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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119851/clinical-characteristics-of-children-infected-with-enterovirus-d68-in-an-outpatient-clinic-and-the-association-with-bronchial-asthma
#1
Tsutomu Itagaki, Yoko Aoki, Yohei Matoba, Shizuka Tanaka, Tatsuya Ikeda, Katsumi Mizuta, Yoko Matsuzaki
BACKGROUND: All reports of increases in severe respiratory disease associated with human enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) are from hospital settings. However, there are few reports describing clinical characteristics in less severely affected populations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study from January 2010 to December 2015 in Yamagata, Japan. Using regional passive surveillance, 5794 respiratory specimens were collected from children who initially presented to an outpatient clinic with acute respiratory symptoms...
November 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092659/cost-justification-of-the-biofire-filmarray-meningitis-encephalitis-panel-versus-standard-of-care-for-diagnosing-meningitis-in-a-community-hospital
#2
Dana K Soucek, Lisa E Dumkow, Kali M VanLangen, Andrew P Jameson
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain and culture along with CSF viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the current standard of care (SOC) to diagnose meningitis. Unfortunately, these tests take up to 72 hours to provide results and are not always sensitive to detect a pathogen. BioFire FilmArray (FA) meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel uses PCR to provide quick, accurate identification of the causative organism. For community hospitals, the cost of this technology may be prohibitive...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049097/low-serum-uric-acid-levels-in-patients-with-acute-central-nervous-system-viral-infections
#3
Xiang Li, Qiaowen Tong, Dewei Xie, Zhibo Chen, Sipei Pan, Xu Zhang, Wanli Dong
Most acute central nervous system (CNS) viral infections lead to either encephalitis or meningitis. Many neurotropic viruses may cause CNS dysfunctions through various mechanisms including oxidative stress. Serum uric acid (SUA) levels, which are associated with oxidative stress and antioxidant status, are reduced in patients with various neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis. We investigated the possible correlation between SUA levels and clinical disease status in patients with acute CNS viral infections...
December 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049009/seroepidemiology-of-coxsackievirus-b5-in-infants-and-children-in-jiangsu-province-china
#4
Fan Gao, Lianlian Bian, Xiaotian Hao, Yalin Hu, Xin Yao, Shiyang Sun, Pan Chen, Ce Yang, Ruixiao Du, Jingxin Li, Fengcai Zhu, Qunying Mao, Zhenglun Liang
Coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5) is associated with various human diseases such as viral encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, paralysis, herpangina, and hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, there is currently no effective vaccine against CV-B5.The seroepidemiologic characteristics of CV-B5 remained unknown. A cohort study was carried out in 176 participants aged 6-35 months from January 2012 to January 2014. The serum samples were collected and tested for CV-B5 neutralizing antibodies (NtAbs) four times during these two years...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042917/viral-infections-neonatal-mortality-and-the-mystery-of-the-athenian-agora-an-interview-with-professor-of-anthropology-maria-liston
#5
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Although excavated almost 80 years ago, the infants' 'bone well' of the Athenian Agora in Athens, Greece and its contents were never thoroughly evaluated and published, until only recently, when a re-analysis of the whole excavation findings was performed. The well dates back to the third quarter of the 2nd century BC and contained at least 449 infants. The project, which explored the causes of neonatal mortality, found that one-third of infants' deaths were attributed to neonatal meningitis, based on the presence of bone disposition on the endocranial surface of the studied skulls...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033632/review-of-viral-encephalitis-cases-seen-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-turkey-focus-on-herpes-simplex-type-1
#6
Beyza Çiftçi Kavaklioğlu, Eda Çoban, Aysu Şen, Elif Söylemezoğlu, Mehmet Ali Aldan, Dilek Atakli, Aysun Soysal
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), known as the most common, potentially mortal, and treatable cause of sporadic encephalitis, in a sample Turkish population. METHODS: The demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, electrophysiology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA results of patients examined with a pre-diagnosis of encephalitis were retrospectively examined. RESULTS: A total of 68 patients were included in the study...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987194/overview-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytology
#7
Jasmin Rahimi, Adelheid Woehrer
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology, i.e., the cytologic evaluation of its cellular composition, forms an integral part of the neurologist's armamentarium. Total and differential cell counts provide important first information across a spectrum of pathologic conditions involving the central nervous system and its coverings. CSF samples require immediate processing, ideally within 1 hour from collection. Upon centrifugation cytology is commonly assessed on May-Grunwald-Giemsa stains. Several additional stains are available for the identification of infectious agents such as bacteria or fungi, or the further specification of neoplastic cells by immunocytochemistry...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987172/acute-and-chronic-viral-infections
