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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636287/the-spectrum-of-aseptic-central-nervous-system-infections-in-southern-germany-demographic-clinical-and-laboratory-findings
#1
M Kaminski, V Grummel, D Hoffmann, A Berthele, B Hemmer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aseptic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are frequently observed in Germany. However, no study has systematically addressed the spectrum of aseptic CNS infections in Germany. METHODS: Data on 191 adult patients diagnosed from January 2007 to December 2014 with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis/meningoencephalitis at our hospital were collected by chart review and analyzed for demographic, clinical and laboratory findings. Patients were stratified according to the causative virus and findings were compared between groups...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632298/patient-med-tbe-f%C3%A3-rb%C3%A3-ttrades-snabbt-vid-behandling-med-kortison-evidens-saknas-dock-f%C3%A3-r-v%C3%A3-rdet-av-immunmodulerande-terapi
#2
Carl Wengse, Jesper Ericsson, Susanna Hallberg, Johan Ursing
Rapid improvement of tick-borne encephalitis after treatment with corticosteroids Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral disease transmitted by ticks. The virus is divided into three subtypes named Western, Siberian and Far Eastern TBE virus (TBEV). Western TBEV is endemic in parts of Europe and Sweden and typically causes a biphasic illness with influenza-like symptoms followed by neurological symptoms ranging from mild meningitis to severe meningoencephalitis and death. Despite an effective vaccine, TBE is increasing in Sweden and Europe...
June 16, 2017: Läkartidningen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630939/retrospective-surveillance-of-wastewater-to-examine-seasonal-dynamics-of-enterovirus-infections
#3
Nichole E Brinkman, G Shay Fout, Scott P Keely
Enteroviruses are RNA viruses that are responsible for both mild gastroenteritis and mild respiratory illnesses as well as debilitating diseases such as meningitis and myocarditis. The disease burden of enteroviruses in the United States is difficult to assess because most infections are not recorded. Since infected individuals shed enterovirus in feces and urine, surveillance of municipal wastewater can reveal the diversity of enteroviruses circulating in human populations. Therefore, monthly municipal wastewater samples were collected for 1 year and enteroviruses were quantified by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and identified by next-generation, high-throughput sequencing...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628941/a-novel-cause-of-chronic-viral-meningoencephalitis-cache-valley-virus
#4
Michael R Wilson, Dan Suan, Andrew Duggins, Ryan D Schubert, Lillian M Khan, Hannah A Sample, Kelsey C Zorn, Aline Rodrigues Hoffman, Anna Blick, Meena Shingde, Joseph L DeRisi
OBJECTIVE: Immunodeficient patients are particularly vulnerable to neuroinvasive infections that can be challenging to diagnose. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing can identify unusual or novel microbes and is therefore well suited for investigating the etiology of chronic meningoencephalitis in immunodeficient patients. METHODS: We present the case of a 34 year-old man with X-linked agammaglobulinemia from Australia suffering from three years of meningoencephalitis that defied an etiologic diagnosis despite extensive conventional testing, including a brain biopsy...
June 19, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616745/bacterial-meningitis-complicating-the-course-of-liver-cirrhosis
#5
Pasquale Pagliano, Giovanni Boccia, Francesco De Caro, Silvano Esposito
Meningitis is rarely reported in studies investigating bacterial infections in patients affected by liver cirrhosis. We investigated the findings of bacterial meningitis in patients affected by liver cirrhosis referred to our department in a 16-year period. MATERIALS: Patients with cirrhosis and bacterial meningitis were enrolled. Cirrhosis was defined by liver histology or clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic and endoscopic findings. Bacterial meningitis was defined by cerebro-spinal fluid pleocytosis (>10/mcl) and characteristic clinical presentation...
