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Jessica N Sanders, Kyl Myers, Lori M Gawron, Rebecca G Simmons, David K Turok
OBJECTIVES: To describe a community-wide contraception initiative and assess changes in method use when cost and access barriers are removed in an environment with client-centered counseling. METHODS: HER Salt Lake is a prospective cohort study occurring during three 6-month periods (September 2015 through March 2017) and nested in a quasiexperimental observational study. The sample was women aged 16 to 45 years receiving new contraceptive services at health centers in Salt Lake County, Utah...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Joanne Heade, Sam Maher, Sinead B Bleiel, David J Brayden
In addition to their solubilising properties, excipients used in lipid-based formulations (LBFs) can improve intestinal permeability of macromolecules. We determined whether ad-mixing of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) permeation enhancers (PEs) with a lipoidal excipient (Labrasol®) could potentiate trans-epithelial flux of a poorly permeable macromolecule (FITC-dextran 4 kDa, FD4) across rat intestinal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. Low concentrations of sodium caprate (C10 ), sodium undecylenate (C11:1 ), or sodium laurate (C12 ) combined with Labrasol® increased the Papp of FD4 to values typically seen with higher concentrations of MCFAs or Labrasol® alone...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Abhishek Lahiri, Maryam Shapouri Ghazvini, Giridhar Pulletikurthi, Tong Cui, Volker Klemm, David Rafaja, Frank Endres
In electrochemistry, the electrode/electrolyte interface (EEI) governs the charge/mass transfer processes and controls the nucleation/growth phenomena. The EEI in ionic liquids (IL) can be controlled by changing the cation/anion of the IL, salt concentration, electrode potential and temperature. In this paper, we show that adding a dopant salt leads to the deposition of nanowires. To illustrate, zinc nanowires were electrodeposited from ZnCl2/1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethylsulfonate in presence of GaCl3 as a dopant salt...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Alex L Nguyen, Hari Raj Khatri, James Ryan Woods, Cassidy Shae Baldwin, Frank R Fronczek, David A Colby
Although there are many synthetic methods to produce fluorinated and trifluoromethylated organic structures, the construction of difluoromethylated compounds remains a synthetic challenge. We have discovered that using magnesium salts and organic bases, unactivated imines will react with difluoroenolates, generated under exceedingly mild conditions. We have applied this approach to the iminoaldol reaction to produce difluoromethylene groups as α,α-difluoro-β-amino-carbonyl groups. This method provides synthetically useful quantities of difficult to access α,α-difluoro-β-aminoketones without the need of protecting groups or the use of activated imines...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Zoltan Beck, Oscar B Torres, Gary R Matyas, David E Lanar, Carl R Alving
Aluminum salts have been used as vaccine adjuvants for >50 years, and they are currently present in at least 146 licensed vaccines worldwide. In this study we examined whether adsorption of Army Liposome Formulation (ALF) to an aluminum salt that already has an antigen adsorbed to it might result in improved immune potency of the aluminum-adsorbed antigen. ALF is composed of a family of anionic liposome-based adjuvants, in which the liposomes contain synthetic phospholipids having dimyristoyl fatty acyl groups, cholesterol and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Gina L Griffith, Barbara Wirostko, Hee-Kyoung Lee, Lauren E Cornell, Jennifer S McDaniel, David O Zamora, Anthony J Johnson
PURPOSE: The study objective was to test the utilization of a crosslinked, thiolated hyaluronic acid (CMHA-S) film for treating corneal chemical burns. METHODS: Burns 5.5mm in diameter were created on 10 anesthetized, male New Zealand white rabbits by placing a 1N NaOH soaked circular filter paper onto the cornea for 30s. Wounds were immediately rinsed with balanced salt solution (BSS). CMHA-S films were placed in the left inferior fornix of five injured and five uninjured animals...
February 8, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
N Jewel Samadder, Scott K Kuwada, Kenneth M Boucher, Kathryn Byrne, Priyanka Kanth, Wade Samowitz, David Jones, Sean V Tavtigian, Michelle Westover, Therese Berry, Kory Jasperson, Lisa Pappas, Laurel Smith, Danielle Sample, Randall W Burt, Deborah W Neklason
Importance: Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are at markedly increased risk for colorectal polyps and cancer. A combination of sulindac and erlotinib led to a 71% reduction in duodenal polyp burden in a phase 2 trial. Objective: To evaluate effect of sulindac and erlotinib on colorectal adenoma regression in patients with FAP. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prespecified secondary analysis for colorectal adenoma regression was carried out using data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling 92 patients with FAP, conducted from July 2010 to June 2014 in Salt Lake City, Utah...
