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Cancer related infections

Milan Kral, Jaroslav Michalek, Jozef Skarda, Tomas Tichy, Oldrich Smakal, Roman Kodet, Vladimir Student
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer is relatively common in adults. In children, it is extremely rare and in the majority of cases, low grade, low stage urothelial cancers are found. CASE REPORT: We describe the diagnostic, therapeutic, and follow-up management of bladder cancer in a 3-year-old boy examined for painless hematuria. Transurethral resection of the tumor was performed and T1 high grade urothelial cancer with osseous metaplasia was found in definitive specimens...
October 3, 2016: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Mine Düzgöl, Gülcihan Özek, Nuri Bayram, Yeşim Oymak, Ahu Kara, Bengü Demirağ, Tuba Hilkay Karapınar, Yılmaz Ay, Canan Vergin, İlker Devrim
Primary Varicella Zoster Virus infection is a benign self-limited disease. In this study, we aimed to review our experience with focusing on the outcome and treatment of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection in pediatric malignancy patients. During the study period; a total of 41 patients with pediatric malignancy had been hospitalized with the diagnosis of VZV infection. All the patients were treated with intravenous acyclovir for a median of 7 days (ranging from 5 to 21 days). The calculated attributable delay of chemotherapy due to VZV infections was 8 days (ranging from 2 to 60 days)...
October 18, 2016: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
Norihisa Yada, Toshiharu Sakurai, Tomohiro Minami, Tadaaki Arizumi, Masahiro Takita, Satoru Hagiwara, Hiroshi Ida, Kazuomi Ueshima, Naoshi Nishida, Masatoshi Kudo
OBJECTIVE: We have reported about real-time tissue elastography (RTE), which displays relative strain by measuring the relative distortion of the tissue, and found this information to be useful for diagnosing liver fibrosis. However, its use in predicting hepatocellular carcinoma has not been reported as yet. Here, we investigated RTE to predict liver carcinogenesis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: We enrolled 160 patients with chronic HCV, who were followed up for 39...
2016: Digestive Diseases
Michele Limoges-Gonzalez, Amar Al-Juburi
Anal squamous cell cancer (SCC) is a relatively uncommon cancer in the United States. Anal SCC has long been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity and/or men who have sex with men. The incidence of anal SCC has been increasing in both genders regardless of HIV status. Few clinicians are aware that white women, when not controlling for gender and sexual preference together, have the highest incidence of anal SCC. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN), dysplastic cells of the anal canal due to human papilloma virus infection, is believed to be the precursor to anal SCC...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Prosenjit Paul, Himangshu Deka, Arup K Malakar, Binata Halder, Supriyo Chakraborty
Among all cancers, the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is quite high in the endemic regions. NPC is a head and neck cancer with poor survival rate, and is rare throughout most of the world but common in certain geographic areas, like southern Asia and some regions of North East India (Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram). A clear understanding of its etiology is still lacking, but NPC is widely suspected to be the result of both genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental factors or Epstein-Barr virus infection...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Charles Béguelin, Darius Moradpour, Roland Sahli, Franziska Suter-Riniker, Alexander Lüthi, Matthias Cavassini, Huldrych F Günthard, Manuel Battegay, Enos Bernasconi, Patrick Schmid, Alexandra Calmy, Dominique Braun, Hansjakob Furrer, Andri Rauch, Gilles Wandeler
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection accelerates the progression of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. We assessed the epidemiological characteristics of HDV infection in the nationwide Swiss HIV Cohort Study and evaluated its impact on clinical outcomes. METHODS: All HIV-infected patients with a positive HBsAg test were considered and tested for anti-HDV antibodies. HDV amplification and sequencing were performed in anti-HDV-positive patients...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Chun Chieh Lin, Jan Willem W Coebergh, Ahmedin Jemal
INTRODUCTION: In the U.S., people of different races/ethnicities have differences in cancer incidence, mortality, survival, stage at diagnosis, and receipt of treatment, resulting in variances in cancer burden. The burden of cancer in 2011 was assessed by race/ethnicity for 24 cancers using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). METHODS: In 2014-2015, DALYs and their two components were estimated (years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability) by race/ethnicity using population-based cancer registry data collected in 2013, vital statistics, and literature reviews...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Dong Xue, Cuixing Zhou, Hao Lu, Renfang Xu, Xianlin Xu, Xiaozhou He
In prior research, evidence has been found for a relation between low exposure of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and prostate tumor genesis. This study aims to clarify the underlying mechanisms of lncRNA GAS5 in prostate cancer (PCa). In total, 118 pairs of PCa tissues and matched adjacent non-tumor tissues were collected. Additionally, lncRNA GAS5 exposure levels were determined using RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. In addition, dual-luciferase report assay was performed to verify the target effect of lncRNA GAS5 on miR-103...
