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Meningitis viral

Richard Lindqvist, Filip Mundt, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Silke Wölfel, Nelson O Gekara, Andrea Kröger, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Neurotropic flaviviruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV) are causative agents of severe brain-related diseases including meningitis, encephalitis, and microcephaly. We have previously shown that local type I interferon response within the central nervous system (CNS) is involved in the protection of mice against tick-borne flavivirus infection. However, the cells responsible for mounting this protective response are not defined...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sandra Pinkert, Babette Dieringer, Sabine Diedrich, Heinz Zeichhardt, Jens Kurreck, Henry Fechner
Coxsackie-B-viruses (CVB) cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild syndromes to life-threatening conditions such as pancreatitis, myocarditis, meningitis and encephalitis. Especially newborns and young infants develop severe diseases and long-term sequelae may occur among survivors. Due to lack of specific antiviral therapy the current treatment of CVB infection is limited to symptomatic treatment. Here we analyzed the antiviral activity of a soluble receptor fusion protein, containing the extracellular part of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) fused to the constant domain of the human IgG - sCAR-Fc - against laboratory and clinical CVB strains...
October 20, 2016: Antiviral Research
Erin H Graf, Maria Victoria Farquharson, Ana María Cárdenas
We compared an FDA cleared molecular meningitis/encephalitis panel to lab developed viral PCRs and bacterial culture. Of the 67 viral PCR or bacterial culture-positive samples, 92.5% were positive for the same target by the panel. Of the 66 negative samples tested, no targets were detected by the panel, for an agreement of 96.2%.
October 1, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida, Sônia Mara Raboni, Meri Bordignon Nogueira, Luine R Renaud Vidal
The presence of hemoglobin in samples are considered an important inhibitory factor for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of this study was to examine the influence of red blood cells (RBC)s in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as an inhibitory factor to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for enteroviruses (EV). Forty-four CSF samples from patients showing characteristics of viral meningitis were assessed for EV by RT-PCR. Viral RNA extracted with guanidine isothyocianate buffer and virus detection was performed by in-house nested PCR...
October 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Louise Dunphy, Prashanth Shetty, Rabinder Randhawa, Kharil Amir Rani, Yaw Duodu
A 39-year-old man, born in India but resident in the UK for 10 years, was travelling in America when he became feverish with an altered mentation. He reported a 10-day history of fever, photophobia, headache and fatigue. His medical history included hypothyroidism and migraine. He was a non-smoker, did not consume alcohol and denied a history of drug use. He was transferred to the emergency department. Laboratory investigations confirmed hyponatraemia (sodium 128 mmol/L). A chest radiograph confirmed no focal consolidation...
October 7, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Joon Woo Lee, Chan Ik Park, Hyung Il Kim, Oh Hyun Kim, Kyoung Chul Cha, Hyun Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Sung Oh Hwang, Yong Sung Cha
OBJECTIVE: When managing patients with acute meningitis in an emergency department (ED), early diagnosis of the type of infection (bacterial or viral) considerably affects the clinical course and treatment because of the high mortality and morbidity associated with bacterial meningitis (BM). The serum delta neutrophil index (DNI), a new inflammatory marker, reflects the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes and is elevated in cases of bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum DNI can be used to differentiate between BM and viral meningitis (VM) in the ED...
June 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Ula Khatib, Diederik van de Beek, John A Lees, Matthijs C Brouwer
OBJECTIVES: To study the diagnostic accuracy of clinical and laboratory features in the diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) infection and bacterial meningitis. METHODS: We included consecutive adult episodes with suspected CNS infection who underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination. The reference standard was the diagnosis classified into five categories: 1) CNS infection; 2) CNS inflammation without infection; 3) other neurological disorder; 4) non-neurological infection; and 5) other systemic disorder...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Infection
Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Michele G Mills, Priya M Mehta, Craig M Smith, Mark S Wainwright
BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to characterize changes in cerebral blood flow measured using transcranial Doppler in children with central nervous system infections. We hypothesized that children with central nervous system infections have abnormal cerebral blood flow, associated with a greater frequency of complications and poor neurological outcome. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective study of children admitted to the neonatal or pediatric intensive care unit with central nervous system infection and undergoing transcranial Doppler as part of routine care between March 2011 and July 2015...
September 4, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
C Hoyer, P Eisele, A D Ebert, S Schneider, A Gass, M Fatar, K Szabo, A Alonso
BACKGROUND: The term "aseptic meningitis" encompasses cases of meningitis with negative bacterial CSF culture, which predominantly are of viral etiology. While the clinical course is usually benign, complications such as encephalitic involvement resulting in a more severe clinical course may occur. Dysfunction of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), which is a prerequisite for viral entry into the brain parenchyma, can be approximated using the CSF/serum albumin ratio, readily obtainable in routine CSF analysis...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Jolanta Florczak-Wyspiańska, Ewa Nawotczyńska, Wojciech Kozubski
Yellow fever (YF) is a mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic fever, which is a serious and potentially fatal disease with no specific antiviral treatment that can be effectively prevented by an attenuated vaccine (YEL). Despite the long history of safe and efficacious YF vaccination, sporadic case reports of serious adverse events (SAEs) have been reported, including yellow fever vaccine-associated neurotropic disease (YEL-AND). YEL-AND usually appears within one month of YF vaccination, manifesting as meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)...