#8
Nikolaus Deigendesch, Werner Stenzel
A large number of viruses belonging to various families are able to cause central nervous system (CNS) infections and contribute significantly to burden of disease in humans globally. Most viral CNS infections are benign and self-limiting, and most remain undiagnosed. However, some viruses can cause severe inflammation, leading to morbidity and mortality, and result in severe long-term residual damage and neurologic dysfunction in patients. The potential of viruses to cause CNS inflammation greatly varies depending on host factors, such as age, sex, and genetic background, as well as viral factors...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982020/streptococcus-phocae-in-marine-mammals-of-northeastern-pacific-and-arctic-canada-a-retrospective-analysis-of-85-postmortem-investigations
#9
Nicole D Taurisano, Brian P Butler, Diana Stone, Harry Hariharan, Paul J Fields, Hugh W Ferguson, Martin Haulena, Paul Cotrell, Ole Nielsen, Stephen Raverty
Streptococcus phocae is a pathogen of marine mammals, although its pathogenicity remains poorly understood. Recovery of this bacterium from asymptomatic carriers suggests that it is an opportunistic pathogen. We investigated the role of S. phocae in naturally occurring disease and its significance as a pathogen based on postmortem investigations. Between 2007 and 2012, 1,696 whole carcasses, tissue samples, or both were submitted from the northeastern Pacific and Arctic Canada for diagnostic testing. Streptococcus phocae was cultured from phocids (n=66), otariids (n=12), harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena; n=5), and sea otters (Enhydra lutris; n=2)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975967/application-value-of-procalcitonin-in-patients-with-central-nervous-system-infection
#10
X-F Zhang, X-Q Zhang, C-C Wu, H-W Wu, D Wei
OBJECTIVE: To study the application value of procalcitonin (PCT) in patients with central nervous system (CNS) infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 66 patients, including 24 patients with suppurative meningitis, 20 patients with viral meningitis and 22 patients with tuberculous meningitis, were enrolled. 20 patients admitted to the hospital due to epilepsy or headache without infection in the same period were enrolled as the control group. PCT, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), protein quantification, chloride and glucose in serum and cerebrospinal fluid, were collected...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973047/tlr3-is-required-for-survival-following-coxsackievirus-b3-infection-by-driving-t-lymphocyte-activation-and-polarization-the-role-of-dendritic-cells
#11
Renata Sesti-Costa, Marcela Cristina Santiago Françozo, Grace Kelly Silva, José Luiz Proenca-Modena, João Santana Silva
Type B coxsackievirus (CVB) is a common cause of acute and chronic myocarditis, meningitis and pancreatitis, often leading to heart failure and pancreatic deficiency. The polarization of CD4+ T lymphocytes and their cytokine milieu are key factors in the outcome of CVB-induced diseases. Thus, sensing the virus and driving the adaptive immune response are essential for the establishment of a protective immune response. TLR3 is a crucial virus recognition receptor that confers the host with resistance to CVB infection...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954265/differential-detection-of-enterovirus-and-herpes-simplex-virus-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-by-real-time-rt-pcr
#12
Brenda Sarquiz-Martínez, César R González-Bonilla, Clara Esperanza Santacruz-Tinoco, José E Muñoz-Medina, Héctor D Pardavé-Alejandre, Elizabeth Barbosa-Cabrera, José Ernesto Ramírez-González, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez
BACKGROUND: Enterovirus (EV) and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are the main etiologic agents of central nervous system infections. Early laboratory confirmation of these infections is performed by viral culture of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or the detection of specific antibodies in serum (e.g., HSV). The sensitivity of viral culture ranges from 65 to 75%, with a recovery time varying from 3 to 10 days. Serological tests are faster and easy to carry out, but they exhibit cross-reactivity between HSV1 and HSV2...
September 28, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935665/evaluating-the-impact-of-implementing-a-clinical-practice-guideline-for-febrile-infants-with-positive-respiratory-syncytial-virus-or-enterovirus-testing
#13
Adrienne DePorre, David D Williams, Jennifer Schuster, Jason Newland, Jacqueline Bartlett, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Keith Mann, Russell McCulloh
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical practice patterns and patient outcomes among febrile low-risk infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection or enterovirus (EV) meningitis after implementing a clinical practice guideline (CPG) that provides recommendations for managing febrile infants with RSV infection and EV meningitis. METHODS: Our institution implemented a CPG for febrile infants, which gives explicit recommendations for managing both RSV-positive and EV-positive infants in 2011...