October 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Jing Wu, Qian Li, Nina Wang, Hong Wei, Chao Li, Guibin Yang
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs, targeting mRNAs of cancer-associated genes, are often aberrantly expressed in human gastric cancer (GC). AIM: We have examined the possible role and mechanisms of miRNA regulation of Prdx-6 in the development and progression of H. pylori-related gastric mucosal lesions. METHODS: First, miR-24-3p was predicted to target Prdx-6, and this negative regulation was validated by luciferase reporter analyses, Western blot, and quantitative RT-PCR...
October 14, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Shu-Chi Wang, Jeng-Fu Yang, Chao-Ling Wang, Chung-Feng Huang, Yu-Yin Lin, Yi-You Chen, Chung-Ting Lo, Po-Yen Lee, Kuan-Ta Wu, Chia-I Lin, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Hung-Yi Chuang, Chi-Kung Ho, Ming-Lung Yu, Chia-Yen Dai
Chronic infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite the clear clinical importance of virus-associated HCC, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclarified. Oxidative stress, in particular, DNA lesions associated with oxidative damage, plays a major role in carcinogenesis, and is strongly linked to the development of many cancers, including HCC. However, in identifying hepatocytes with HCV viral RNA, estimates of the median proportion of HCV-infected hepatocytes have been found as high as 40% in patients with chronic HCV infection...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Ajay Gupta, Siddhartha Baxi, Christopher Hoyne
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive oncology services have recently been introduced in the Northern Territory (NT) enabling delivery of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSC). The purpose of this study is to assess feasibility, compliance and toxicity of CCRT in remote Australia. METHODS: Chart review was conducted for all patients >18 years, with biopsy-proven LAHNSC, receiving curative intent CCRT between January 2010 and September 2012...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Elias Jabbour, Stefan Faderl, Koji Sasaki, Tapan Kadia, Naval Daver, Naveen Pemmaraju, Keyur Patel, Joseph D Khoury, Carlos Bueso-Ramos, Zachary Bohannan, Farhad Ravandi, Gautam Borthakur, Srdan Verstovsek, Darla Miller, Rita Maduike, Chitra Hosing, Hagop M Kantarjian, Guillermo Garcia-Manero
BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) after hypomethylating agent (HMA) failure is poor. This study evaluated the safety and activity of a combination of low-dose clofarabine and cytarabine for these patients. METHODS: Seventy patients with higher risk MDS who had no response, progressed, or relapsed after at least 4 cycles of HMA therapy were treated. RESULTS: The median age was 72 years. Thirty-nine percent of the patients had high-risk disease according to the International Prognostic Scoring System, and 50% of the patients had poor-risk cytogenetics...
