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Meningitis viral

Samia N Naccache, Maryann Lustestica, Margil Fahit, Javier Mestas, Jennifer Dien Bard
Early establishment of infectious process allows for expedited clinical management of meningitis and encephalitis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (FA-M/E) panel provides rapid detection of potential pathogens associated with encephalitis/meningitis in both immunocompetent and compromised patients. Here we conducted a one year review of the performance of the FA-M/E panel at a tertiary care children's hospital. 265 samples from 251 patients were tested. 87.25% (219/251) were negative, 9.96% (25/251) were positive for viral analytes and 3...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Jingjing Yuan, Li Shen, Jing Wu, Xinran Zou, Jiaqi Gu, Jianguo Chen, Lingxiang Mao
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection has grown to become a serious threat to global public health. It is one of the major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. EV-A71 can also infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce diverse neurological complications, such as brainstem encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, and acute flaccid paralysis, or even death. Viral proteins play a crucial role in EV-A71 infection. Many recent studies have discussed the structure and function of EV-A71 proteins, and the findings reported will definitely aid the development of vaccines and therapeutic approaches...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Raquel Bello-Morales, Beatriz Praena, Carmen de la Nuez, María Teresa Rejas, Milagros Guerra, Marcos Galán, Manuel Izquierdo, Víctor Calvo, Claude Krummenacher, José Antonio López-Guerrero
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic pathogen that can infect many types of cells and establishes latent infections in neurons of sensory ganglia. In some cases, the virus spreads into the CNS causing encephalitis or meningitis. Cells infected with several different types of viruses may secrete microvesicles containing viral proteins and RNAs. In some instances, extracellular microvesicles harboring infectious virus have been found. Here we describe the features of shedding microvesicles released by the human oligodendroglial HOG cell line infected with HSV-1 and their participation in the viral cycle...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
Viviana A Carcamo Yañez, Jens C Göpfert, Markus Otto, Hayrettin Tumani, Andreas Peter, Thomas O Joos
Procalcitonin (PCT) is well established as a highly specific biomarker for the detection of bacterial infections and sepsis. However, the currently available diagnostic tests are not able to detect very low or very early increases of PCT or even baseline levels in healthy individuals or patients with non-bacterial infections. In order to be able to detect these very low concentrations of PCT, a sandwich immunoassay was developed using high sensitivity Single Molecule Array technology (Simoa). The assay was thoroughly validated and applied to analyze human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from patients with bacterial or viral meningitis as well as CSF, serum, and K2 EDTA plasma from healthy control subjects...
November 16, 2017: High Throughput
Keita Takahashi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Yuji Kurihara, Hiroshi Doi, Misako Kunii, Kenichi Tanaka, Haruko Nakamura, Ryoko Fukai, Atsuko Tomita-Katsumoto, Mikiko Tada, Yuichi Higashiyama, Hideto Joki, Shigeru Koyano, Kohtaro Takei, Fumiaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Although inflammation in the central nervous system is responsible for multiple neurological diseases, the lack of appropriate biomarkers makes it difficult to evaluate inflammatory activities in these diseases. Therefore, a new biomarker reflecting neuroinflammation is required for accurate diagnosis, appropriate therapy, and comprehension of pathogenesis of these neurological disorders. We previously reported that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of lateral olfactory tract usher substance (LOTUS), which promotes axonal growth as a Nogo receptor 1 antagonist, negatively correlates with disease activity in multiple sclerosis, suggesting that variation in LOTUS reflects the inflammatory activities and is a useful biomarker to evaluate the disease activity...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Karen J Vigil, Lucrecia Salazar, Rodrigo Hasbun
We conducted a retrospective study of 549 adults admitted with community-acquired meningitis (CAM) to several hospitals in New Orleans, LA and Houston, TX between 1999 and 2014 to characterize the current epidemiology, clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics, and outcomes of CAM between HIV-infected and uninfected patients and to identify risk factors for adverse outcomes in CAM. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were used to identify prognostic factors. A total of 1022 patients with CAM were screened...
