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CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916803/advances-in-lipidomics-for-cancer-biomarkers-discovery
#1
REVIEW
Francesca Perrotti, Consuelo Rosa, Ilaria Cicalini, Paolo Sacchetta, Piero Del Boccio, Domenico Genovesi, Damiana Pieragostino
Lipids play critical functions in cellular survival, proliferation, interaction and death, since they are involved in chemical-energy storage, cellular signaling, cell membranes, and cell-cell interactions. These cellular processes are strongly related to carcinogenesis pathways, particularly to transformation, progression, and metastasis, suggesting the bioactive lipids are mediators of a number of oncogenic processes. The current review gives a synopsis of a lipidomic approach in tumor characterization; we provide an overview on potential lipid biomarkers in the oncology field and on the principal lipidomic methodologies applied...
November 28, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913196/nf-kb-regulated-exosomal-mir-155-promotes-the-inflammation-associated-with-arsenite-carcinogenesis
#2
Chao Chen, Fei Luo, Xinlu Liu, Lu Lu, Hui Xu, Qianlei Yang, Junchao Xue, Le Shi, Jun Li, Aihua Zhang, Qizhan Liu
In the cancer microenvironment, extracellular communication allows various types of cells to coordinate and execute biological functions. Emerging evidence indicates that exosomes, as mediators of cell communication, are involved in tumor progression. Little is known, however, about the mechanism by which exosomal miRNAs regulate inflammatory infiltration in arsenite-induced liver cancer. The present research aimed to determine if miRNAs secreted from arsenite-transformed human hepatic epithelial (L-02) cells are transferred into normal L-02 and THLE-3 cells, which are functionally active in the recipient cells...
November 30, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902959/kaempferol-a-phytoestrogen-suppressed-triclosan-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-metastatic-related-behaviors-of-mcf-7-breast-cancer-cells
#3
Geum-A Lee, Kyung-Chul Choi, Kyung-A Hwang
As a phytoestrogen, kaempferol is known to play a chemopreventive role inhibiting carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In this study, the influences of triclosan, an anti-bacterial agent recently known for an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), and kaempferol on breast cancer progression were examined by measuring their effects on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic-related behaviors of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Morphological changes of MCF-7 cells were observed, and a wound-healing assay was performed after the treatment of triclosan and kaempferol...
November 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888617/suppression-of-osteopontin-inhibits-chemically-induced-hepatic-carcinogenesis-by-induction-of-apoptosis-in-mice
#4
Su-Hyung Lee, Jun-Won Park, Sang-Ho Woo, Du-Min Go, Hyo-Jung Kwon, Ja-June Jang, Dae-Yong Kim
Previous clinical reports have found elevated osteopontin (OPN) levels in tumor tissues to be indicative of greater malignancy in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of OPN on carcinogenesis and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the oncogenic role of OPN in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. The overall incidence of hepatic tumors at 36 weeks was significantly lower in OPN knockout (KO) mice than in wild-type (WT) mice...
November 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880932/lgr6-stem-cells-and-their-progeny-in-mouse-epidermis-under-regimens-of-exogenous-skin-carcinogenesis-and-their-absence-in-ensuing-skin-tumors
#5
Gerline C van de Glind, Heggert G Rebel, Jacoba J Out-Luiting, Wim Zoutman, Cornelis P Tensen, Frank R de Gruijl
Lgr6+ cells have been identified as a novel class of proliferating (Ki67+) stem cells in mouse epidermis. We investigated their response to UV exposure in Lgr6-EGFP-Ires-CreERT2/R26R-LacZ haired and hairless mice and whether they become initiating cells of UV- or chemically induced skin tumors. UV overexposure erased Lgr6+ cells (EGFP+) from the interfollicular epidermis (IFE), but - as after wounding - they apparently repopulated the IFE from the hair follicles. Under sub-sunburn chronic UV exposure, Lgr6+ cells and their progeny (LacZ+ after pulse of tamoxifen) diminished strongly in the IFE...
