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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900364/analysis-of-intrapatient-heterogeneity-uncovers-the-microevolution-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#1
Donghyun Park, Hee Jae Huh, Yeon Jeong Kim, Dae-Soon Son, Hyo-Jeong Jeon, Eu-Hyun Im, Jong-Won Kim, Nam Yong Lee, Eun-Suk Kang, Cheol In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jin-Hyun Ahn, Kyong Ran Peck, Sun Shim Choi, Yae-Jean Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Woong-Yang Park
Genome sequence analysis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) variants from patient specimens has revealed the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of pathogenesis of the virus. However, most studies have analyzed the consensus sequences of MERS-CoVs, precluding an investigation of intrapatient heterogeneity. Here, we analyzed non-consensus sequences to characterize intrapatient heterogeneity in cases associated with the 2015 outbreak of MERS in South Korea. Deep-sequencing analysis of MERS-CoV genomes performed on specimens from eight patients revealed significant intrapatient variation; therefore, sequence heterogeneity was further analyzed using targeted deep sequencing...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899813/the-pro-fibrotic-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-in-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-experimental-liver-injury
#2
Xin M Wang, Lauren E Holz, Sumaiya Chowdhury, Shaun P Cordoba, Kathryn A Evans, Margaret G Gall, Ana Júlia Vieira de Ribeiro, Yuan Zhou Zheng, Miriam T Levy, Denise M T Yu, Tsun-Wen Yao, Natasa Polak, Christopher J Jolly, Patrick Bertolino, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Mark D Gorrell
Liver fibrosis is a progressive pathological process involving inflammation and extracellular matrix deposition. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), also known as CD26, is a cell surface glycoprotein and serine protease. DPP4 binds to fibronectin, can inactivate specific chemokines, incretin hormone and neuropeptides, and influences cell adhesion and migration. Such properties suggest a pro-fibrotic role for this peptidase but this hypothesis needs in vivo examination. Experimental liver injury was induced with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in DPP4 gene knockout (gko) mice...
November 30, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891127/regulation-of-chemokine-activity-a-focus-on-the-role-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-cd26
#3
REVIEW
Mieke Metzemaekers, Jo Van Damme, Anneleen Mortier, Paul Proost
Chemokines are small, chemotactic proteins that play a crucial role in leukocyte migration and are, therefore, essential for proper functioning of the immune system. Chemokines exert their chemotactic effect by activation of chemokine receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and interaction with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Furthermore, the exact chemokine function is modulated at the level of posttranslational modifications. Among the different types of posttranslational modifications that were found to occur in vitro and in vivo, i...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887857/a-potential-contribution-of-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-by-the-mediation-of-monocyte-differentiation-in-the-development-and-progression-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysms
#4
Hsin-Ying Lu, Chun-Yao Huang, Chun-Ming Shih, Yi-Wen Lin, Chein-Sung Tsai, Feng-Yen Lin, Chun-Che Shih
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are characterized by the destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4, an adipokine known as CD26) influences cell signaling, cell-matrix interactions, and the regulation of the functional activity of incretins in metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Although the role of DPP-4 in AAA evolution has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of DPP-4-regulated AAA development remains unknown...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868279/involvement-of-dpp-iv-cd26-in-cutaneous-wound-healing-process-in-mice
#5
Lara Baticic Pucar, Ester Pernjak Pugel, Dijana Detel, Jadranka Varljen
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV/CD26) is a widely distributed multifunctional protein that plays a significant role in different physiological as well as pathological processes having a broad spectrum of bioactive substrates and immunomodulative properties. It has potential influence on different processes crucial for wound healing, including cell adhesion, migration, apoptosis and extracellular matrix degradation. However, despite its known enzymatic and immunomodulative functions, limited data characterize the role of DPP IV/CD26 in cutaneous wound healing mechanisms...
November 21, 2016: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828729/cross-sectional-study-for-the-detection-of-mutations-in-the-beta-globin-gene-among-patients-with-hemoglobinopathies-in-the-bengali-population
#6
Amrita Panja, Prosanto Chowdhury, Sharmistha Chakraborty, Tapan Kumar Ghosh, Anupam Basu
AIMS: Thalassemia is a common autosomal recessive blood disorder, which is most prevalent in South East Asian and Mediterranean populations. It is considered as a major health burden in the Indian population. The aims of the present study were to investigate the common, as well as uncommon, mutations responsible for thalassemia in the Bengali population. METHODS: The Bengali state was divided into four sampling zones. Mutation detection was done using Sanger sequencing of the HBB gene...
