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CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335476/inhibition-of-neoplastic-transformation-and-chemically-induced-skin-hyperplasia-in-mice-by-traditional-chinese-medicinal-formula-si-wu-tang
#1
Mandy M Liu, Kevin M Huang, Steven Yeung, Andy Chang, Suhui Zhang, Nan Mei, Cyrus Parsa, Robert Orlando, Ying Huang
Exploring traditional medicines may lead to the development of low-cost and non-toxic cancer preventive agents. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), comprising the combination of four herbs, Rehmanniae, Angelica, Chuanxiong, and Paeoniae, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines for women's diseases. In our previous studies, the antioxidant Nrf2 pathways were strongly induced by SWT in vitro and in vivo. Since Nrf2 activation has been associated with anticarcinogenic effects, the purpose of this study is to evaluate SWT's activity of cancer prevention...
March 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333122/differences-in-the-bacteriome-of-smokeless-tobacco-products-with-different-oral-carcinogenicity-compositional-and-predicted-functional-analysis
#2
Nezar Noor Al-Hebshi, Fahd Ali Alharbi, Mohammed Mahri, Tsute Chen
Smokeless tobacco (ST) products vary significantly in their oral carcinogenicity. Much is known about the differences in the chemical, but not the bacterial, constituents of these products. In this study, we explored the composition and function of the bacteriome in ST products from four countries using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rRNA-based next generation sequencing. The bacterial load (16S rRNA copies/gram) was lowest in Swedish snus (3.4 × 10⁶) and highest in Yemeni shammah (6...
March 23, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331119/estimation-of-biological-effects-of-tritium
#3
Toshiyuki Umata
Nuclear fusion technology is expected to create new energy in the future. However, nuclear fusion requires a large amount of tritium as a fuel, leading to concern about the exposure of radiation workers to tritium beta radiation. Furthermore, countermeasures for tritium-polluted water produced in decommissioning of the reactor at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station may potentially cause health problems in radiation workers. Although, internal exposure to tritium at a low dose/low dose rate can be assumed, biological effect of tritium exposure is not negligible, because tritiated water (HTO) intake to the body via the mouth/inhalation/skin would lead to homogeneous distribution throughout the whole body...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327540/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-endometrial-cancer-an-overview-of-recent-laboratory-evidence-and-epidemiological-studies
#4
REVIEW
Maddalena Mallozzi, Chiara Leone, Francesca Manurita, Filippo Bellati, Donatella Caserta
Background: Although exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) has been suggested as a contributing factor to a range of women's health disorders including infertility, polycystic ovaries and the early onset of puberty, considerable challenges remain in attributing cause and effect on gynaecological cancer. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between EDCs and endometrial cancer, however, in the last years the number of these studies has increased...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322331/targeted-disruption-of-tc-ptp-in-the-proliferative-compartment-augments-stat3-and-akt-signaling-and-skin-tumor-development
#5
Hyunseung Lee, Mihwa Kim, Minwoo Baek, Liza D Morales, Ik-Soon Jang, Thomas J Slaga, John DiGiovanni, Dae Joon Kim
Tyrosine phosphorylation is a vital mechanism that contributes to skin carcinogenesis. It is regulated by the counter-activities of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Here, we report the critical role of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP), encoded by Ptpn2, in chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis via the negative regulation of STAT3 and AKT signaling. Using epidermal specific TC-PTP knockout (K14Cre.Ptpn2(fl/fl)) mice, we demonstrate loss of TC-PTP led to a desensitization to tumor initiator 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced apoptosis both in vivo epidermis and in vitro keratinocytes...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321044/investigation-of-the-early-response-genes-in-chemical-induced-renal-carcinogenicity-for-the-prediction-of-chemical-carcinogenicity-in-rats
#6
Hiroshi Matsumoto, Fumiyo Saito, Masahiro Takeyoshi
This study was designed to identify early-response genes of chemical-induced renal carcinogenicity for the prediction of chemical carcinogenicity in rats. We conducted a 28-day repeated-dose test in male Crl:CD (SD) rats with 12 carcinogens and 10 non-carcinogens as the training dataset, and five carcinogens and five non-carcinogens as the validation dataset. Renal gene expression profiles were analyzed by using a microarray. Fifteen candidate genes were selected from the gene expression profiles of the training dataset as genes that showed specific expression in response to carcinogens...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317609/analysis-of-nitrite-and-nitrate-in-foods-overview-of-chemical-regulatory-and-analytical-aspects
#7
L Merino, U Örnemark, F Toldrá
In this chapter, several factors that should be considered for selecting and developing suitable analytical methods for determining nitrite/nitrate are presented. Nitrite and nitrate occurrence and suitability are a controversial issue. Nitrite is an approved additive considered a foremost curing ingredient for the preservation of meat products. Nitrate is a natural constituent of the human diet that, however, raises fears for its suggested potential harmfulness related to carcinogenesis and environmental contamination...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316010/protective-effect-of-lactobacillus-casei-on-dmh-induced-colon-carcinogenesis-in-mice
#8
Cesar Antonio Irecta-Nájera, María Del Rosario Huizar-López, Josefina Casas-Solís, Patricia Castro-Félix, Anne Santerre
The administration of probiotics is a promising approach to reduce the prevalence of colon cancer, a multifactorial disease, with hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors. Biogenic polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are small cationic molecules with great roles in cell proliferation and differentiation as well as regulation of gene expression. Ornithine decarboxylase is the first rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine synthesis, and upregulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity and polyamine metabolism has been associated with abnormal cell proliferation...