February 8, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Michael E Fealey, Benjamin P Binder, Vladimir N Uversky, Anne Hinderliter, David D Thomas
We used time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer, circular dichroism, and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the structural dependence of synaptotagmin 1's intrinsically disordered region (IDR) on phosphorylation and dielectric constant. We found that a peptide corresponding to the full-length IDR sequence, a ∼60-residue strong polyampholyte, can sample structurally collapsed states in aqueous solution, consistent with its κ-predicted behavior, where κ is a sequence-dependent parameter that is used to predict IDR compaction...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Aziz Zaanan, Emmanuelle Samalin, Thomas Aparicio, Olivier Bouche, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Sylvain Manfredi, Pierre Michel, Carole Monterymard, Marie Moreau, Philippe Rougier, David Tougeron, Julien Taieb, Christophe Louvet
INTRODUCTION: In advanced gastric cancer, doublet regimen including platinum salts and fluoropyrimidine is considered as a standard first-line treatment. The addition of docetaxel (75 mg/m 2 q3w) to cisplatin (75 mg/m 2 q3w) and 5-fluorouracil has been shown to improve efficacy. However, this regimen (DCF) was associated with frequent severe toxicities (including more complicated neutropenia), limiting its use in clinical practice. Interesting alternative docetaxel-based regimens have been developed that need to be validated...
February 3, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
XiaoLei Shi, Long Yan, ChunYan Yang, WeiWen Yan, David Octor Moseley, Tao Wang, BingQiang Liu, Rui Di, PengYin Chen, MengChen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Identification of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) underlying salt tolerance is a prerequisite for marker-assisted selection in the salt-tolerant breeding process. METHODS: In this study, the recombinant inbred lines derived from the salt-tolerant elite soybean cultivar 'Jidou 12' and the salt-sensitive elite cultivar 'Ji NF 58' were used to identify the QTL associated with salt tolerance, using both salt tolerance rating (STR) and leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD) as indicators...
February 5, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Tiglet Besara, Daniel C Ramirez, Jifeng Sun, Nathaniel W Falb, Wangwei Lan, Jennifer N Neu, Jeffrey B Whalen, David J Singh, Theo Siegrist
Single crystals of a new family of layered lanthanide oxychlorides, Ba3Ln2O5Cl2 (Ln = Gd-Lu), have been synthesized from a molten barium flux. This family crystallizes in the space group I4/mmm (No. 139; Z = 2) with lattice parameters a = 4.3384(1)-4.4541(1) Å and c = 24.5108(7)-24.8448(9) Å. Ba3Ln2O5Cl2 phases are built up of two different blocks: a perovskite double layer of stoichiometry Ba2Ln2O5 formed by corner-connected LnO5 tetragonal bipyramids and a puckered rock-salt-like interlayer of composition BaCl2...
February 2, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Mai-Thi Leiendecker, Christopher J Licht, Jannik Borghs, David J Mooney, Marc Zimmermann, Alexander Böker
Physical hydrogels with tunable stress-relaxation and excellent stress recovery are formed from anionic polyurethanes via addition of acids, monovalent salts, or divalent salts. Gel properties can be widely adjusted through pH, salt valence, salt concentration, and monomer composition. We propose and investigate a novel gelation mechanism based on a colloidal system interacting through charge repulsion and chrage shielding, allowing a broad use of the material, from acidic (pH 4-5.5) to pH-neutral hydrogels with Young's moduli ranging from 10 to 140 kPa...
