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Megan G Davey, Matthew Towers, Neil Vargesson, Cheryll Tickle
The chick embryo has a long history in investigations of vertebrate limb development because of the ease with which its limbs can be experimentally manipulated. Early studies elucidated the fundamental embryology of the limb and identified the key signalling regions that govern its development. The chick limb became a leading model for exploring the concept of positional information and understanding how patterns of differentiated cells and tissues develop in vertebrate embryos. When developmentally important molecules began to be identified, experiments in chick limbs were crucial for bridging embryology and molecular biology...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
John Soghigian, Gale E Ridge, Kirby C Stafford, Goudarz Molaei
Ixodes scapularis Say 1821, the primary vector of several human pathogens in the northeastern and upper Midwestern United States, has considerable genetic and morphological variation throughout its range. Recently, developmental or teratological abnormalities have been observed in this species for the first time, further complicating morphological identification. Here, we report the first evidence of nanism (dwarfism) in I. scapularis, found parasitizing a human host. We used molecular methods and scanning electron microscopy to identify the specimen...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
Emily W Y Tung, Alice Kawata, Marc Rigden, Wayne J Bowers, Don Caldwell, Alison C Holloway, Bernard Robaire, Barbara F Hales, Michael G Wade
BACKGROUND: Developmental exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), has been associated with impaired neurodevelopment and some symptoms of metabolic syndrome. However, there are inconsistencies in studies reporting neurodevelopmental effects with studies of pure substances more likely to report effects than studies of technical products. In addition, the influence of early BFR exposures on later development of metabolic disease-like symptoms has not been investigated...
April 17, 2017: Birth Defects Research
Maxwell C K Leung, Andrew C Procter, Jared V Goldstone, Jonathan Foox, Robert DeSalle, Carolyn J Mattingly, Mark E Siddall, Alicia R Timme-Laragy
Evolutionary thinking continues to challenge our views on health and disease. Yet, there is a communication gap between evolutionary biologists and toxicologists in recognizing the connections among developmental pathways, high-throughput screening, and birth defects in humans. To increase our capability in identifying potential developmental toxicants in humans, we propose to apply evolutionary genetics to improve the experimental design and data interpretation with various in vitro and whole-organism models...
April 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
Bethany A Stokes, Julia A Sabatino, Irene E Zohn
BACKGROUND: Periconception maternal nutrition and folate in particular are important factors influencing the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). Many but not all NTDs are prevented by folic acid supplementation and there is a pressing need for additional strategies to prevent these birth defects. Other micronutrients such as iron are potential candidates, yet a clear role for iron deficiency in contributing to NTDs is lacking. Our previous studies with the flatiron (ffe) mouse model of Ferroportin1 (Fpn1) deficiency suggest that iron is required for neural tube closure and forebrain development raising the possibility that iron supplementation could prevent NTDs...
January 30, 2017: Birth Defects Research
Edwin Trevathan
The current surveillance systems for congenital microcephaly are necessary to monitor the impact of Zika virus (ZIKV) on the developing human brain, as well as the ZIKV prevention efforts. However, these congenital microcephaly surveillance systems are insufficient. Abnormalities of neuronal differentiation, development and migration may occur among infants with normal head circumference who have intrauterine exposure to ZIKV. Therefore, surveillance for congenital microcephaly does not ascertain many of the infants seriously impacted by congenital ZIKV infection...
November 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Julia A Sabatino, Bethany A Stokes, Irene E Zohn
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common structural birth defects in humans and are caused by the complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent NTDs in both mouse models and human populations. A better understanding of how genes and environmental factors interact is critical toward development of rational strategies to prevent NTDs. Low density lipoprotein-related protein 2 (Lrp2) is involved in endocytosis of the folic acid receptor among numerous other nutrients and ligands...
January 20, 2017: Birth Defects Research
Maitreyi Mazumdar
BACKGROUND: Neural tube defects are debilitating birth defects that occur when the developing neural plate fails to close in early gestation. Arsenic induces neural tube defects in animal models, but whether environmental arsenic exposure increases risk of neural tube defects in humans is unknown. METHODS: We describe a new case-control study in Bangladesh, a country currently experiencing an epidemic of arsenic poisoning through contaminated drinking water. We plan to understand how arsenic influences risk of neural tube defects in humans through mechanisms that include disruption of maternal glucose and folate metabolism, as well as epigenetic effects...
January 30, 2017: Birth Defects Research
Kachin Wattanawong, Sasivimol Rattanasiri, Mark McEvoy, John Attia, Ammarin Thakkinstian
BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of interferon regulatory factor 6 and 8q24 polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (NSCL/P). METHODS: Data extraction was independently performed by two reviewers. Genotypic effects of four polymorphisms from 31 studies were pooled separately by ethnicity using a mixed-effect logit model with accounting for heterogeneity. RESULTS: For rs2235371, AA and GA carried, respectively, 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-61%) and 42% (95% CI, 32%-50%) lower risks of NSCL/P than GG genotypes in Asians, but these genotypes were not significant in Caucasians...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Nicholas D E Greene, Kit-Yi Leung, Andrew J Copp
Susceptibility to neural tube defects (NTDs), such as anencephaly and spina bifida is influenced by genetic and environmental factors including maternal nutrition. Maternal periconceptional supplementation with folic acid significantly reduces the risk of an NTD-affected pregnancy, but does not prevent all NTDs, and "folic acid non-responsive" NTDs continue to occur. Similarly, among mouse models of NTDs, some are responsive to folic acid but others are not. Among nutritional factors, inositol deficiency causes cranial NTDs in mice while supplemental inositol prevents spinal and cranial NTDs in the curly tail (Grhl3 hypomorph) mouse, rodent models of hyperglycemia or induced diabetes, and in a folate-deficiency induced NTD model...