October 2017: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929964/-investigation-of-bacterial-and-viral-etiology-in-community-acquired-central-nervous-system-infections-with-molecular-methods
#14
Hasip Kahraman, Alper Tünger, Şebnem Şenol, Hörü Gazi, Meltem Avcı, Bahar Örmen, Nesrin Türker, Sabri Atalay, Şükran Köse, Sercan Ulusoy, Meltem Işıkgöz Taşbakan, Oğuz Reşat Sipahi, Tansu Yamazhan, Zeynep Gülay, Sema Alp Çavuş, Hüsnü Pullukçu
In this multicenter prospective cohort study, it was aimed to evaluate the bacterial and viral etiology in community-acquired central nervous system infections by standart bacteriological culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Patients hospitalized with central nervous system infections between April 2012 and February 2014 were enrolled in the study. Demographic and clinical information of the patients were collected prospectively. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of the patients were examined by standart bacteriological culture methods, bacterial multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-B ACE Detection (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Group B streptococci) and viral multiplex PCR (Seeplex meningitis-V1 ACE Detection kits herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 6 (HHV6)) (Seeplex meningitis-V2 ACE Detection kit (enteroviruses))...
July 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925647/aseptic-and-bacterial-meningitis-evaluation-treatment-and-prevention
#15
Hillary R Mount, Sean D Boyle
The etiologies of meningitis range in severity from benign and self-limited to life-threatening with potentially severe morbidity. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency that requires prompt recognition and treatment. Mortality remains high despite the introduction of vaccinations for common pathogens that have reduced the incidence of meningitis worldwide. Aseptic meningitis is the most common form of meningitis with an annual incidence of 7.6 per 100,000 adults. Most cases of aseptic meningitis are viral and require supportive care...
September 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916998/emergency-neurologic-life-support-meningitis-and-encephalitis
#16
David F Gaieski, Nicole F O'Brien, Ricardo Hernandez
Bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis, particularly herpes simplex encephalitis, are severe neurological infections that, if not treated promptly and effectively, lead to poor neurological outcome or death. Because of the value of early recognition and treatment, meningitis and encephalitis was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. This protocol provides a practical approach to recognition and urgent treatment of bacterial meningitis and encephalitis. Appropriate imaging, spinal fluid analysis, and early empiric treatment are discussed...
September 15, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889017/mycoplasmas-brain-invaders
#17
REVIEW
Rubén S Rosales, Roberto Puleio, Guido R Loria, Salvatore Catania, Robin A J Nicholas
Mycoplasmas of humans and animals are usually associated with respiratory, autoimmune, genital and joint diseases. Human mycoplasmas have also been known to affect the brain. Severe central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as encephalitis, have been linked to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and ureaplasma infections. Less well known is the sheep and goat pathogen, Mycoplasma agalactiae, which has been found in large quantities in the brain where it may be responsible for non-purulent encephalitis as well as ataxia in young animals...
September 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885354/acute-versus-subacute-community-acquired-meningitis-analysis-of-611-patients
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tarek Sulaiman, Lucrecia Salazar, Rodrigo Hasbun
Community-acquired meningitis can be classified into acute and subacute presentations by the duration of illness of ≤ or >5 days, respectively. There are currently no studies comparing the clinical features, management decisions, etiologies, and outcomes between acute and subacute presentations.It is a retrospective study of adults with community-acquired meningitis hospitalized in Houston, TX between January 2005 and January 2010. An adverse clinical outcome was defined as a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of ≤4...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882017/utility-of-rapid-microbiological-techniques-for-the-diagnosis-of-severe-infections
#19
REVIEW
E Cercenado
Rapid diagnostic microbiological techniques and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are necessary for early and adequate treatment. The utility of old (Gram stain, antigen detection, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing, chromogenic media) and new techniques (molecular assays, MALDI-TOF) is summarized for the rapid diagnosis of bacteraemia and fungaemia, catheter-related bloodstream infections, pneumonia, meningitis, skin and soft-tissue infections, urinary tract infection, Clostridium difficile infection, viral infections, and tuberculosis...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879886/a-study-on-the-clinical-outcomes-and-management-of-meningitis-at-a-tertiary-care-centre
#20
Aparna Yerramilli, Priya Mangapati, Subhashini Prabhakar, Harish Sirimulla, Shravani Vanam, Yashaswini Voora
BACKGROUND: Meningitis is a life threatening central nervous system infection that is prevalent worldwide. Many studies have been conducted on bacterial meningitis, but the information is inadequate on the other types of meningitis, especially prevalent in India. Regional information regarding trends, in terms of etiology and microbiological susceptibility, are essential for timely and adequate management of meningitis. AIMS: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the changing epidemiology of meningitis by reviewing the causative agents, the available laboratory methods for making the etiological diagnosis, the risk factors and the clinical outcomes, and the management of meningitis in our patient population...
September 2017: Neurology India
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