November 17, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877185/lead-phytochemicals-for-anticancer-drug-development
#6
REVIEW
Sukhdev Singh, Bhupender Sharma, Shamsher S Kanwar, Ashok Kumar
Cancer is a serious concern at present. A large number of patients die each year due to cancer illnesses in spite of several interventions available. Development of an effective and side effects lacking anticancer therapy is the trending research direction in healthcare pharmacy. Chemical entities present in plants proved to be very potential in this regard. Bioactive phytochemicals are preferential as they pretend differentially on cancer cells only, without altering normal cells. Carcinogenesis is a complex process and includes multiple signaling events...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876017/increased-wnt5a-in-squamous-cell-lung-carcinoma-inhibits-endothelial-cell-motility
#7
J Rapp, E Kiss, M Meggyes, E Szabo-Meleg, D Feller, G Smuk, T Laszlo, V Sarosi, T F Molnar, K Kvell, J E Pongracz
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is important both in normal tissue function and disease and represents a key target in lung cancer (LC) therapy. Unfortunately, the two main subtypes of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC) namely, adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) respond differently to anti-angiogenic e.g. anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A treatment with life-threatening side effects, often pulmonary hemorrhage in SCC. The mechanisms behind such adverse reactions are still largely unknown, although peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR) gamma as well as Wnt-s have been named as molecular regulators of the process...
November 23, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867514/hepatitis-c-virus-drives-the-pathogenesis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-from-immune-evasion-to-carcinogenesis
#8
Miriam Canavese, Danushka Wijesundara, Guy J Maddern, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Ehud Hauben
Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common primary malignancy of the liver with over half a million new cases diagnosed annually worldwide. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor and its activation by environmental chemicals and by its endogenous ligand kynurenine (Kyn) has been implicated in a variety of tumour-promoting processes such as transformation, tumorigenesis and in immunosuppression that enables tumour survival and growth...
October 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867044/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cancer-chemoprevention-by-phytochemicals-from-dietary-and-medicinal-plants
#9
REVIEW
Anuradha Sehrawat, Ruchi Roy, Subrata K Pore, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Suman K Samanta, Krishna B Singh, Su-Hyeong Kim, Kamayani Singh, Shivendra V Singh
Cancer chemoprevention, a scientific term coined by Dr. Sporn in the late seventies, implies use of natural or synthetic chemicals to block, delay or reverse carcinogenesis. Phytochemicals derived from edible and medicinal plants have been studied rather extensively for cancer chemoprevention using preclinical models in the past few decades. Nevertheless, some of these agents (e.g., isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and watercress) have already entered into clinical investigations. Examples of widely studied and highly promising phytochemicals from edible and medicinal plants include cruciferous vegetables constituents (phenethyl isothiocyanate, benzyl isothiocyanate, and sulforaphane), withaferin A (WA) derived from a medicinal plant (Withania somnifera) used heavily in Asia, and an oriental medicine plant component honokiol (HNK)...
November 17, 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859308/resatorvid-based-pharmacological-antagonism-of-cutaneous-tlr4-blocks-uv-induced-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-ap-1-signaling-in-keratinocytes-and-mouse-skin
#10
Jaroslav Janda, Nichole Burkett, Karen Blohm-Mangone, Vivian Huang, Clara Curiel-Lewandrowski, David S Alberts, Emanuel F Petricoin, Valerie S Calvert, Janine Einspahr, Zigang Dong, Ann M Bode, Georg T Wondrak, Sally E Dickinson
Cutaneous exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major causative factor in skin carcinogenesis, and improved molecular strategies for efficacious chemoprevention of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are urgently needed. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling has been shown to drive skin inflammation, photoimmunosuppression and chemical carcinogenesis. Here we have examined the feasibility of genetic and pharmacological antagonism targeting cutaneous TLR4 for the suppression of UV-induced NF-κB and AP-1 signaling in keratinocytes and mouse skin...
