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David salt

David Armstrong, Fioralba Taullaj, Kamalpreet Singh, Bijan Mirabi, Alan J Lough, Ulrich Fekl
New routes to 1- and 2-adamantyl anion equivalents are described, starting from commercially available 1- and 2-adamantylzinc bromides and employing reducing metals (Mg; Li). Adamantylmagnesium bromides (both 1-AdMgBr and 2-AdMgBr) can reliably be produced via reaction of the corresponding adamantylzinc bromides with excess magnesium metal. Reactions of adamantylzinc bromides with stoichiometic lithium biphenylide or lithium 2,2'-bipyridylide afford the new diadamantylzinc species, 1-Ad2Zn and 2-Ad2Zn, isolable free of solvent and salt impurities...
April 26, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Xiaofang Huo, Xi Zhang, Chunhua Yu, Edaire Cheng, Qiuyang Zhang, Kerry B Dunbar, Thai H Pham, John P Lynch, David H Wang, Robert S Bresalier, Stuart J Spechler, Rhonda F Souza
OBJECTIVE: In previous studies using oesophageal squamous cells from patients with Barrett's oesophagus (normal oesophageal squamous (NES)-B cells) and from patients without Barrett's oesophagus (NES-G cells), we showed that acid and bile salts induced caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) expression only in NES-B cells. CDX2, a transcription factor required to form intestinal epithelium, is a target of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signalling, which can be inhibited by aspirin...
April 25, 2017: Gut
Michael D Aleo, Falgun Shah, Kan He, Paul D Bonin, A David Rodrigues
The role of bile salt export protein (BSEP) inhibition in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been investigated widely, while inhibition of the canalicular multidrug resistant protein 3 (MDR3) has received less attention. This transporter plays a pivotal role in secretion of phospholipids into bile and functions coordinately with BSEP to mediate the formation of bile acid-containing biliary micelles. Therefore, inhibition of MDR3 in human hepatocytes was examined across 125 drugs (70 of Most- and 55 of No-DILI-concern)...
April 24, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Cristiane França da Silva, Denise da Gama Jaén Batista, Julianna Siciliano de Araújo, Edézio Ferreira Cunha-Junior, Chad E Stephens, Moloy Banerjee, Abdelbasset A Farahat, Senol Akay, Mary K Fisher, David W Boykin, Maria de Nazaré Correia Soeiro
Arylimidamides (AIAs), previously termed as reversed amidines, present a broad spectrum of activity against intracellular microorganisms. In the present study, three novel AIAs were evaluated in a mouse model of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which is the causative agent of Chagas disease. The bis-AIAs DB1957, DB1959 and DB1890 were chosen based on a previous screening of their scaffolds that revealed a very promising trypanocidal effect at nanomolar range against both the bloodstream trypomastigotes (BTs) and the intracellular forms of the parasite...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Nina M Wilson, Nicole McMaster, Dash Gantulga, Cara Soyars, Susan P McCormick, Ken Knott, Ryan S Senger, David G Schmale
The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to reduce or eliminate DON in feed and food products. Microorganisms from plant and soil samples collected in Blacksburg, VA, USA, were screened by incubation in a mineral salt media containing 100 μg/mL DON and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Two mixed cultures derived from soil samples consistently decreased DON levels in assays using DON as the sole carbon source...
April 15, 2017: Toxins
Si Qin, Dan Liu, Guang Wang, David Portehault, Christopher J Garvey, Yury Gogotsi, Weiwei Lei, Ying Chen
Achieving a high rate of ionic transport through porous membranes and ionic channels is important in numerous applications ranging from energy storage to water desalination, but still remains a challenge. Herein we show that ions can quickly pass through interlayer spaces in hydrated boron nitride (BN) membranes. Measurements of surface-charge governed ionic currents through BN conduits in a variety of salt solutions (KCl, NaCl and CaCl2) at low salt concentrations (<10-4 M) showed several orders of magnitude higher ionic conductivity compared to the bulk solution...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Torrance C Hanley, David L Kimbro, A Randall Hughes
Environmental perturbations can strongly affect community processes and ecosystem functions by acting primarily as a subsidy that increases productivity, a stress that decreases productivity, or both, with the predominant effect potentially shifting from subsidy to stress as the overall intensity of the perturbation increases. While perturbations are often considered along a single axis of intensity, they consist of multiple components (e.g., magnitude, frequency, and duration) that may not have equivalent stress and/or subsidy effects...