January 31, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Bo Li, Meral Tunc-Ozdemir, Daisuke Urano, Haiyan Jia, Emily G Werth, David D Mowrey, Leslie M Hicks, Nikolay V Dokholyan, Matthew P Torres, Alan M Jones
Heterotrimeric G protein complexes are molecular switches relaying extracellular signals sensed by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream targets in the cytoplasm, which effect cellular re-sponses. In the plant heterotrimeric GTPase cycle, GTP hydrolysis, rather than nucleotide exchange, is the rate-limit-ing reaction and is accelerated by a recep-tor-like regulator of G signaling (RGS) protein. We hypothesized that posttransla-tional modification of the Gα subunit in the G-protein complex regulates the RGS-dependent GTPase cycle...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
John Koniarczyk, David Hesk, Alix Overgard, Ian W Davies, Andrew McNally
Methods to incorporate deuterium and tritium atoms into organic molecules are valuable for medicinal chemistry. The prevalence of pyridines and diazines in pharmaceuticals means that new ways to label these heterocycles will present opportunities in drug design and facilitate absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) studies. A broadly applicable protocol is presented wherein pyridines, diazines and pharmaceuticals are converted into heterocyclic phosphonium salts and then isotopically labeled...
January 29, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Ram M Adar, David Andelman
The properties of ionic solutions between charged surfaces are often studied within the Poisson-Boltzmann framework, by finding the electrostatic potential profile. For example, the osmotic pressure between two charged planar surfaces can be evaluated by solving coupled equations for the electrostatic potential and osmotic pressure. Such a solution relies on symmetry arguments and is restricted to either equally or oppositely charged surfaces. Here, we provide a different and more efficient scheme to derive the osmotic pressure straightforwardly, without the need to find the electrostatic potential profile...
January 29, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Hasan Nazik, Varun Choudhary, David A Stevens
The paucity of effective antifungals against Aspergillus and increasing resistance, the recognition of the importance of Aspergillus biofilm in several clinical settings, and reports of verapamil-a calcium channel blocker-efficacy against Candida biofilm and hyphal growth, and synergy with an azole antifungal in vitro, led to a study of verapamil ± voriconazole against Aspergillus. Broth macrodilution methodology was utilized for MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration) determination...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Andrea Sala, Clotilde Silvia Cabassi, Davide Santospirito, Eugenia Polverini, Sara Flisi, Sandro Cavirani, Simone Taddei
Naja atra subsp. atra cardiotoxin 1 (CTX-1), produced by Chinese cobra snakes, belonging to Elapidae family, is included in the three-finger toxin family and exerts high cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity too. Using as template mainly the tip and the subsequent β-strand of the first "finger" of this toxin, different sequences of 20 amino acids linear peptides have been designed in order to avoid toxic effects but to maintain or even strengthen the partial antimicrobial activity already seen for the complete toxin...
2018: PloS One
Yan Liu, David Goldfarb, Tarek M El-Achkar, John C Lieske, Xue-Ru Wu
Expression of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP or uromodulin) is highly restricted to the kidneys' thick ascending limb (TAL) of loop of Henle. Despite the unique location and recent association of THP gene mutations with hereditary uromodulin-associated kidney disease and THP single nucleotide polymorphisms with chronic kidney disease and hypertension, the physiological function(s) of THP and its pathological involvement remain incompletely understood. By studying age-dependent changes of THP knockout (KO) mice, we show here that young KO mice had significant salt and water wasting but were partially responsive to furosemide, due to decreased luminal translocation of Na-K-Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) in the TAL...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
William Laure, Kevin De Bruycker, Pieter Espeel, David Fournier, Patrice Woisel, Filip E Du Prez, Joël Lyskawa
The straightforward coupling between a triazolinedione (TAD) unit and citronellyl derivatives via an Alder-ene reaction has been exploited to tailor the physicochemical surface properties of glassy carbon surfaces (GC) in an ultrafast and additive-free manner. For this purpose, we first covalently grafted a TAD precursor onto GC via the electrochemical reduction of an in situ generated diazonium salt, which was then electrochemically oxidized into the desired GC-bonded TAD unit. A kinetic study of the modification of this reactive layer with an electroactive ferrocene probe proved that a complete functionalization was obtained in merely one minute...
January 22, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Anthony J Timpano, Carl E Zipper, David J Soucek, Stephen H Schoenholtz
Salinization of freshwaters by human activities is of growing concern globally. Consequences of salt pollution include adverse effects to aquatic biodiversity, ecosystem function, human health, and ecosystem services. In headwater streams of the temperate forests of eastern USA, elevated specific conductance (SC), a surrogate measurement for the major dissolved ions composing salinity, has been linked to decreased diversity of aquatic insects. However, such linkages have typically been based on limited numbers of SC measurements that do not quantify intra-annual variation...
January 8, 2018: Water Research
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