January 30, 2017: Birth Defects Research
Kersti K Linask, Mingda Han
BACKGROUND: Embryonic acute exposure to ethanol (EtOH), lithium, and homocysteine (HCy) induces cardiac defects at the time of exposure; folic acid (FA) supplementation protects normal cardiogenesis (Han et al., , ; Serrano et al., ). Our hypothesis is that EtOH exposure and FA protection relate to lipid and FA metabolism during mouse cardiogenesis and placentation. METHODS: On the morning of conception, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were placed on either of two FA-containing diets: a 3...
September 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Andrew D Kraft, Michael Aschner, Deborah A Cory-Slechta, Staci D Bilbo, W Michael Caudle, Susan L Makris
Silent neurotoxicity, a term introduced approximately 25years ago, is defined as a persistent change to the nervous system that does not manifest as overt evidence of toxicity (i.e. it remains clinically unapparent) unless unmasked by experimental or natural processes. Silent neurotoxicants can be challenging for risk assessors, as the multifactorial experiments needed to reveal their effects are seldom conducted, and they are not addressed by current study design guidelines. This topic was the focus of a symposium addressing the interpretation and use of silent neurotoxicity data in human health risk assessments of environmental toxicants at the annual meeting of the Developmental Neurotoxicology Society (previously the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society) on June 30th, 2014...
May 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Jane C Figueiredo, Stephanie Ly, Kathleen S Magee, Ugonna Ihenacho, James W Baurley, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, Frederick Brindopke, Thi-Hai-Duc Nguyen, Viet Nguyen, Maria Irene Tangco, Melissa Giron, Tamlin Abrahams, Grace Jang, Annie Vu, Emily Zolfaghari, Caroline A Yao, Athena Foong, Yves A DeClerk, Jonathan M Samet, William Magee
BACKGROUND: Several lifestyle and environmental exposures have been suspected as risk factors for oral clefts, although few have been convincingly demonstrated. Studies across global diverse populations could offer additional insight given varying types and levels of exposures. METHODS: We performed an international case-control study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (133 cases, 301 controls), Vietnam (75 cases, 158 controls), the Philippines (102 cases, 152 controls), and Honduras (120 cases, 143 controls)...
October 2015: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Hester Magdalena Oberholzer, Ciska Van Der Schoor, Helena Taute, Megan Jean Bester
Exposure to drugs during pregnancy is a major concern, as some teratogenic compounds can influence normal foetal development. Although the use of drugs during pregnancy should generally be avoided, exposure of the developing foetus to teratogens may occur unknowingly since these compounds may be hidden in products that are being marketed as "all natural." The aim of the current study was to investigate the possible teratogenic and cellular effects of sibutramine-a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of obesity-on the heart and liver tissue of chick embryos...
August 2015: Microscopy Research and Technique
Cara T Mai, Cynthia H Cassell, Robert E Meyer, Jennifer Isenburg, Mark A Canfield, Russel Rickard, Richard S Olney, Erin B Stallings, Meredith Beck, S Shahrukh Hashmi, Sook Ja Cho, Russell S Kirby
© 2014 The Authors Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
November 2014: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Hildur Skuladottir, Allen J Wilcox, Chen Ma, Edward J Lammer, Sonja A Rasmussen, Martha M Werler, Gary M Shaw, Suzan L Carmichael
BACKGROUND: Maternal use of corticosteroids during early pregnancy has been inconsistently associated with orofacial clefts in the offspring. A previous report from the National Birth Defect Prevention Study (NBDPS), using data from 1997 to 2002, found an association with cleft lip and palate (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.6), but not cleft palate only (odds ratio, 0.5, 95%CI, 0.2-1.3). From 2003 to 2009, the study population more than doubled in size, and our objective was to assess this association in the more recent data...
June 2014: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Luís M Félix, Luís M Antunes, Ana M Coimbra
Concerns have been raised that the effect of anaesthetic drugs on the central nervous system may result in long-term impairment, namely when ketamine is used during embryogenesis. In addition, the cell and molecular basis of anaesthetics teratology and toxicity are still uncertain and its implications in the development remain to be clarified. More recently, the potential risks for human, and animal, exposure through environmental contamination also became an important question. In this study, the effects of sub- and over anaesthetic doses of ketamine were investigated during zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development by exposing zebrafish embryos to ketamine concentrations (0...
January 2014: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Liane B Russell
The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is often remembered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology...
October 2013: Mutation Research
Jordan Bailey, Anthony Oliveri, Edward D Levin
Zebrafish offer many advantages that complement classic mammalian models for the study of normal development as well as for the teratogenic effects of exposure to hazardous compounds. The clear chorion and embryo of the zebrafish allow for continuous visualization of the anatomical changes associated with development, which, along with short maturation times and the capability of complex behavior, makes this model particularly useful for measuring changes to the developing nervous system. Moreover, the rich array of developmental, behavioral, and molecular benefits offered by the zebrafish have contributed to an increasing demand for the use of zebrafish in behavioral teratology...
March 2013: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Eduard Ujházy, Mojmír Mach, Jana Navarová, Ingrid Brucknerová, Michal Dubovický
Teratology is the science that studies the causes, mechanisms, and patterns of abnormal development. The authors present an updated overview of the most important milestones and stages of the development of modern teratology. Development of knowledge and society led to the recognition that causes of congenital developmental disorders (CDDs) might be caused by various mechanical effects, foetal diseases, and retarded or arrested development of the embryo and foetus. Based on the analysis of the historical development of hypotheses and theories representing a decisive contribution to this field, we present a survey of the six Wilson's fundamental principles of teratology...
December 2012: Interdisciplinary Toxicology
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