November 10, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845862/bamboo-salt-suppresses-colon-carcinogenesis-in-c57bl-6-mice-with-chemically-induced-colitis
#11
Jaehyun Ju, Ga-Young Lee, Yoon-Se Kim, Hee Kyung Chang, Myoung-Sool Do, Kun-Young Park
The aim of our experiment was to evaluate the anticancer effect of bamboo salt (BS) on C57BL/6 mice in an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colon cancer model. BS, solar salt, and purified salt were evaluated for their protective effects during AOM/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis in C57BL/6 mice. BS, especially after baking for nine separate intervals (BS9x), suppressed colon carcinogenesis in the mice. BS9x decreased colon length shortening, weight-to-length ratios, and tumor counts...
November 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845398/terahertz-molecular-resonance-of-cancer-dna
#12
Hwayeong Cheon, Hee-Jin Yang, Sang-Hun Lee, Young A Kim, Joo-Hiuk Son
Carcinogenesis involves the chemical and structural alteration of biomolecules in cells. Aberrant methylation of DNA is a well-known carcinogenic mechanism and a common chemical modification of DNA. Terahertz waves can directly observe changes in DNA because the characteristic energies lie in the same frequency region. In addition, terahertz energy levels are not high enough to damage DNA by ionization. Here, we present terahertz molecular resonance fingerprints of DNA methylation in cancer DNA. Methylated cytidine, a nucleoside, has terahertz characteristic energies that give rise to the molecular resonance of methylation in DNA...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827272/the-inhibitory-effect-of-meadowsweet-filipendula-ulmaria-on-radiation-induced-carcinogenesis-in-rats
#13
Vladimir G Bespalov, Valery A Alexandrov, Alexandr L Semenov, Elena G Kovan'ko, Sergey D Ivanov, Galina I Vysochina, Vera А Kostikova, Denis A Baranenko
PURPOSE: To examine the ability of the meadowsweet preparation to inhibit carcinogenesis induced by ionizing radiation in female rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical composition of meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) raw material (ethanol and aqueous extracts of meadowsweet flowers) has been studied for the presence of flavonoids, tannins and catechins. In animal experiments adult female LIO strain rats were subjected to a single whole body γ-irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825936/new-insights-into-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-chemical-carcinogenesis-in-vivo-adduction-of-histone-h2b-by-a-reactive-metabolite-of-the-chemical-carcinogen-furan
#14
João Nunes, Inês L Martins, Catarina Charneira, Igor P Pogribny, Aline de Conti, Frederick A Beland, M Matilde Marques, Cristina C Jacob, Alexandra M M Antunes
Furan is a rodent hepatocarcinogen ubiquitously found in the environment and heat-processed foods. Furan undergoes cytochrome P450 2E1-catalyzed bioactivation to cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which has been shown to form an electrophilic conjugate (GSH-BDA) with glutathione. Both BDA and GSH-BDA yield covalent adducts with lysine residues in proteins. Dose- and time-dependent epigenetic histone alterations have been observed in furan-treated rats. While the covalent modification of histones by chemical carcinogens has long been proposed, histone-carcinogen adducts have eluded detection in vivo...
November 5, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825106/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-protects-from-nonmelanoma-epidermal-tumors-by-regulating-the-number-of-antigen-presenting-cells-in-skin
#15
Tania Brocks, Oleg Fedorchenko, Nicola Schliermann, Astrid Stein, Ute M Moll, Seth Seegobin, Manfred Dewor, Michael Hallek, Yvonne Marquardt, Katharina Fietkau, Ruth Heise, Sebastian Huth, Herbert Pfister, Juergen Bernhagen, Richard Bucala, Jens M Baron, Guenter Fingerle-Rowson
The response of the skin to harmful environmental agents is shaped decisively by the status of the immune system. Keratinocytes constitutively express and secrete the chemokine-like mediator, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), more strongly than dermal fibroblasts, thereby creating a MIF gradient in skin. By using global and epidermis-restricted Mif knockout mice (Mif(-/-) and K14-Cre(+/tg); Mif(fl/fl)), we found that MIF both recruits and maintains antigen-presenting cells in the dermis/epidermis...
