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V Maida, P J Daeninck
"Cannabinoid" is the collective term for a group of chemical compounds that either are derived from the Cannabis plant, are synthetic analogues, or occur endogenously. Although cannabinoids interact mostly at the level of the currently recognized cannabinoid receptors, they might have cross reactivity, such as at opioid receptors. Patients with malignant disease represent a cohort within health care that have some of the greatest unmet needs despite the availability of a plethora of guideline-driven disease-modulating treatments and pain and symptom management options...
December 2016: Current Oncology
Samuel T Wilkinson, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Deepak Cyril D'Souza
OBJECTIVE: Marijuana has been approved for a number of psychiatric conditions in many states in the US including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), agitation in Alzheimer's disease, and Tourette's disorder. In this systematic review, we examine the strength of evidence for the efficacy of marijuana and other cannabinoids for these psychiatric indications. DATA SOURCES: The literature (MEDLINE) was searched for studies published between January 1980 and March 2015 using search terms related to marijuana and other cannabinoids and the specific diagnosis...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Robert B Zurier, Sumner H Burstein
Cannabinoids apparently act on inflammation through mechanisms different from those of agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). As a class, the cannabinoids are generally free from the adverse effects associated with NSAIDs. Their clinical development thus provides a new approach to treatment of diseases characterized by acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis. A concise survey of the anti-inflammatory actions of the phytocannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabichromene, and cannabinol is presented...
November 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Brian Walitt, Petra Klose, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Tudor Phillips, Winfried Häuser
BACKGROUND: This review is one of a series on drugs used to treat fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is a clinically well-defined chronic condition of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic widespread pain that often co-exists with sleep problems and fatigue affecting approximately 2% of the general population. People often report high disability levels and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Drug therapy focuses on reducing key symptoms and disability, and improving HRQoL. Cannabis has been used for millennia to reduce pain and other somatic and psychological symptoms...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Mellar P Davis
Cannabinoids bind not only to classical receptors (CB1 and CB2) but also to certain orphan receptors (GPR55 and GPR119), ion channels (transient receptor potential vanilloid), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Cannabinoids are known to modulate a multitude of monoamine receptors. Structurally, there are 3 groups of cannabinoids. Multiple studies, most of which are of moderate to low quality, demonstrate that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and oromucosal cannabinoid combinations of THC and cannabidiol (CBD) modestly reduce cancer pain...
July 2016: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
David E Blumenthal, Charles J Malemud
INTRODUCTION: The US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved 3 medications for treating fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). There have been no additional FDA approvals since January 2009 and the efficacy of the FDA-approved medications for FMS has been questioned. AREAS COVERED: The "search for studies" tool using and PubMed were employed. The term, "fibromyalgia" was used for The terms employed for PubMed were "Name-of-Drug Fibromyalgia", "Fibromyalgia Treatment" or "Fibromyalgia Drug Treatment...
July 14, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Ricardo P Garay, Leslie Citrome, George T Grossberg, Icilio Cavero, Pierre-Michel Llorca
INTRODUCTION: Agitation is common and distressing in persons with dementia, but safe, effective treatments remain elusive. In this review, the authors describe investigational compounds in ongoing or recently completed clinical trials for this indication and provide an opinion on how they may meet current therapeutic needs. AREAS COVERED: Phase II and phase III clinical trials for agitation in persons with dementia were searched in US and EU clinical trial registries and in the medical literature for the period January 2013-February 2016 EXPERT OPINION: The authors searches identified 24 recent clinical trials investigating new treatments for agitation in persons with dementia...
August 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Rimplejeet Kaur, Sneha R Ambwani, Surjit Singh
Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It has been cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes since many centuries. Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries. The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and downs in the recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve "protective role" in many medical conditions...
2016: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Evan S Herrmann, Ziva D Cooper, Gillinder Bedi, Divya Ramesh, Stephanie C Reed, Sandra D Comer, Richard W Foltin, Margaret Haney
RATIONALE: Each year, over 300,000 individuals in the USA enter treatment for cannabis use disorder (CUD). The development of effective pharmacotherapy for CUD is a priority. OBJECTIVE: This placebo-controlled study examined the effects of zolpidem alone and in combination with nabilone on cannabis withdrawal and a laboratory measure of relapse. METHODS: Eleven daily, non-treatment-seeking cannabis users completed three, 8-day inpatient phases; each phase tested a different medication condition in counter-balanced order...
July 2016: Psychopharmacology
Corey C Tsang, Mirella G Giudice
Nabilone, a synthetic cannabinoid, is approved in many countries including, but not limited to, Canada, the United States, Mexico, and the United Kingdom for the treatment of severe nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging for its use in managing pain conditions with different etiologies. We review the efficacy and safety of nabilone for various types of pain as well as its abuse potential, precautions and contraindications, and drug interactions; summarize pertinent clinical practice guidelines; and provide recommendations for dosing, monitoring, and patient education...