October 14, 2016: Cancer
Nurdan Tözün, Eser Vardareli
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. These cancers are the end result of a complex interplay between gene and environment. Bacteria, parasites, and viruses have been implicated in some cancers. Recent data have put at focus the gut microbiome as the key player firing tumorigenesis. Experimental and human studies have provided evidence on the role of microbiota in cancer development. Although subject to changes in different settings such as antibiotic treatment, diet or lifestyle, our microbiome is quite stable and is capable of increasing susceptibility to cancer or decrease and halt its progression...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Xing-Quan Wang, Feng-Peng Wang, Wei Chen, Jun Huang, Kateryna Bazaka, Kostya Ken Ostrikov
Schistosoma japonicum is a widespread human and animal parasite that causes intestinal and hepatosplenic schistosomiasis linked to colon, liver and bladder cancers, and anemia. Estimated 230 million people are currently infected with Schistosoma spp, with 779 million people at risk of contracting the parasite. Infection occurs when a host comes into contact with cercariae, a planktonic larval stage of the parasite, and can be prevented by inactivating the larvae, commonly by chemical treatment. We investigated the use of physical non-equilibrium plasma generated at atmospheric pressure using custom-made dielectric barrier discharge reactor to kill S...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
V Maňásek, K Bezděk, A Foltys, K Klos, J Smitka, D Smehlik
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high protein oral nutrition support (ONS) on clinical outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The secondary aim was to compare the cost of treatment and length of stay (LoS) for CRC patients taking high protein ONS vs. patients on conventional nutritional support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on adult patients with CRC undergoing colorectal surgery. Informed consent was obtained before the study...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Lin Li, Xiaotian Qi, Weili Sun, Hisham Abdel-Azim, Siyue Lou, Hong Zhu, Nemani V Prasadarao, Alice Zhou, Hiroyuki Shimada, Koichi Shudo, Yong-Mi Kim, Sajad Khazal, Qiaojun He, David Warburton, Lingtao Wu
Neutrophils generated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) are functionally immature and, consequently, cannot effectively reduce infection and infection-related mortality in cancer chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (CCIN). Am80, a retinoic acid (RA) agonist that enhances granulocytic differentiation by selectively activating transcription factor RA receptor alpha (RARα), alternatively promotes RA-target gene expression. We found that in normal and malignant primary human hematopoietic specimens, Am80-GCSF combination coordinated proliferation with differentiation to develop complement receptor-3 (CR3)-dependent neutrophil innate immunity, through altering transcription of RA-target genes RARβ2, C/EBPε, CD66, CD11b, and CD18 This led to generation of functional neutrophils capable of fighting infection, whereas neutralizing neutrophil innate immunity with anti-CD18 antibody abolished neutrophil bactericidal activities induced by Am80-GCSF Further, Am80-GCSF synergy was evaluated using six different dose-schedule-infection mouse CCIN models...
October 13, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Joël Ladner, Marie-Hélène Besson, Etienne Audureau, Mariana Rodrigues, Joseph Saba
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the greatest cause of age-weighted years of life lost in the developing world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with a high proportion of cervical cancers, and HPV vaccination may help to reduce the incidence of cancer. The aim of the study was to identify barriers, obstacles, and strategies and to analyze key concerns and lessons learned with respect to the implementation of HPV vaccination program in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The Gardasil Access Program (GAP) is a donation program established to enable organizations and institutions in eligible low-resource countries to gain operational experience designing and implementing HPV vaccination programs...
October 13, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Miyeon Cho, Seok Won Jung, Soomin Lee, Kuwon Son, Gyu Hwan Park, Jong-Wha Jung, Yu Su Shin, Taegun Seo, Hyosun Cho, Hyojeung Kang
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a Gammaherpesvirus that causes acute infection and establishes life-long latency. KSHV causes several human cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genipin, an aglycone derived from geniposide found in Gardenia jasminoides, is known to be an excellent natural cross-linker, strong apoptosis inducer, and antiviral agent. Although evidence suggests antiviral activity of genipin in several in vitro viral infection systems, no inhibitory effect of genipin on KSHV infection has been reported...
2016: PloS One
P Morbini, M Benazzo
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is a well-defined entity mostly affecting young to middle-aged male non-smokers. It is generally associated with a favourable outcome, and for this reason a less intensive therapeutic approach has been proposed for this subset of patients. The incidence of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancers is rapidly increasing in most Western countries, but detailed epidemiological data are not available for the Italian population. Furthermore, among other head and neck regions, a smaller proportion of oral high-grade dysplasia and cancers seems to depend on HPV infection, whereas its role in laryngeal cancer is recognised as less relevant...
August 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Iain Welsby, Stanislas Goriely
Interleukin (IL)-23 plays a central role in the orchestration of inflammatory responses. Produced by dendritic cells and macrophages, this cytokine promotes the protection of the host against mucosal pathogens through the induction of IL-17 and related cytokines by lymphoid cells. Preclinical disease models and association studies in humans have also clearly demonstrated the implication of IL-23 signalling pathway in inflammatory diseases. Indeed, this cytokine is now considered as a major therapeutic target in immune-based pathologies such as psoriasis, ankylosing spondylitis or Crohn's disease...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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