February 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Andreas Ravn, Louise Feldborg Lyckhage, Rigmor Høland Jensen
In this case report a young man was admitted with fever and headache, and a lumbar puncture revealed viral meningitis. After discharge, the patient experienced persistent headache, which worsened, when he was in upright position. The condition was considered secondary to the meningitis. After 14 months, the patient was diagnosed with post-dural puncture headache and treated with an epidural blood patch (EBP). The patient experienced no headache for three months, whereafter it returned. Subsequent EBP's were unsuccessful...
February 5, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Olli H Laitinen, Emma Svedin, Sebastian Kapell, Minna M Hankaniemi, Pär G Larsson, Erna Domsgen, Virginia M Stone, Juha A E Määttä, Heikki Hyöty, Vesa P Hytönen, Malin Flodström-Tullberg
Enteroviruses (EVs), such as the Coxsackie B-viruses (CVBs), are common human pathogens, which can cause severe disease including meningitis, myocarditis and neonatal sepsis. EVs encode two proteases (2Apro and 3Cpro), which perform the proteolytic cleavage of the CVB polyprotein and also cleave host cell proteins to facilitate viral replication. The 2Apro cause direct damage to the infected heart and tools to investigate 2Apro and 3Cpro expression may contribute new knowledge on virus-induced pathologies. Here, we developed new antibodies to CVB-encoded 2Apro and 3Cpro; Two monoclonal 2Apro antibodies and one 3Cpro antibody were produced...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Jacob Bodilsen, Merete Storgaard, Lykke Larsen, Lothar Wiese, Jannik Helweg-Larsen, Anne-Mette Lebech, Christian Brandt, Christian Østergaard, Henrik Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: To monitor epidemiological trends of infectious meningitis (bacterial and viral) and encephalitis in Denmark. METHODS: Nation-wide prospective observational study of all cases with proven community-acquired infectious meningitis and encephalitis in adults treated in all departments of infectious diseases in Denmark from 1st of January 2015 to 30th of June 2016. We included data on symptoms, aetiology, treatment and outcome assessed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) 30-days after discharge...
January 30, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Huilan Chen, Fei Wu, Rong Fu, Xiangchun Feng
Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) levels in cerebrospinal fluid of pediatric patients with neonatal purulent meningitis were observed to analyze changes in serum procalcitonin (PCT) and the correlation among the three factors (MMP-2, TIMP-1 and PCT). Sixty pediatric patients with neonatal purulent meningitis from April 2015 to December 2016 were enrolled as the purulent meningitis group and 60 pediatric patients with viral encephalitis treated during the same period were enrolled as the viral encephalitis group...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Marc Nikolaus, Ellen Knierim, Christian Meisel, Jakob Kreye, Harald Prüss, Dirk Schnabel, Tilmann Kallinich
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune-mediated processes are the driving force behind many neurological diseases. Autoimmune encephalitis, a group of syndromes, mediated by or at least associated with autoantibodies against neuronal tissue, have gained increasing importance especially in paediatric neurology. Since the first NMDAR encephalitis was described a growing number of patients with encephalopathy, seizures and psychiatric symptoms were found to suffer from treatable autoimmune disorders. Recently a severe form of encephalitis associated with GABAAR antibodies was described showing extensive MRI abnormalities and refractory seizures...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Ikanyeng D Seipone, Ravesh Singh, Vinod B Patel, Avashna Singh, Michelle L Gordon, Daniel M Muema, Keertan Dheda, Thumbi Ndung'u
To gain a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and identify potential diagnostic biomarkers that may discriminate TBM from other HIV-1-associated meningitides, we assessed HIV-1 viral load levels, drug resistance patterns in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced patients with persistent viremia and soluble immunological analytes in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-1 infected patients with TBM versus other meningitides. One hundred and three matched blood and CSF samples collected from HIV-1 infected patients with TBM or other meningitides presenting at a hospital in Durban, South Africa, from January 2009 to December 2011 were studied...