March 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Timothy E Albertson, James A Chenoweth, Daniel K Colby, Mark E Sutter
The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years...
February 2016: FP Essentials
F Petzke, E K Enax-Krumova, W Häuser
BACKGROUND: Recently published systematic reviews came to different conclusions with respect to the efficacy, tolerability and safety of cannabinoids for treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was carried out in MEDLINE, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials (CENTRAL) and up until November 2015. We included double-blind randomized placebo-controlled studies (RCT) of at least 2 weeks duration and with at least 9 patients per treatment arm comparing medicinal cannabis, plant-based or synthetic cannabinoids with placebo or any other active drug treatment in patients with chronic neuropathic pain...
February 2016: Der Schmerz
S Tafelski, W Häuser, M Schäfer
BACKGROUND: There is growing public and legislative body support for the medical use of cannabis products, for example, for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), in Germany. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search until November 2015 was conducted in MEDLINE, DARE and Cochrane libraries for systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing herbal or pharmaceutical cannabinoids (CB) versus placebo or conventional antiemetics for CINV...
February 2016: Der Schmerz
M-A Fitzcharles, C Baerwald, J Ablin, W Häuser
BACKGROUND: In the absence of an ideal treatment for chronic pain associated with rheumatic diseases, there is interest in the potential effects of cannabinoid molecules, particularly in the context of global interest in the legalization of herbal cannabis for medicinal use. METHODS: A systematic search until April 2015 was conducted in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, and for randomized controlled trials with a study duration of at least 2 weeks and at least ten patients per treatment arm with herbal cannabis or pharmaceutical cannabinoid products in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), osteoarthritis (OA), chronic spinal pain, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pain...
February 2016: Der Schmerz
Charu Sharma, Bassem Sadek, Sameer N Goyal, Satyesh Sinha, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Shreesh Ojha
The cannabinoid molecules are derived from Cannabis sativa plant which acts on the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) which have been explored as potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery and development. Currently, there are numerous cannabinoid based synthetic drugs used in clinical practice like the popular ones such as nabilone, dronabinol, and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol mediates its action through CB1/CB2 receptors. However, these synthetic based Cannabis derived compounds are known to exert adverse psychiatric effect and have also been exploited for drug abuse...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Mathieu Côté, Mathieu Trudel, Changshu Wang, André Fortin
OBJECTIVES: Patients treated for head and neck carcinomas experience a significant deterioration of their quality of life during treatments because of severe side effects. Nabilone has many properties that could alleviate symptoms caused by radiotherapy and improve patients' quality of life. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of nabilone versus placebo on the quality of life and side effects during radiotherapy for head and neck carcinomas. METHODS: Fifty-six patients were randomized to nabilone or placebo...
April 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Jayesh R Parmar, Benjamin D Forrest, Robert A Freeman
The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana...
July 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Huguette St-Amant, Mark A Ware, Nancy Julien, Anaïs Lacasse
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted to explore physicians' prescription practices and attitudes toward the use of cannabinoids in Canada.We measured the prevalence and identified determinants of cannabinoid prescription for the management of chronic noncancer pain among physicians in southwestern Quebec. METHODS: In February 2013, we conducted a postal survey using a modified Dillman method that involved physicians practising in the Abitibi-Témiscamingue region of Quebec...
April 2015: CMAJ Open
Terry D Fife, Heidi Moawad, Constantine Moschonas, Katie Shepard, Nancy Hammond
The American Academy of Neurology published an evidence-based systematic review of randomized controlled trials using marijuana (Cannabis sativa) or cannabinoids in neurologic disorders. Several cannabinoids showed effectiveness or probable effectiveness for spasticity, central pain, and painful spasms in multiple sclerosis. The review justifies insurance coverage for dronabinol and nabilone for these indications. Many insurance companies already cover these medications for other indications. It is unlikely that the review will alter coverage for herbal marijuana...
August 2015: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Helen Vol, Jacqueline Flank, Sara R Lavoratore, Paul C Nathan, Tracey Taylor, Elyse Zelunka, Anne Marie Maloney, L Lee Dupuis
PURPOSE: Chemotherapy emetogenicity is the most important known determinant of chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) in children. However, direct evidence regarding the emetogenic potential of chemotherapeutic agents in children is limited. This study describes the prevalence of complete control of acute and delayed phase chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in children receiving methotrexate. The prevalence of anticipatory CINV is described, and risk factors for CINV are explored...
March 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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