September 22, 2016: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
A Fox-Lewis, G Coltart, S Rice, R Sen, Y Gourtsoyannis, H Hyare, R K Gupta
We report a case of a 31 year old male with extensive subclinical sinusitis leading to erosion in the cribriform plate and subsequent meningitis caused by the organism Moraxella osloensis. The patient presented to the emergency department with rapid onset confusion, neck stiffness and headache. Inflammatory markers, renal and liver function, and a chest radiograph were all normal. CT Head showed extensive polyp disease in the paranasal sinuses with expansion of the left frontal sinus and CT Sinuses revealed an area of low attenuation in the cribriform plate consistent with bony erosion...
2016: IDCases
D K Ajithdoss, M K Torchetti, L Badcoe, D S Bradway, T V Baszler
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a major viral disease of poultry characterized by acute onset, systemic infection, and rapid death. In January 2015, H5N2 HPAI was identified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and gene sequencing as the cause of rapid death in 40 of 390 ring-necked pheasants (approximately 10% mortality), raised in a game bird farm in Washington State. We report clinicopathologic findings and viral antigen distribution in pheasants that died during the outbreak...
September 30, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Krista D DiSano, Stephen A Stohlman, Cornelia C Bergmann
Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation associated with viral infection and autoimmune disease results in the accumulation of B cells in various differentiation stages. However, the contribution between peripheral and CNS activation remains unclear. During gliatropic coronavirus induced encephalomyelitis, accumulation of protective antibody secreting cells is preceded by infiltration of B cells with a naïve and early differentiation phenotype (Phares et al., 2014). Investigation of the temporal dynamics of B cell activation in draining cervical lymph nodes (CLN) and the CNS revealed that peak CNS infiltration of early activated, unswitched IgD(+) and IgM(+) B cells coincided with polyclonal activation in CLN...
September 19, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Leah T Le, Serena S Spudich
Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD)...
August 2016: Seminars in Neurology
Kristi L Koenig, Siri Shastry, Bandr Mzahim, Abdulmajeed Almadhyan, Michael J Burns
Mumps is a highly contagious viral infection that became rare in most industrialized countries following the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1967. The disease, however, has been re-emerging with several outbreaks over the past decade. Many clinicians have never seen a case of mumps. To assist frontline healthcare providers with detecting potential cases and initiating critical actions, investigators modified the "Identify-Isolate-Inform" tool for mumps infection. The tool is applicable to regions with rare incidences or local outbreaks, especially seen in college students, as well as globally in areas where vaccination is less common...
September 2016: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Osamu Kotani, Tadaki Suzuki, Masaru Yokoyama, Naoko Iwata-Yoshikawa, Noriko Nakajima, Hironori Sato, Hideki Hasegawa, Fumihiro Taguchi, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Noriyo Nagata
: Saffold virus (SAFV), a human cardiovirus, is occasionally detected in infants with neurological disorders, including meningitis and cerebellitis. We recently reported that SAFV type 3 isolates infect cerebellar glial cells, but not large neurons, in mice. However, the impact of this infection remained unclear. Here, we determined the neuropathogenesis of SAFV type 3 in the cerebella of neonatal ddY mice using SAFV passaged in the cerebellum of neonatal BALB/c mice. The virus titer in the cerebellum increased following inoculation of each of five passaged strains...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Virology
Nicole Ettischer-Schmid, Andrea Normann, Martina Sauter, Lisa Kraft, Hubert Kalbacher, Reinhard Kandolf, Bertram Flehmig, Karin Klingel
Human enteroviruses, e.g. coxsackieviruses, induce a variety of severe acute and chronic forms of disease, including myocarditis, meningitis and diabetes mellitus type 1. To visualize enterovirus infection with a diagnostic intent, many studies have applied a commercially available antibody (anti-CVB5 VP1, clone 5-D8/1, Dako, Hamburg, Germany) that identifies VP1 of different enteroviral serotypes. Many antibodies, however, have been found to bind non-specifically to proteins of cardiomyocytes and in the interstitial space, resulting in non-specific staining in immunohistochemistry...
August 27, 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
Amna Jawaid, Surriya Bano, Anwar Ul Haque, Khubaib Arif
Meningitis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in intensive care settings. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and outcome in children with meningitis through a retrospective chart review done in pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital from January 2000 to December 2014. During these 14 years, 64 patients were admitted with meningitis in pediatric intensive care unit. Out of 64, 36 were diagnosed with pyogenic meningitis, 18 patients with viral meningitis, and 10 with tuberculous meningitis...
August 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Jakapat Vanichanan, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Elizabeth Aguilera, Melissa N Garcia, Kristy O Murray, Rodrigo Hasbun
In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June-October)...
September 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Yunjian Lu, Yanguo Dou, Jinfeng Ti, Aihua Wang, Binghua Cheng, Xin Zhang, Youxiang Diao
To study the effect of Tembusu virus (TMUV) infection on Cherry Valley Breeding ducks of different ages, 350 five-week-old ducks were divided into 14 groups. Ducks in seven experimental group were respectively infected with 1.265×10(5) mean embryo lethal dose (ELD50) of TMUV-AHQY strain (in 4.2mL) by intravenous route. Ducks in control groups were inoculated with Phosphate-buffered Saline (PBS) in the same way. Clinical symptoms, gross and microscopic lesions, viral loads and serum antibodies were detected and recorded for 20days after infection...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
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