October 19, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810681/changes-in-mammary-histology-and-transcriptome-profiles-by-low-dose-exposure-to-environmental-phenols-at-critical-windows-of-development
#16
Kalpana Gopalakrishnan, Susan L Teitelbaum, Luca Lambertini, James Wetmur, Fabiana Manservisi, Laura Falcioni, Simona Panzacchi, Fiorella Belpoggi, Jia Chen
Exposure to environmental chemicals has been linked to altered mammary development and cancer risk at high doses using animal models. Effects at low doses comparable to human exposure remain poorly understood, especially during critical developmental windows. We investigated the effects of two environmental phenols commonly used in personal care products - methyl paraben (MPB) and triclosan (TCS) - on the histology and transcriptome of normal mammary glands at low doses mimicking human exposure during critical windows of development...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809242/antigenotoxic-effect-of-piperine-in-broiler-chickens-intoxicated-with-aflatoxin-b1
#17
Verônica da Silva Cardoso, Alane Beatriz Vermelho, Cristina Amorim Ribeiro de Lima, Jéssica Mendes de Oliveira, Marco Edilson Freire de Lima, Lúcia Helena Pinto da Silva, Glória Maria Direito, Maria das Graças Miranda Danelli
Piperine is an abundant amide extracted from black pepper seeds which has been shown to have protective effects against cytotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenesis induced by certain chemical carcinogens and aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) in vitro. The aim of this work was to study, in vivo, the antigenotoxic potential of feed-added piperine on broiler chickens experimentally intoxicated with AFB₁, using micronucleus and comet assays. The antigenotoxicity assessment of 9-day-old chicks was performed on a total of 60 chickens divided into four groups of 15 broilers each: (C) control, (P) 60 mg·piperine kg(-1) feed, (A) 0...
October 31, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797216/inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-and-enhancement-of-cellular-activity-by-mushroom-lectins-in-arsenic-induced-carcinogenesis
#18
REVIEW
Tanmoy Rana, Asit Kumar Bera, Subhashree Das, Debasis Bhattacharya, Diganta Pan, Subrata Kumar Das
Chronic arsenicosis is a major environmental health hazard throughout the world, including India. Animals and human beings are affected due to drinking of arsenic contaminated ground water, due to natural mineral deposits, arsenical pesticides or improperly disposed arsenical chemicals. Arsenic causes cancer with production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are neutralized by an elaborate antioxidant defense system consisting of enzymes and numerous non-enzymatic antioxidants. Dietary antioxidant supplements are useful to counteract the carcinogenesis effects of arsenic...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794421/a-topical-mitochondria-targeted-redox-cycling-nitroxide-mitigates-oxidative-stress-induced-skin-damage
#19
Rhonda M Brand, Michael W Epperly, J Mark Stottlemyer, Erin M Skoda, Xiang Gao, Song Li, Saiful Huq, Peter Wipf, Valerian E Kagan, Joel S Greenberger, Louis D Falo
Skin is the largest human organ and provides a first line of defense that includes physical, chemical, and immune mechanisms to combat environmental stress. Radiation is a prevalent environmental stressor. Radiation induced skin damage ranges from photoaging and cutaneous carcinogenesis from UV exposure, to treatment-limiting radiation dermatitis associated with radiotherapy, to cutaneous radiation syndrome, a frequently fatal consequence of exposures from nuclear accidents. The major mechanism of skin injury common to these exposures is radiation induced oxidative stress...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765683/persistent-transcriptional-responses-show-the-involvement-of-feed-forward-control-in-a-repeated-dose-toxicity-study
#20
Terezinha M Souza, Linda Rieswijk, Twan van den Beucken, Jos Kleinjans, Danyel Jennen
Chemical carcinogenesis, albeit complex, often relies on modulation of transcription through activation or repression of key transcription factors. While analyzing extensive networks may hinder the biological interpretation, one may focus on dynamic network motifs, among which persistent feed-forward loops (FFLs) are known to chronically influence transcriptional programming. Here, to investigate the relevance a FFL-oriented approach in depth, we have focused on aflatoxin B1-induced transcriptomic alterations during distinct states of exposure (daily administration during 5 days followed by a non-exposed period) of human hepatocytes, by exploring known interactions in human transcription...
October 17, 2016: Toxicology
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