April 18, 2017: Ecology
Kento Kitada, Steffen Daub, Yahua Zhang, Janet D Klein, Daisuke Nakano, Tetyana Pedchenko, Louise Lantier, Lauren M LaRocque, Adriana Marton, Patrick Neubert, Agnes Schröder, Natalia Rakova, Jonathan Jantsch, Anna E Dikalova, Sergey I Dikalov, David G Harrison, Dominik N Müller, Akira Nishiyama, Manfred Rauh, Raymond C Harris, Friedrich C Luft, David H Wassermann, Jeff M Sands, Jens Titze
Natriuretic regulation of extracellular fluid volume homeostasis includes suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, pressure natriuresis, and reduced renal nerve activity, actions that concomitantly increase urinary Na+ excretion and lead to increased urine volume. The resulting natriuresis-driven diuretic water loss is assumed to control the extracellular volume. Here, we have demonstrated that urine concentration, and therefore regulation of water conservation, is an important control system for urine formation and extracellular volume homeostasis in mice and humans across various levels of salt intake...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Shikha Garg, Kai Wang, T David Waite
Impact of the organic exudate secreted by a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa on the formation, aggregation, and reactivity of iron oxides that are formed on addition of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts to a solution of the exudate is investigated in this study. The exudate has a stabilizing effect on the particles formed with decreased aggregation rate and increased critical coagulant concentration required for diffusion-limited aggregation to occur. These results suggest that the presence of algal exudates from Microcystis aeruginosa may significantly influence particle aggregation both in natural water bodies where Fe(II) oxidation results in oxide formation and in water treatment where Fe(III) salts are commonly added to aid particle growth and contaminant capture...
April 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Rishabh Jain, Reza Abbasi, Kevin Nelson, David Busche, David M Lynn, Nicholas L Abbott
We report that thin films of solid sodium chlorite (NaClO2) can be photochemically activated by irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light to generate gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) upon subsequent exposure to moisture. The limiting role of water in the reaction is evidenced by an increase in yield of ClO2 with relative humidity of the gas stream passed over the UV-activated salt. The UV-activated state of the NaClO2 was found to possess a half-life of 48 hours, revealing the presence of long-lived UV activated species that subsequently react with water to produce gaseous ClO2...
April 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
David Bar-Or, Leonard T Rael, Edward N Brody
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK) is a severe debilitating condition characterized by joint pain, stiffness, and resultant limited mobility. In recent years, intra-articular (IA) injections have been used to relieve symptoms and have succeeded to varying degrees either with sodium hyaluronate preparations or with a biologic. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to evaluate multiple studies that demonstrate some relief from the symptoms of OAK in the saline arm of various clinical trials...
2017: Open Rheumatology Journal
Katherine T Peter, Adam J Johns, Nosang V Myung, David M Cwiertny
Via a single-pot electrospinning synthesis, we developed a functionalized polymer-metal oxide nanofiber filter for point of use (POU) water treatment of metal oxyanions (e.g., arsenate and chromate). Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) functionalization was accomplished by inclusion of surface-active, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) [cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) or tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB)] that provide strong base ion exchange sites. Embedded iron oxide [ferrihydrite (Fh)] nanoparticles were used for their established role as metal sorbents...
April 4, 2017: Water Research
Bibi S van Thiel, Alexandre Góes Martini, Luuk Te Riet, David Severs, Estrellita Uijl, Ingrid M Garrelds, Frank P J Leijten, Ingrid van der Pluijm, Jeroen Essers, Fatimunnisa Qadri, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Ludovit Paulis, Romana Rajkovicova, Oliver Domenig, Marko Poglitsch, A H Jan Danser
Because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier, brain renin-angiotensin system activity should depend on local (pro)renin synthesis. Indeed, an intracellular form of renin has been described in the brain, but whether it displays angiotensin (Ang) I-generating activity (AGA) is unknown. Here, we quantified brain (pro)renin, before and after buffer perfusion of the brain, in wild-type mice, renin knockout mice, deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-treated mice, and Ang II-infused mice. Brain regions were homogenized and incubated with excess angiotensinogen to detect AGA, before and after prorenin activation, using a renin inhibitor to correct for nonrenin-mediated AGA...
April 10, 2017: Hypertension
Rachel Pardes Berger, Brian J Pak, Mariya D Kolesnikova, Janet Fromkin, Richard Saladino, Bruce E Herman, Mary Clyde Pierce, David Englert, Paul T Smith, Patrick M Kochanek
Importance: Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of death from physical abuse. Missing the diagnosis of abusive head trauma, particularly in its mild form, is common and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may have potential as quantitative point-of-care screening tools to alert physicians to the possibility of intracranial hemorrhage. Objective: To identify and validate a set of biomarkers that could be the basis of a multivariable model to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants using the Ziplex System...