November 9, 2016: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816639/diminished-effector-and-memory-cd8-circulating-t-lymphocytes-in-patients-with-severe-influenza-caused-by-the-ah1n1-pdm09-virus
#7
Yolanda Gonzalez, Esmeralda Juárez, Claudia Carranza, Eduardo Sada, Sigifredo Pedraza-Sánchez, Martha Torres
The T cell immune response to viral infection includes the expansion of naïve T cells, effector cell differentiation and the induction of long-lived memory cells. We compared the differentiation of CD8(+) T cells in patients with severe or mild pneumonia induced by influenza infection occurring during the 2009 influenza outbreak and compared their T cell subsets with those in blood samples obtained from healthy volunteers before the AH1N1 influenza outbreak in Mexico. Patients with severe influenza exhibited significantly lower numbers of effector memory CD8(+)CD26 (high) CD45RO(+)CCR7(+) phenotype and lower numbers of central memory CD8(+)CD(26)(high) CD62L(+)CCR7(+), CD26 (high) CD62L(+)CD127(+) or CD26 (high) CD45RO(+)CD57 (low) phenotypes than patients with mild influenza or unexposed healthy subjects...
November 2, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809866/evidence-of-two-distinct-functionally-specialized-fibroblast-lineages-in-breast-stroma
#8
Mikkel Morsing, Marie Christine Klitgaard, Abbas Jafari, René Villadsen, Moustapha Kassem, Ole William Petersen, Lone Rønnov-Jessen
BACKGROUND: The terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU) is the most dynamic structure in the human breast and the putative site of origin of human breast cancer. Although stromal cells contribute to a specialized microenvironment in many organs, this component remains largely understudied in the human breast. We here demonstrate the impact on epithelium of two lineages of breast stromal fibroblasts, one of which accumulates in the TDLU while the other resides outside the TDLU in the interlobular stroma...
November 3, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748801/acquisition-of-anticancer-drug-resistance-is-partially-associated-with-cancer-stemness-in-human-colon-cancer-cells
#9
Flaria El Khoury, Laurent Corcos, Stéphanie Durand, Brigitte Simon, Catherine Le Jossic-Corcos
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most aggressive cancers worldwide. Several anticancer agents are available to treat CRC, but eventually cancer relapse occurs. One major cause of chemotherapy failure is the emergence of drug-resistant tumor cells, suspected to originate from the stem cell compartment. The aim of this study was to ask whether drug resistance was associated with the acquisition of stem cell-like properties. We isolated drug-resistant derivatives of two human CRC cell lines, HT29 and HCT116, using two anticancer drugs with distinct modes of action, oxaliplatin and docetaxel...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718761/possible-new-therapeutic-agents-for-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-anti-cd26-monoclonal-antibody-and-naftopidil
#10
Takashi Nakano, Kozo Kuribayashi, Koji Mikami
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718126/suppression-of-cd26-inhibits-growth-and-metastasis-of-pancreatic-cancer
#11
Chunxiang Ye, Xiuyun Tian, Guanjun Yue, Liang Yan, Xiaoya Guan, Shan Wang, Chunyi Hao
CD26/DPPIV is a glycosylated transmembrane type II protein and has a multitude of biological functions, while its impact on the malignant phenotypes of cancer cells has not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the effect of CD26 on growth and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We found in this study that CD26 expression was higher in cell lines that derived from the metastatic sites than those from the primary tumor sites. In specimens of pancreatic cancer patients, CD26 expression was higher in cancerous tissues than in paired normal tissues...
October 7, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696819/putative-receptor-binding-domain-of-bat-derived-coronavirus-hku9-spike-protein-evolution-of-betacoronavirus-receptor-binding-motifs
#12
Canping Huang, Jianxun Qi, Guang-Wen Lu, Qihui Wang, Yuan Yuan, Ying Wu, Yanfang Zhang, Jinghua Yan, George F Gao
The suggested bat-origin for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has revitalized the studies on other bat-derived coronaviruses for the interspecies transmission potential. Bat coronavirus (BatCoV) HKU9 is an important betacoronavirus (betaCoV) that is phylogenetically affiliated to the same genus as MERS-CoV. The bat-surveillance data indicated that BatCoV HKU9 has been widely spreading and circulating in bats. This highlights the necessity of characterizing the virus for its potential of crossing species barriers...
October 3, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664490/prognostic-significance-of-serum-cd26-concentration-in-patients-with-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Wang Xinhua, Qiu Xiangting, Chen Lingling, Li Guohong
BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common cancers in developing countries. The aim of the study was to determine the association between serum CD26 concentration and outcome of patients with ESCC. METHODS: A total of 183 patients with ESCC and 254 healthy controls were selected. Blood samples were obtained from the participants. The serum level of CD26 was detected using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. All patients were followed for 4 years unless they died of ESCC during the follow-up period...
May 2016: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663683/human-adenosine-deaminases-ada1-and-ada2-bind-to-different-subsets-of-immune-cells
#14
Yuliia Kaljas, Chengqian Liu, Maksym Skaldin, Chengxiang Wu, Qing Zhou, Yuanan Lu, Ivona Aksentijevich, Andrey V Zavialov
At sites of inflammation and tumor growth, the local concentration of extracellular adenosine rapidly increases and plays a role in controlling the immune responses of nearby cells. Adenosine deaminases ADA1 and ADA2 (ADAs) decrease the level of adenosine by converting it to inosine, which serves as a negative feedback mechanism. Mutations in the genes encoding ADAs lead to impaired immune function, which suggests a crucial role for ADAs in immune system regulation. It is not clear why humans and other mammals possess two enzymes with adenosine deaminase activity...