March 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297882/quantum-mechanical-model-for-the-anticarcinogenic-effect-of-extremely-low-frequency-electromagnetic-fields-on-early-chemical-hepatocarcinogenesis
#9
Juan José Godina-Nava, Gabino Torres-Vega, Germán Octavio López-Riquelme, Eduardo López-Sandoval, Arturo Rodolfo Samana, Fermín García Velasco, Claudia Hernández-Aguilar, Arturo Domínguez-Pacheco
Using the conventional Haberkorn approach, it is evaluated the recombination of the radical pair (RP) singlet spin state to study theoretically the cytoprotective effect of an extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early stages of hepatic cancer chemically induced in rats. The proposal is that ELF-EMF modulates the interconversion rate of singlet and triplet spin states of the RP populations modifying the products from the metabolization of carcinogens. Previously, we found that the daily treatment with ELF-EMF 120 Hz inhibited the number and area of preneoplastic lesions in chemical carcinogenesis...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292018/vitis-vinifera-peel-and-seed-gold-nanoparticles-exhibit-chemopreventive-potential-antioxidant-activity-and-induce-apoptosis-through-mutant-p53-bcl-2-and-pan-cytokeratin-down-regulation-in-experimental-animals
#10
J Grace Nirmala, R T Narendhirakannan
Several studies suggest surface modifications of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by capping agents or surface coatings could play an important role in biological systems, and site directed delivery. The present study was carried out to assess the antioxidant and apoptotic activities of the Vitis vinifera peel and seed gold nanoparticles in experimentally induced cancer in Swiss albino mice. 12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) (single application) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) (thrice a week) were applied on the dorsal area of the skin to induce skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice for 16 weeks...
March 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286564/targeting-histone-methylation-for-colorectal-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Tao Huang, Chengyuan Lin, Linda L D Zhong, Ling Zhao, Ge Zhang, Aiping Lu, Jiang Wu, Zhaoxiang Bian
As a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) results from accumulation of both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Disruption of epigenetic regulation in CRC, particularly aberrant histone methylation mediated by histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and demethylases (HDMs), have drawn increasing interest in recent years. In this paper, we aim to review the roles of histone methylation and associated enzymes in the pathogenesis of CRC, and the development of small-molecule modulators to regulate histone methylation for treating CRC...
January 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277539/epidermal-rac1-regulates-the-dna-damage-response-and-protects-from-uv-light-induced-keratinocyte-apoptosis-and-skin-carcinogenesis
#12
Jayesh Deshmukh, Ruth Pofahl, Ingo Haase
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common type of cancer. Increased expression and activity of Rac1, a small Rho GTPase, has been shown previously in NMSC and other human cancers; suggesting that Rac1 may function as an oncogene in skin. DMBA/TPA skin carcinogenesis studies in mice have shown that Rac1 is required for chemically induced skin papilloma formation. However, UVB radiation by the sun, which causes DNA damage, is the most relevant cause for NMSC. A potential role of Rac1 in UV-light-induced skin carcinogenesis has not been investigated so far...
March 9, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274868/chemical-characterization-antioxidant-immune-regulating-and-anticancer-activities-of-a-novel-bioactive-polysaccharide-from-chenopodium-quinoa-seeds
#13
Yichen Hu, Jinming Zhang, Liang Zou, Chaomei Fu, Peng Li, Gang Zhao
Chenopodium quinoa, a promising nutraceutical cereal, has attracted increasing research interest, yet its polysaccharides remains to get few systematic studies. In this study, we employed orthogonal experimental design to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction process for highest yield of C. quinoa polysaccharides. A novel C. quinoa polysaccharide (CQP) fraction with high content and low molecular weight (8852Da) was subsequently purified by column chromatography, constituted by galacturonic acid and glucose monosaccharides...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273792/antioxidants-for-healthy-skin-the-emerging-role-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptors-and-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2
#14
REVIEW
Masutaka Furue, Hiroshi Uchi, Chikage Mitoma, Akiko Hashimoto-Hachiya, Takahito Chiba, Takamichi Ito, Takeshi Nakahara, Gaku Tsuji
Skin is the outermost part of the body and is, thus, inevitably exposed to UV rays and environmental pollutants. Oxidative stress by these hazardous factors accelerates skin aging and induces skin inflammation and carcinogenesis. Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHRs) are chemical sensors that are abundantly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes and mediate the production of reactive oxygen species. To neutralize or minimize oxidative stress, the keratinocytes also express nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 (NRF2), which is a master switch for antioxidant signaling...