April 10, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
Jessica K Moisan, Fatma Meddeb-Mouelhi, David M Charbonneau, Marc Beauregard
Understanding the relationship between enzymatic stability and the amino acid sequence encoding such enzymes is of utmost importance. Here we thoroughly characterized the behavior of the carboxylesterase EstGtA2 from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans during thermal denaturation at different pH with various salt concentrations. EstGtA2 was characterized by circular dichroism regarding conformation and thermal stability, by dynamic light scattering for detection of association/aggregation, by enzymatic assays for activity, and by monitoring the impact of heat treatments on activity...
April 4, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
Matthew David MacManes
Animals living in desert environments are forced to survive despite severe heat, intense solar radiation, and both acute and chronic dehydration. These animals have evolved phenotypes that effectively address these environmental stressors. To begin to understand the ways in which the desert-adapted rodent P. eremicus survives, we performed an experiment where we subjected reproductively mature adults to 72 hours of water deprivation, during which they lost on average 23% of their body weight. The animals reacted via a series of changes in the kidney, which included modulating expression of genes responsible for reducing the rate of transcription and maintaining water and salt balance...
April 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Anders H Pedersen, Blaise L Geoghegan, Gary S Nichol, David W Lupton, Keith S Murray, José Martínez-Lillo, Ian A Gass, Euan K Brechin
Eight coordination compounds of formulae [Fe(II)(L˙)2][Re(IV)Cl6] (1a), [Fe(II)(L˙)2][Re(IV)Br6] (1b), [Co(II)(L˙)2][Re(IV)Cl6]·CH3CN (2a), [Co(II)(L˙)2][Re(IV)Br6] (2b), [Ni(II)(L˙)(CH3CN)3][Re(IV)Cl6]·CH3CN (3a), [Ni(II)(L˙)(CH3CN)3][Re(IV)Br6]·3CH3CN (3b), [Cu(II)(L˙)2][Re(IV)Cl6] (4a) and [Cu(II)(L˙)2][Re(IV)Br6] (4b), where L˙ is the aminoxyl radical chelating ligand, 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-di(2-pyridyl)oxazolidine-N-oxide, have been synthesised. Structural and magnetic studies reveal metal-radical intramolecular antiferromagnetic interactions in the [M(II)(L˙)2](2+) cations in the iron, cobalt and copper based compounds (1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 4a and 4b) with the central metal ion low-spin in the case of iron (1a and 1b) and a gradual, cobalt based, spin-crossover transition present in 2a and 2b...
April 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Noa Erlitzki, Kenneth Huang, Suela Xhani, Abdelbasset A Farahat, Arvind Kumar, David W Boykin, Gregory M K Poon
Previous investigations of sequence-specific DNA binding by model minor groove-binding compounds showed that the ligand/DNA complex was destabilized in the presence of compatible co-solutes. Inhibition was interpreted in terms of osmotic stress theory as the uptake of significant numbers of excess water molecules from bulk solvent upon complex formation. Here, we interrogated the AT-specific DNA complex formed with the symmetric heterocyclic diamidine DB1976 as a model for minor groove DNA recognition using both ionic (NaCl) and non-ionic cosolutes (ethylene glycol, glycine betaine, maltose, nicotinamide, urea)...
March 20, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
Patrick M J Szell, Bulat Gabidullin, David L Bryce
Halogen bonding is the non-covalent interaction between the region of positive electrostatic potential associated with a covalently bonded halogen atom, named the σ-hole, and a Lewis base. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction structures are reported for a series of seven halogen-bonded cocrystals featuring 1,3,5-tris(iodoethynyl)-2,4,6-trifluorobenzene (1) as the halogen-bond donor, and bromide ions (as ammonium or phosphonium salts) as the halogen-bond acceptors: (1)·MePh3PBr, (1)·EtPh3PBr, (1)·acetonyl-Ph3PBr, (1)·Ph4PBr, (1)·[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]triphenylphosphonium bromide, and two new polymorphs of (1)·Et3BuNBr...
April 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica Section B, Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials
Jordi Casanovas, David Zanuy, Carlos Alemán
The effect of counterions and multiple polymer chains on the properties and structure of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with ClO4(-) has been examined using density functional theory (DFT) calculations with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs). Calculations on a one-dimensional periodic model with four explicit polymer repeat units and two ClO4(-) molecules indicate that the latter are separated as much as possible, with the salt structure and band gap obtained from such ClO4(-) distribution being in excellent agreement with those determined experimentally...
April 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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