June 14, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598791/croi-2017-neurologic-complications-of-hiv-infection
#6
Serena S Spudich, Beau M Ances
The brain is a major target for HIV infection and is a potential viral reservoir even in virologically well-controlled HIV-infected individuals. Data presented at the 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) suggested that during early HIV infection, CD4+ T cells in the meninges and choroid plexus serve as an important early site of HIV infection in the central nervous system (CNS), with brain macrophages and microglial cells becoming an important source of viral replication with advancing disease...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584857/evolving-failures-in-the-delivery-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-lessons-from-a-ugandan-meningitis-cohort-2006-2016
#7
Andrew G Flynn, David B Meya, Katherine Huppler Hullsiek, Joshua Rhein, Darlisha A Williams, Abdu Musubire, Bozena M Morawski, Kabanda Taseera, Alisat Sadiq, Liberica Ndyatunga, Mollie Roediger, Radha Rajasingham, Paul R Bohjanen, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: Because of investments in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care in sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people aware of their status and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased; however, HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality still remains high. METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of 3 sequential prospective cohorts of HIV-infected Ugandan adults presenting with AIDS and meningitis from 2006 to 2009, 2010 to 2012, and 2013 to 2016...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579869/management-of-viral-central-nervous-system-infections-a-primer-for-clinicians
#8
REVIEW
P Brandon Bookstaver, Phillip L Mohorn, Ansal Shah, Lauren D Tesh, April M Quidley, Ravish Kothari, Christopher M Bland, Sharon Weissman
Viruses are a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections with many host, agent, and environmental factors influencing the expression of viral diseases. Viruses can be responsible for CNS disease through a variety of mechanisms including direct infection and replication within the CNS resulting in encephalitis, infection limited to the meninges, or immune-related processes such as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Common pathogens including herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, and enterovirus are responsible for the greatest number of cases in immunocompetent hosts...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570694/trends-of-vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-afghanistan-from-the-disease-early-warning-system-2009-2015
#9
Abram L Wagner, Mohammad Y Mubarak, Laura E Johnson, Julia M Porth, Jenna E Yousif, Matthew L Boulton
BACKGROUND: Afghanistan's public health system was neglected during decades of military and civil conflict, and trends in infectious disease occurrence remain poorly characterized. This study examines cyclical and long-term trends of six vaccine-preventable diseases: pneumonia, diarrhea, meningitis, typhoid, measles, and acute viral hepatitis. METHODS: Using weekly data collected between 2009 and 2015 through Afghanistan's Disease Early Warning System, we calculated monthly case counts, and fit a Poisson regression with a Fourier transformation for seasonal cycles and dummy variables for year...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566076/-evaluation-of-viral-etiology-in-central-nervous-system-infections-from-a-university-hospital-point-of-view-in-izmir-based-on-seven-years-data
#10
Ayşın Zeytinoğlu, Selda Erensoy, Rüçhan Sertöz, İmre Altuğlu, Candan Çiçek, Münevver Kayın, Hadiye Şirin, Şafak Taner
The serious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS); encephalitis and meningitis, have high mortality and morbidity rate especially not diagnosed and treated in time. Nucleic acid testing (NAT) is the tool of choice for viral diagnosis in CNS infections. In this study, viral etiological agents found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples sent to our university hospital virology laboratory for laboratory diagnosis of CNS infections were retrospectively evaluated and results were compared with other reports from our country...
April 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507114/antiviral-activity-of-nordihydroguaiaretic-acid-and-its-derivative-tetra-o-methyl-nordihydroguaiaretic-acid-against-west-nile-virus-and-zika-virus
#11
Teresa Merino-Ramos, Nereida Jiménez de Oya, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Miguel A Martín-Acebes
Flaviviruses are positive strand RNA viruses distributed all over the world that infect millions of people every year, and for which no specific antiviral agents have been approved. These viruses include the mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) responsible for outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis. Considering that nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) has been previously shown to inhibit the multiplication of the related dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, we have evaluated the effect of NDGA, and its methylated derivative tetra-O-methyl nordihydroguaiaretic (M4N), on the infection of WNV...
May 15, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491476/increased-intracranial-pressure-in-the-setting-of-enterovirus-and-other-viral-meningitides
#12
Jules C Beal
Increased intracranial pressure due to viral meningitis has not been widely discussed in the literature, although associations with Varicella and rarely Enterovirus have been described. Patients with increased intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid analysis suggestive of a viral process are sometimes classified as having atypical idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). However, a diagnosis of IIH requires normal cerebrospinal fluid, and therefore in these cases an infection with secondary intracranial hypertension may be a more likely diagnosis...
