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CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197857/diallyl-disulfide-suppresses-the-inflammation-and-apoptosis-resistance-induced-by-dca-through-ros-and-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-human-barrett-s-epithelial-cells
#1
Cheng Feng, Yumei Luo, Yuanyuan Nian, Dong Liu, Xiaoran Yin, Jing Wu, Jia Di, Rong Zhang, Jun Zhang
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is generally accepted as the only precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced inflammation and apoptotic resistance play an important role in the carcinogenesis and progression from BE to EAC. Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a garlic-derived natural organosulfur compound. This study investigated whether DADS has chemopreventive effects against BE and the potentially related signaling pathway. BAR-T cells were treated with DCA in the presence or absence of DADS...
February 14, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188729/experimental-mammary-carcinogenesis-rat-models
#2
REVIEW
Antonieta Alvarado, Ana I Faustino-Rocha, Bruno Colaço, Paula A Oliveira
Mammary cancer is one of the most common cancers, victimizing more than half a million of women worldwide every year. Despite all the studies in this field, the current therapeutic approaches are not effective and have several devastating effects for patients. In this way, the need to better understand the mammary cancer biopathology and find effective therapies led to the development of several rodent models over years. With this review, the authors intended to provide the readers with an overview of the rat models used to study mammary carcinogenesis, with a special emphasis on chemically-induced models...
February 7, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187456/inhibition-and-deficiency-of-the-immunoproteasome-subunit-lmp7-suppress-the-development-and-progression-of-colorectal-carcinoma-in-mice
#3
Julia Koerner, Thomas Brunner, Marcus Groettrup
New treatment options and drug targets for colorectal carcinoma are a pressing medical need. Inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokines produced by Th1 and Th17 cells like IL-6, TNF, IL-17 and IL-23 promote the development and growth of colorectal cancer (CRC). The immunoproteasome is a proteasome subtype highly expressed in immune cells but also in the intestine. Since the immunoproteasome promotes Th1 and Th17 differentiation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, we investigated here whether deficiency or inhibition of the immunoproteasome subunit LMP7 would interfere with CRC development and exacerbation in preventive and therapeutic mouse models...
February 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185164/in-vivo-uptake-of-rare-earth-metals-by-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Luca Roncati, Antonietta Morena Gatti, Giuseppe Barbolini, Francesco Piscioli, Teresa Pusiol, Antonio Maiorana
Rare earth metals (REM) are a group of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, namely scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y) and the lanthanides. In relation to atomic volume and geological behavior, the lanthanides are further subdivided into light, medium and heavy REM. They find many applications in the technological field; however, their impact on the human health is still conflicting and, for many aspects, unknown. During a research program carried on 113 cases of female breast cancer, immunohistochemically categorized in Her2-positive (29 cases), Her2-negative (57 cases) and triple negative (27 cases), aimed to evaluate the role of environmental particulate in carcinogenesis by elemental microanalysis, for the first time in literature we have detected a REM uptake, in detail europium (Eu), dysprosium (Dy) and praseodymium (Pr), inside the neoplastic cells belonging to a single triple negative breast cancer...
February 9, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175954/multiple-resistance-to-carcinogens-and-xenobiotics-p-glycoproteins-as-universal-detoxifiers
#5
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Manfred Volm
The detoxification of toxic substances is of general relevance in all biological systems. The plethora of exogenous xenobiotic compounds and endogenous toxic metabolic products explains the evolutionary pressure of all organisms to develop molecular mechanisms to detoxify and excrete harmful substances from the body. P-glycoprotein and other members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family extrude innumerous chemical compounds out of cells. Their specific expression in diverse biological contexts cause different phenotypes: (1) multidrug resistance (MDR) and thus failure of cancer chemotherapy, (2) avoidance of accumulation of carcinogens and prevention of carcinogenesis in healthy tissues, (3) absorption, distribution, metabolization and excretion (ADME) of pharmacological drugs in human patients, (4) protection from environmental toxins in aquatic organisms (multi-xenobiotic resistance, MXR)...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174618/transgenic-rat-models-for-mutagenesis-and-carcinogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Takehiko Nohmi, Kenichi Masumura, Naomi Toyoda-Hokaiwado
Rats are a standard experimental animal for cancer bioassay and toxicological research for chemicals. Although the genetic analyses were behind mice, rats have been more frequently used for toxicological research than mice. This is partly because they live longer than mice and induce a wider variety of tumors, which are morphologically similar to those in humans. The body mass is larger than mice, which enables to take samples from organs for studies on pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics. In addition, there are a number of chemicals that exhibit marked species differences in the carcinogenicity...