2018: PloS One
JianYing Wang, Tong Zhang, Yi Lu, GuangYa Zhou, Qin Chen, Bing Niu
BACKGROUND: Vesicular stomatitis (VS) is an important viral disease of livestock. The main feature of VS is irregular blisters that occur on the lips, tongue, oral mucosa, hoof crown and nipple. Humans can also be infected with vesicular stomatitis and develop meningitis. This study analyses 2014 American VS outbreaks in order to accurately predict vesicular stomatitis outbreak trends. METHODS: American VS outbreaks data were collected from OIE. The data for VS keywords were obtained by inputting 24 disease-related keywords into Google Trends...
2018: PloS One
Anna Nagy, Orsolya Nagy, Katalin Tarcsai, Ágnes Farkas, Mária Takács
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the endemic flaviviruses in Hungary, which is responsible for human infections every year. Neurological involvement in the disease is characterized by meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis which can result in long-term neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae. Microbiological diagnosis of acute cases is predominantly based on serological tests due to the limited duration of viremia and long incubation period, however, the application of molecular methods can also supplement the serological diagnosis and provides epidemiological data...
January 10, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Hsing-I Huang, Chi-Chong Chio, Jhao-Yin Lin
EV71 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family. EV71 infection may cause various symptoms ranging from hand-foot-and-mouth disease to neurological pathological conditions such as aseptic meningitis, ataxia, and acute transverse myelitis. There is currently no effective treatment or vaccine available. Various compounds have been examined for their ability to restrict EV71 replication. However, most experiments have been performed in rhabdomyosarcoma or Vero cells...
2018: PloS One
Heleen Joséphine Schuster, Michelle Gompelman, Wim Ang, Albertus Jozef Kooter
A 45-year-old man was presented at the emergency department with altered neurological status and a 1-day history of diarrhoea and fever. The patient's sexual history revealed multiple male partners. As bacterial meningitis or viral encephalitis was suspected, treatment was started accordingly. Cerebrospinal fluid investigations only showed a slight increase of leucocytes, and microbiological studies remained negative. Stool culture revealed Shigella flexneri , after which Shigella- associated encephalopathy was suspected...
January 18, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Anne J Blaschke, E Kent Korgenski, Jacob Wilkes, Angela P Presson, Emily A Thorell, Andrew T Pavia, Elizabeth D Knackstedt, Carolyn Reynolds, Jeff E Schunk, Judy A Daly, Carrie L Byington
BACKGROUND: Febrile infants with viral respiratory infections have a reduced risk of bacterial infection compared with virus-negative infants. The risk of concomitant bacterial infection in febrile infants positive for human rhinovirus (HRV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is unknown. METHODS: Infants 1-90 days old managed using the care process model for well-appearing febrile infants and with respiratory viral testing by PCR (RVPCR) in the emergency department or inpatient setting of 22 hospitals in the Intermountain Healthcare system from 2007-2016 were identified...
February 2018: Pediatrics
Thanalai Poonsiri, Gareth S A Wright, Michael S Diamond, Lance Turtle, Tom Solomon, Svetlana V Antonyuk
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens including dengue, West Nile (WNV) and Zika viruses. JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases worldwide each year. In this study, we present a 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal β-ladder domain of JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1-C)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
Bingdong Zhu, Hazel M Dockrell, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Thomas G Evans, Ying Zhang
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious disease around the world. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine licensed for use in human beings, and is effective in protecting infants and children against severe miliary and meningeal TB. However, BCG's protective efficacy is variable in adults. Novel TB vaccine candidates being developed include whole-cell vaccines (recombinant BCG (rBCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, killed M. tuberculosis or Mycobacterium vaccae), adjuvanted protein subunit vaccines, viral vector-delivered subunit vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines, RNA-based vaccines etc...
January 17, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Caterina Veroni, Barbara Serafini, Barbara Rosicarelli, Corrado Fagnani, Francesca Aloisi
BACKGROUND: It is debated whether multiple sclerosis (MS) might result from an immunopathological response toward an active Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection brought into the central nervous system (CNS) by immigrating B cells. Based on this model, a relationship should exist between the local immune milieu and EBV infection status in the MS brain. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed expression of viral and cellular genes in brain-infiltrating immune cells. METHODS: Twenty-three postmortem snap-frozen brain tissue blocks from 11 patients with progressive MS were selected based on good RNA quality and prominent immune cell infiltration...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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