March 3, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265305/the-10th-anniversary-of-the-publication-of-genes-and-environment-memoir-of-establishing-the-japanese-environmental-mutagen-society-and-a-proposal-for-a-new-collaborative-study-on-mutagenic-hormesis
#15
Shizuyo Sutou
The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) was established in 1972 by 147 members, 11 of whom are still on the active list as of May 1, 2016. As one of them, I introduce some historic topics here. These include 1) establishment of JEMS, 2) the issue of 2-(2-furyl)-3-(3-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (AF-2), 3) the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS) and its achievements, and 4) the Collaborative Study Group of the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT) and its achievements. In addition to these historic matters, some of which are still ongoing, a new collaborative study is proposed on adaptive response or hormesis by mutagens...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261026/air-pollution-uv-irradiation-and-skin-carcinogenesis-what-we-know-where-we-stand-and-what-is-likely-to-happen-in-the-future
#16
REVIEW
Barbara Zegarska, Katarzyna Pietkun, Wojciech Zegarski, Paulina Bolibok, Marek Wiśniewski, Katarzyna Roszek, Joanna Czarnecka, Maciej Nowacki
The link between air pollution, UV irradiation and skin carcinogenesis has been demonstrated within a large number of epidemiological studies. Many have shown the detrimental effect that UV irradiation can have on human health as well as the long-term damage which can result from air pollution, the European ESCAPE project being a notable example. In total, at present around 2800 different chemical substances are systematically released into the air. This paper looks at the hazardous impact of air pollution and UV and discusses: 1) what we know; 2) where we stand; and 3) what is likely to happen in the future...
February 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245158/alternative-multiorgan-initiation-promotion-assay-for-chemical-carcinogenesis-in-the-wistar-rat
#17
Marize de Lourdes Marzo Solano, Noeme Souza Rocha, Luis Fernando Barbisan, Carla Adriene da Silva Franchi, Ana Lúcia Tozzi Spinardi-Barbisan, Maria Luiza Cotrim Sartor de Oliveira, Daisy Maria Fávero Salvadori, Lúcia Regina Ribeiro, João Lauro Viana de Camargo
The medium-term multiorgan initiation-promotion chemical bioassay (diethylnitrosamine, methyl-nitrosourea, butyl-hydroxybutylnitrosamine, dihydroxypropylnitrosamine, dimethylhydrazine [DMBDD]) with the Fischer 344 rat was proposed as an alternative to the conventional 2-year carcinogenesis bioassay for regulatory purposes. The acronym DMBDD stands for the names of five genotoxic agents used for initiation of multiorgan carcinogenesis. The Brazilian Agency for the Environment officially recognized a variation of this assay (DMBDD(b)) as a valid method to assess the carcinogenic potential of agrochemicals...
December 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224616/critical-cholangiocarcinogenesis-control-by-cryptochrome-clock-genes
#18
Ali Mteyrek, Elisabeth Filipski, Catherine Guettier, Malgorzata Oklejewicz, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Alper Okyar, Francis Lévi
A coordinated network of molecular circadian clocks in individual cells generates 24-hour rhythms in liver metabolism and proliferation. Circadian disruption through chronic jet lag or Per2 clock gene mutation was shown to accelerate hepatocarcinoma development in mice. Since divergent effects were reported for clock genes Per and Cry regarding xenobiotic toxicity, we questioned the role of Cry1 and Cry2 in liver carcinogenesis. Male WT and Cry1(-/-) Cry2(-/-) mice (C57Bl/6 background) were chronically exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at ZT11...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197857/diallyl-disulfide-suppresses-the-inflammation-and-apoptosis-resistance-induced-by-dca-through-ros-and-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-human-barrett-s-epithelial-cells
#19
Cheng Feng, Yumei Luo, Yuanyuan Nian, Dong Liu, Xiaoran Yin, Jing Wu, Jia Di, Rong Zhang, Jun Zhang
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is generally accepted as the only precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inflammation and apoptotic resistance play an important role in the carcinogenesis and progression from BE to EAC. Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a garlic-derived natural organosulfur compound. This study investigated whether DADS has chemopreventive effects against BE and the potentially related signaling pathway. BAR-T cells were treated with DCA in the presence or absence of DADS...
February 14, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188729/experimental-mammary-carcinogenesis-rat-models
#20
REVIEW
Antonieta Alvarado, Ana I Faustino-Rocha, Bruno Colaço, Paula A Oliveira
Mammary cancer is one of the most common cancers, victimizing more than half a million of women worldwide every year. Despite all the studies in this field, the current therapeutic approaches are not effective and have several devastating effects for patients. In this way, the need to better understand the mammary cancer biopathology and find effective therapies led to the development of several rodent models over years. With this review, the authors intended to provide the readers with an overview of the rat models used to study mammary carcinogenesis, with a special emphasis on chemically-induced models...
March 15, 2017: Life Sciences
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