%AE-ifng-and-c-x-c-motif-chemokine-ligand-8-cxcl8-fluctuate-over-time-within-men
#12
David J Sharkey, Kelton P Tremellen, Nancy E Briggs, Gustaaf A Dekker, Sarah A Robertson
STUDY QUESTION: Do seminal plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFNG) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) vary within individual men over time? SUMMARY ANSWER: IFNG exhibits substantial variation that is independent of duration of abstinence but correlates with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content, while CXCL8 varies moderately in association with duration of abstinence. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNG and CXCL8 in seminal fluid can adversely impact male and female fertility...
May 25, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541435/lessons-from-singapore-s-national-weight-management-program-lose-to-win
#13
Kathryn Vasquez, Rahul Malhotra, Truls Østbye, Wilson Low, Mei Fen Chan, Ling Chew, Annie Ling
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Singapore is lower than in most countries, but it is increasing. There is evidence health complications may appear at lower weights among Asians. We describe the evolution of a national weight management program [Lose To Win (LTW)] organized by the Singapore Health Promotion Board from 2009 to 2013. LTW is a 12-week program comprising nutrition education, physical activity and mental wellbeing sessions and interim assessments. Individuals aged 18-69 years with a body mass index (BMI) between 23 and 37...
May 24, 2017: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541262/joint-espghan-naspghan-guidelines-for-the-management-of-helicobacter-pylori-in-children-and-adolescents-update-2016
#14
Nicola L Jones, Sibylle Koletzko, Karen Goodman, Patrick Bontems, Samy Cadranel, Thomas Casswall, Steve Czinn, Benjamin D Gold, Jeannette Guarner, Yoram Elitsur, Matjaž Homan, Nicolas Kalach, Michal Kori, Armando Madrazo, Francis Megraud, Alexandra Papadopoulou, Marion Rowland
BACKGROUND: Because of the changing epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection and low efficacy of currently recommended therapies, an update of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition/North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition recommendations for the diagnosis and management of H pylori infection in children and adolescents is required. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature (time period: 2009-2014) was performed...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539379/the-effect-of-nutrition-training-for-health-care-staff-on-learner-and-patient-outcomes-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Owen Marples, Christine Baldwin, C Elizabeth Weekes
Background: Nutrition training for health care staff has been prioritized internationally as a key means of tackling malnutrition; however, there is a lack of clear evidence to support its implementation. Systematic reviews in other fields of training for health care staff indicate that training strategies may have a beneficial impact on learner and patient outcomes.Objectives: We assessed whether nutrition training for health care staff caring for nutritionally vulnerable adults resulted in improved learner and patient outcomes and evaluated the effectiveness of different training strategies...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539258/dietary-approaches-to-stop-hypertension-diet-weight-status-and-blood-pressure-among-children-and-adolescents-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-surveys-2003-2012
#16
Juliana F W Cohen, Megan E Lehnerd, Robert F Houser, Eric B Rimm
BACKGROUND: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is associated with lower blood pressure and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease among adults, but little is known about accordance with this dietary pattern or health benefits among children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to evaluate accordance with the DASH diet, differences over time, and the association with health attributes among a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents...
May 20, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538964/effect-of-a-modified-hospital-elder-life-program-on-delirium-and-length-of-hospital-stay-in-patients-undergoing-abdominal-surgery-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Cheryl Chia-Hui Chen, Hsiu-Ching Li, Jin-Tung Liang, I-Rue Lai, Jerry Dwi Trijoyo Purnomo, Yi-Ting Yang, Been-Ren Lin, John Huang, Ching-Yao Yang, Yu-Wen Tien, Chiung-Nien Chen, Ming-Tsan Lin, Guan-Hua Huang, Sharon K Inouye
Importance: Older patients undergoing abdominal surgery commonly experience preventable delirium, which extends their hospital length of stay (LOS). Objective: To examine whether a modified Hospital Elder Life Program (mHELP) reduces incident delirium and LOS in older patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cluster randomized clinical trial of 577 eligible patients enrolled 377 older patients (≥65 years of age) undergoing gastrectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy, and colectomy at a 2000-bed urban medical center in Taipei, Taiwan, from August 1, 2009, through October 31, 2012...
May 24, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537579/developmental-origins-of-diabetes-an-indian-perspective
#18
REVIEW
G V Krishnaveni, C S Yajnik
The developmental origins of health disease (DOHaD) hypothesis proposes that altered environmental influences (nutrition, metabolism, pollutants, stress and so on) during critical stages of fetal growth predisposes individuals to diabetes and other non-communicable disease in later life. This phenomenon is thought to reflect permanent effects ('programming') of unbalanced fetal development on physiological systems. Intrauterine programming may underlie the characteristic Indian 'thin-fat' phenotype and the current unprecedented epidemic of diabetes on the backdrop of multigenerational maternal undernutrition in the country...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537563/anastomotic-leaks-in-gastrointestinal-surgery-and-their-prevention
#19
Tomasz Banasiewicz, Adam Dziki, Paweł Lampe, Zbigniew Lorenc, Marek Szczepkowski, Jacek Zieliński, Grzegorz Wallner
Anastomotic leak in the gastrointestinal tract is one of the most important complications of resection. They are the main cause of reoperation, their occurrence worsens the prognosis of the patient, increasing the proportion of direct mortality, as well as being a significant risk factor for recurrence of cancer. The risk of leaks within the gastrointestinal tract is greatly varied, depending on the location and extent of the resection, but also on patient, disease or a surgical procedure, including surgeon...
April 30, 2017: Polski Przeglad Chirurgiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537512/do-patients-with-a-baseline-clinical-condition-warranting-the-cautious-use-of-parenteral-nutrition-develop-subsequent-metabolic-complications
#20
Diana M Solomon, James M Hollands, Laura A Siemianowski, Colleen E Smith, Richard J Song, Angela L Bingham
BACKGROUND: The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Adult Nutrition Support Core Curriculum describes clinical conditions that warrant cautious use of parenteral nutrition (CCWCPN). The Core Curriculum authors acknowledge there is no evidence for specific criteria suggested for the clinical conditions. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a baseline CCWCPN on the development of subsequent metabolic complications in patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN)...
June 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
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