2017: Genes and Environment: the Official Journal of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141864/green-tea-polyphenol-induces-changes-in-cancer-related-factors-in-an-animal-model-of-bladder-cancer
#7
Tomohiro Matsuo, Yasuyoshi Miyata, Akihiro Asai, Yuji Sagara, Bungo Furusato, Junya Fukuoka, Hideki Sakai
Green tea polyphenol (GTP) suppresses carcinogenesis and aggressiveness in many types of malignancies including bladder cancer. However, the mechanistic basis of these effects is not well understood. This was investigated in the present study using a mouse model of chemically induced bladder cancer. C3H/He mice (8 weeks old; n = 46) were treated with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) solution for 14-24 weeks. Mice in the BBN + GTP group (n = 47) were also treated with 0.5% GTP solution over the same period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124725/phorbol-esters-in-seed-oil-of-jatropha-curcas-l-saboodam-in-thai-and-their-association-with-cancer-prevention-from-the-initial-investigation-to-the-present-topics
#8
REVIEW
Hirota Fujiki, Maitree Suttajit, Anchalee Rawangkan, Keisuke Iida, Pornngarm Limtrakul, Sonthaya Umsumarng, Masami Suganuma
PURPOSE: In 1988, we first reported the complete chemical structure of a new type of phorbol ester, abbreviated to DHPB, found in seed oil of Jatropha curcas L. (Saboodam in Thai) and its tumor-promoting activity on mouse skin. Although this seed oil contains toxic phorbol ester, it was planned to use it as a feasible renewable oil and the extracted seed cake as fertilizer. This utilization value opened a new science of Jatropha curcas. METHODS: The main experimental results are cited from our publications, and the relevant literature screened from journals and PubMed...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119000/threshold-and-non-threshold-chemical-carcinogens-a-survey-of-the-present-regulatory-landscape
#9
Ruth J Bevan, Paul T C Harrison
For the proper regulation of a carcinogenic material it is necessary to fully understand its mode of action, and in particular whether it demonstrates a threshold of effect. This paper explores our present understanding of carcinogenicity and the mechanisms underlying the carcinogenic response. The concepts of genotoxic and non-genotoxic and threshold and non-threshold carcinogens are fully described. We provide summary tables of the types of cancer considered to be associated with exposure to a number of carcinogens and the available evidence relating to whether carcinogenicity occurs through a threshold or non-threshold mechanism...
January 21, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117785/establishment-of-proliferative-tetraploid-cells-from-nontransformed-human-fibroblasts
#10
Susumu Ohshima, Atsushi Seyama
Polyploid (mostly tetraploid) cells are often observed in preneoplastic lesions of human tissues and their chromosomal instability has been considered to be responsible for carcinogenesis in such tissues. Although proliferative polyploid cells are requisite for analyzing chromosomal instability of polyploid cells, creating such cells from nontransformed human cells is rather challenging. Induction of tetraploidy by chemical agents usually results in a mixture of diploid and tetraploid populations, and most studies employed fluorescence-activated cell sorting or cloning by limiting dilution to separate tetraploid from diploid cells...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108177/discriminating-between-adaptive-and-carcinogenic-liver-hypertrophy-in-rat-studies-using-logistic-ridge-regression-analysis-of-toxicogenomic-data-the-mode-of-action-and-predictive-models
#11
Shujie Liu, Taisuke Kawamoto, Osamu Morita, Kouichi Yoshinari, Hiroshi Honda
Chemical exposure often results in liver hypertrophy in animal tests, characterized by increased liver weight, hepatocellular hypertrophy, and/or cell proliferation. While most of these changes are considered adaptive responses, there is concern that they may be associated with carcinogenesis. In this study, we have employed a toxicogenomic approach using a logistic ridge regression model to identify genes responsible for liver hypertrophy and hypertrophic hepatocarcinogenesis and to develop a predictive model for assessing hypertrophy-inducing compounds...
March 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107620/chemical-interaction-of-protein-cysteine-residues-with-reactive-metabolites-of-methyleugenol
#12
Yukun Feng, Hui Wang, Qian Wang, Wenlin Huang, Ying Peng, Jiang Zheng
Methyleugenol (ME), an alkenylbenzene compound, is a natural ingredient of several herbs and is used as flavoring agent in foodstuffs and fragrance in cosmetics. The hepatotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and carcinogenesis of ME have been well documented, and metabolic activation has been suggested to involve in ME-induced toxicities. The objective of this study was to identify chemical identity of interactions of protein with reactive metabolites of ME. Modification of cysteine residues of protein was observed in microsomal incubations and mice after exposure to ME...