September 23, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612849/dpp-4-cd26-inhibitor-sitagliptin-exerts-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-rat-insulinoma-rinm-cells-via-suppressing-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#15
Xingyun Hu, Shanying Liu, Xiaodan Liu, Jinglu Zhang, Ying Liang, Yan Li
Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (CD26), a cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed by a variety of cells. It has been shown that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (CD26) is involved in T cell activation. Nonetheless, its role in inflammatory effects in islet β cells has not been well investigated. In this study, we used sitagliptin, a classic inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (CD26), to research the effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (CD26) on the activation of NF-κB, the expression of inflammatory cytokines, and cell apoptosis in rat insulinoma cells...
September 9, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607421/cell-homogeneity-indispensable-for-regenerative-medicine-by-cultured-human-corneal-endothelial-cells
#16
Junji Hamuro, Munetoyo Toda, Kazuko Asada, Asako Hiraga, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Monty Montoya, Chie Sotozono, Morio Ueno, Shigeru Kinoshita
PURPOSE: To identify the subpopulation (SP) among heterogeneous cultured human corneal endothelial cells (cHCECs) devoid of cell-state transition applicable for cell-based therapy. METHODS: Subpopulation presence in cHCECs was confirmed via surface CD-marker expression level by flow cytometry. CD markers effective for distinguishing distinct SPs were selected by analyzing those on established cHCECs with a small cell area and high cell density. Contrasting features among three typical cHCEC SPs was confirmed by PCR array for extracellular matrix (ECM)...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580693/association-of-biomarkers-with-health-related-quality-of-life-and-history-of-stressors-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-patients
#17
Emmanuel Fenouillet, Aude Vigouroux, Jean Guillaume Steinberg, Alexandre Chagvardieff, Frédérique Retornaz, Regis Guieu, Yves Jammes
BACKGROUND: Myalgic encephalomyelitis chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common debilitating disorder associated with an intense fatigue, a reduced physical activity, and an impaired quality of life. There are no established biological markerof the syndrome. The etiology is unknown and its pathogenesis appears to be multifactorial. Various stressors, including intense physical activity, severe infection, and emotional stress are reported in the medical history of ME/CFS patients which raises the question whether any physiological and biological abnormalities usually found in these patients could be indicative of the etiology and/or the quality-of-life impairment...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564520/cultured-human-corneal-endothelial-cell-aneuploidy-dependence-on-the-presence-of-heterogeneous-subpopulations-with-distinct-differentiation-phenotypes
#18
Junji Hamuro, Morio Ueno, Munetoyo Toda, Chie Sotozono, Monty Montoya, Shigeru Kinoshita
PURPOSE: Cultured human corneal endothelial cells (cHCECs) are anticipated to become an alternative to donor corneas for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction. However, cHCECs reportedly tend to exhibit chromosomal abnormality during in vitro cell division, thereby hampering their use in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether a specified subpopulation (SP) of heterogeneous cHCECs would exhibit aneuploidy, whereas other SPs would not. METHODS: The presence of SPs in cHCECs was analyzed on the basis of surface cluster of differentiation (CD) antigen CD166, CD105, CD44, CD26, and CD24 expression levels by flow cytometry...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561663/cd26-and-asthma-a-comprehensive-review
#19
Juan J Nieto-Fontarigo, Francisco J González-Barcala, Esther San José, Pilar Arias, Montserrat Nogueira, Francisco J Salgado
Asthma is a heterogeneous and chronic inflammatory family of disorders of the airways with increasing prevalence that results in recurrent and reversible bronchial obstruction and expiratory airflow limitation. These diseases arise from the interaction between environmental and genetic factors, which collaborate to cause increased susceptibility and severity. Many asthma susceptibility genes are linked to the immune system or encode enzymes like metalloproteases (e.g., ADAM-33) or serine proteases. The S9 family of serine proteases (prolyl oligopeptidases) is capable to process peptide bonds adjacent to proline, a kind of cleavage-resistant peptide bonds present in many growth factors, chemokines or cytokines that are important for asthma...
August 25, 2016: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27550352/identification-of-nafamostat-as-a-potent-inhibitor-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-mers-corona-virus-s-mediated-membrane-fusion-using-the-split-protein-based-cell-cell-fusion-assay
#20
Mizuki Yamamoto, Shutoku Matsuyama, Xiao Li, Makoto Takeda, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Jun-Ichiro Inoue, Zene Matsuda
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is an emerging infectious disease associated with a relatively high mortality rate of approximately 40%. MERS is caused by MERS corona virus (MERS-CoV) infection, and no specific drugs or vaccines are currently available to prevent MERS-CoV infection. MERS-CoV is an enveloped virus and its envelope protein (S protein) mediates membrane fusion at the plasma membrane or endosomal membrane. Multiple proteolysis by host proteases, such as furin, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and cathepsins, causes the S protein to become fusion competent...
August 22, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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