2017: Neurology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482001/crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-in-humanized-mice-reveals-glial-cells-as-primary-targets-of-neurological-infection
#13
Jessica R Spengler, M Kelly Keating, Anita K McElroy, Marko Zivcec, JoAnn D Coleman-McCray, Jessica R Harmon, Brigid C Bollweg, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Éric Bergeron, James G Keck, Sherif R Zaki, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic disease seen exclusively in humans. Central nervous system (CNS) infection and neurological involvement have also been reported in CCHF. Here we inoculated NSGTM-SGM3 mice engrafted with human hematopoietic CD34+ stem cells with low passage CCHF virus strains isolated from human patients. Humanized mice develop lethal disease characterized by histopathological change in the liver and brain. To date, targets of neuroinfection and neuropathology have not been investigated in CCHF...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470016/relationship-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-viral-load-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-in-patients-co-infected-with-cryptococcal-meningitis
#14
Christina C Chang, Richard Kangethe, Saleha Omarjee, Keshni Hiramen, Bernadett Gosnell, Katlego Sojane, Mohamed-Yunus S Moosa, Sharon R Lewin, Martyn A French, Thumbi Ndung'u
We measured human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribonucleic acid (RNA) in paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples in a prospective study of 91 HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naive patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA was lower than in plasma (median 4.7 vs 5.2 log10 copies/mL, P < .0001) and positively correlated with plasma HIV RNA, peripheral CD4(+) T-cell percentage, and CSF CXCL10. Plasma/CSF ratio of HIV RNA ranged widely from 0.2 to 265.5 with a median of 2...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469695/molecular-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-central-china
#15
Rongrong Yang, Hong Zhang, Yong Xiong, Xien Gui, Yongxi Zhang, Liping Deng, Shicheng Gao, Mingqi Luo, Wei Hou, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. METHODS: Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral and fungal etiologies. Pathogen-specific primers were used to detect DNA from cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464834/molecular-diagnosis-of-central-nervous-system-opportunistic-infections-and-mortality-in-hiv-infected-adults-in-central-china
#16
Rongrong Yang, Hong Zhang, Yong Xiong, Xien Gui, Yongxi Zhang, Liping Deng, Shicheng Gao, Mingqi Luo, Wei Hou, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: CSF PCR is the standard diagnostic technique used in resource-rich settings to detect pathogens of the CNS infection. However, it is not currently used for routine CSF testing in China. Knowledge of CNS opportunistic infections among people living with HIV in China is limited. METHODS: Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral and fungal etiologies. Pathogen-specific primers were used to detect DNA from cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and John Cunningham virus (JCV) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
May 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463942/diagnostic-practices-for-suspected-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infection-in-the-post-conjugate-vaccine-era
#17
Natalie Banniettis, Saumya Joshi, Shubhi Kaushik, Stephan Kohlhoff, Margaret R Hammerschlag
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic practices for suspected community-acquired central nervous system (CNS) infection in an urban pediatric population. METHODS: This is an observational, retrospective single-center review of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies in children, 1 month to 21 years old, evaluated for suspected CNS infection from 2004 to 2014. Cases of suspected nosocomial meningitis were excluded. The frequency of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody (NMDAR ab) encephalitis was analyzed from 2010 to 2014...
May 1, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444539/association-of-the-oas3-rs1859330-g-a-genetic-polymorphism-with-severity-of-enterovirus-71-infection-in-chinese-han-children
#18
Yuxia Tan, Tingting Yang, Peipei Liu, Liping Chen, Qingwu Tian, Ya Guo, Hongfang He, Yedan Liu, Zongbo Chen
The 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) is an interferon (IFN)-induced protein that plays an important role in the antiviral action of IFN, with OAS3 being one of the four OAS classes (OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, OASL). The effect of OAS on several infectious viral diseases has been reported; however, a study of the effect of OAS3 on enterovirus 71 (EV71) is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of the OAS3 rs1859330 G/A genetic polymorphism with susceptibility and severity of EV71 infection...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425387/zebra-borne-neurotropic-equid-herpesvirus-1-meningoencephalitis-in-a-thomson-s-gazelle-eudorcas-thomsonii
#19
Kanako Sakaguchi, Kenneth Kim, Ingeborg Langohr, Annabel G Wise, Roger K Maes, Gordon Pirie, Tokuma Yanai, Mohie Haridy, Lorrie Gaschen, Fabio Del Piero
We describe the histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of a case of meningoencephalitis in a Thomson's gazelle ( Eudorcas thomsonii) naturally infected with zebra-borne equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and the implications for the molecular detection of zebra-borne EHV-1. A 4-y-old female Thomson's gazelle was submitted for postmortem examination; no gross abnormalities were noted except for meningeal congestion. Microscopic evaluation demonstrated multifocal nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with intranuclear eosinophilic and amphophilic inclusion bodies and EHV-9 antigen in neurons...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425045/soluble-triggering-receptor-expressed-on-myeloid-cell-1-strem-1-a-potential-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-of-infectious-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Changlin Cao, Jingxian Gu, Jingyao Zhang
Sensitive and useful biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of infectious diseases have been widely developed. An example of these biomarkers is triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cell-1 (TREM-1), which is a cell surface receptor expressed on monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. TREM-1 amplifies inflammation by activating the TREM-1/DAP12 pathway. This pathway is triggered by the interaction of TREM-1 with ligands or stimulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Consequently, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are secreted...
April 19, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
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