January 20, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106049/food-grade-tio2-impairs-intestinal-and-systemic-immune-homeostasis-initiates-preneoplastic-lesions-and-promotes-aberrant-crypt-development-in-the-rat-colon
#13
Sarah Bettini, Elisa Boutet-Robinet, Christel Cartier, Christine Coméra, Eric Gaultier, Jacques Dupuy, Nathalie Naud, Sylviane Taché, Patrick Grysan, Solenn Reguer, Nathalie Thieriet, Matthieu Réfrégiers, Dominique Thiaudière, Jean-Pierre Cravedi, Marie Carrière, Jean-Nicolas Audinot, Fabrice H Pierre, Laurence Guzylack-Piriou, Eric Houdeau
Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105689/preferential-recognition-of-auto-antibodies-against-4-hydroxynonenal-modified-dna-in-the-cancer-patients
#14
Mohammad Faisal, Uzma Shahab, Abdulrahman A Alatar, Saheem Ahmad
BACKGROUND: The structural perturbations in DNA molecule may be caused by a break in a strand, a missing base from the backbone, or a chemically changed base. These alterations in DNA that occurs naturally can result from metabolic or hydrolytic processes. DNA damage plays a major role in the mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, aging and various other patho-physiological conditions. DNA damage can be induced through hydrolysis, exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other reactive carbonyl metabolites including 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101223/modulatory-effect-of-luteolin-on-redox-homeostasis-and-inflammatory-cytokines-in-a-mouse-model-of-liver-cancer
#15
Qiang Zhang, Jie Yang, Jun Wang
Liver cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Due to changes in lifestyle and daily exposure to various chemicals, which may lead to chemical intoxication, liver cancer has become a prominent disease in humans. Chemical-induced carcinogenesis in experimental animals has become a reliable model for the investigation of liver cancer-associated biological alterations that may mimic human hepatic cancer. Liver cancer in BALB/c mice was induced by administering diethylnitrosamine (DN) in drinking water for 6 weeks...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100771/janus-kinase-2-jak2-dissociates-hepatosteatosis-from-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-mice
#16
Sally Yu Shi, Stephanie A Schroer, Cynthia T Luk, Min Jeong Kim, David W Dodington, Lauren Lin, Tharini Sivasubramaniyam, Erica P Cai, Shun-Yan Lu, Kay-Uwe Wagner, Richard P Bazinet, Minna Woo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an end-stage complication of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, whether steatosis per se promotes liver cancer and the molecular mechanisms that control the progression in this disease spectrum remain largely elusive. The Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway mediates signal transduction by numerous cytokines that regulate inflammation and may contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088583/environmental-carcinogenesis-and-ph-homeostasis-not-only-a-matter-of-dysregulated-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Kévin Hardonnière, Laurence Huc, Odile Sergent, Jørn A Holme, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann
According to the World Health Organization, around 20% of all cancers would be due to environmental factors. Among these factors, several chemicals are indeed well recognized carcinogens. The widespread contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), an often used model carcinogen of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' family, has been suggested to target most, if not all, cancer hallmarks described by Hanahan and Weinberg. It is classified as a group I carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer; however, the precise intracellular mechanisms underlying its carcinogenic properties remain yet to be thoroughly defined...
January 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073348/wild-carrot-pentane-based-fractions-suppress-proliferation-of-human-hacat-keratinocytes-and-protect-against-chemically-induced-skin-cancer
#18
Wassim N Shebaby, Mohamad A Mroueh, Petra Boukamp, Robin I Taleb Ri, Kikki Bodman-Smith, Mirvat El-Sibai, Costantine F Daher
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the Lebanese Daucus carota ssp. carota (wild carrot) oil extract possesses in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. The present study aims to examine the cytotoxic effect of Daucus carota oil fractions on human epidermal keratinocytes and evaluate the chemopreventive activity of the pentane diethyl ether fraction on DMBA/TPA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. METHODS: Wild carrot oil extract was chromatographed to yield four fractions (F1, 100% pentane; F2, 50:50 pentane:diethyl ether; F3, 100% diethyl ether; F4 93:7 chloroform:methanol)...
January 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039793/lippia-graveolens-photochemopreventive-effect-against-uvb-radiation-induced-skin-carcinogenesis
#19
A M García-Bores, A M Espinosa-González, A Reyna-Campos, S Cruz-Toscano, J C Benítez-Flores, C T Hernández-Delgado, S Flores-Maya, M Urzúa-Meza, I Peñalosa-Castro, C L Céspedes-Acuña, J G Avila-Acevedo
Lippia graveolens HBK (Mexican oregano) is a species that is regularly used as a condiment in Mexican cuisine. In traditional medicine, it is used for the treatment of respiratory and digestive illnesses, headaches, rheumatism and inflammation-related disorders. The main chemical components reported in this species include the following: terpenoids, iridoids and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to determine the potential photochemopreventive effect of the methanolic extract of Lippia graveolens (MELG) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin cancer in SKH-1 mice...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013212/organ-specific-epigenetic-changes-induced-by-the-non-genotoxic-liver-carcinogen-methapyrilene-in-fischer-344-rats
#20
Svitlana Shpyleva, Kostiantyn Dreval, Aline de Conti, Iryna Kindrat, Stepan Melnyk, Jian Yan, Tao Chen, Frederick A Beland, Igor P Pogribny
Continuous lifetime exposure to certain natural and man-made chemicals is a major cause of cancers in humans; therefore, evaluating the carcinogenic risks of chemicals remains important. Currently, substantial progress has been made in identification of genotoxic carcinogens; in contrast, predicting a carcinogenic potential of non-genotoxic compounds is a challenge due to many different modes of action that may lead to tumorigenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the non-genotoxic liver carcinogen methapyrilene and the nongenotoxic non-carcinogen usnic acid at doses that do not exhibit organ cytotoxicity on epigenomic alterations in the liver and kidneys of Fischer 344 (F344) rats...
December 24, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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