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Bryan Williams, Thomas M MacDonald, Steve V Morant, David J Webb, Peter Sever, Gordon T McInnes, Ian Ford, J Kennedy Cruickshank, Mark J Caulfield, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Isla S Mackenzie, Jackie Salsbury, Morris J Brown
BACKGROUND: In the PATHWAY-2 study of resistant hypertension, spironolactone reduced blood pressure substantially more than conventional antihypertensive drugs. We did three substudies to assess the mechanisms underlying this superiority and the pathogenesis of resistant hypertension. METHODS: PATHWAY-2 was a randomised, double-blind crossover trial done at 14 UK primary and secondary care sites in 314 patients with resistant hypertension. Patients were given 12 weeks of once daily treatment with each of placebo, spironolactone 25-50 mg, bisoprolol 5-10 mg, and doxazosin 4-8 mg and the change in home systolic blood pressure was assessed as the primary outcome...
April 11, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Bertram Pitt, Vanessa Zann, Chris Roe, Jeffrey W Jacobs, James P Davidson, Christine Dowd, Padmapriya Kumaraswamy, Fangling Lin, Paul Korner, Robert C Blanks, David P Rosenbaum
Hyperkalemia is common in patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease, particularly those taking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, and can cause arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. The most widely used treatment, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS), limits gastrointestinal potassium absorption, but has poor palatability. RDX7675 (RDX227675) is the calcium salt of a reengineered polystyrene sulfonate-based resin with improved palatability over SPS. The pharmacodynamic effects and safety of RDX7675 were assessed in a phase 1, single-center, randomized, active-controlled study...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Mindaugas Šiaučiulis, Selma Sapmaz, Alexander P Pulis, David J Procter
A dual vicinal functionalisation cascade involving the union of heterocycles and allyl sulfoxides is described. In particular, the approach provides efficient one-step access to biologically relevant and synthetically important C3 thio, C2 carbo substituted indoles. The reaction operates under mild, metal free conditions and without directing groups, via an interrupted Pummerer coupling of activated allyl sulfoxides, generating allyl heteroaryl sulfonium salts that are predisposed to a charge accelerated [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement...
January 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Emily R Cope, Brynn H Voy, Brian K Whitlock, Meg Staton, Thomas Lane, Jack Davitt, J Travis Mulliniks
To identify molecular pathways of metabolic imbalances and reproduction, 10 castrated male sheep were randomly assigned to be injected into the lateral ventricle through intracerebroventricular cannulas with 1 mL of β-hydroxybutyric acid sodium salt solution (BHB; 12,800 µmol/L) or saline solution (CON; 0.9% NaCl). Approximately two hours post injection, sheep were humanely euthanized, and hypothalamus and pituitary tissues were harvested for transcriptome characterization using RNA-sequencing. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from the hypothalamus and pituitary and sequenced at a high depth (Hypothalamus: 468,912,732 reads; Pituitary: 515,106,092 reads) using the Illumina Hi-Seq 2500 platform and aligned to Bos taurus and Ovis aries genomes...
April 6, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Yang Su, Yingqing Wang, Olasehinde Owoseni, Yueheng Zhang, Vijay John, Gary L McPherson, David Pierce Gamliel, Julia A Valla
Thin-shelled hollow silica particles are synthesized using an aerosol based process where the concentration of a silica precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) determines the shell thickness. The synthesis involves a novel concept of the salt-bridging of an iron salt, FeCl3 to a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), which modulates the templating effect of the surfactant on silica porosity. The salt bridging leads to a sequestration of the surfactant in the interior of the droplet with the formation of a dense silica shell around the organic material...
April 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Valérie Nicolas-Francès, Vincent Grandperret, Benjamin Liegard, Sylvain Jeandroz, Damien Vasselon, Sébastien Aimé, Agnès Klinguer, Olivier Lamotte, Emilie Julio, François Dorlhac de Borne, David Wendehenne, Stéphane Bourque
Type-2 HDACs (HD2s) are plant-specific histone deacetylases that play diverse roles during development and in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study we characterized the six tobacco genes encoding HD2s that mainly differ by the presence or the absence of a typical zinc finger in their C-terminal part. Of particular interest, these HD2 genes exhibit a highly conserved intron/exon structure. We then further investigated the phylogenetic relationships among the HD2 gene family, and proposed a model of the genetic events that led to the organization of the HD2 family in Solanaceae...
April 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Jean F Regal, Connor F Laule, Luke McCutcheon, Kate M Root, Hayley Lund, Shireen Hashmat, David L Mattson
Evidence indicates the immune system is important in development of hypertension and kidney disease. In the Dahl Salt-Sensitive (SS) rat model, lymphocytes play a role in development of hypertension and kidney damage after increased sodium intake. Recent transcriptomic analyses demonstrate upregulation of the innate immune complement system in the kidney of Dahl SS rat fed a high-salt diet, leading us to hypothesize that inhibition of complement activation would attenuate development of hypertension and kidney damage...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Hwat Bing So, Ashraf M Khalifa, Bofu Yu, Chris Caroll, Peter Burger, David Mulligan
Open-cut coal mining in Queensland results in the formation of extensive saline overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75% or 37o). These spoil-piles are generally found in multiple rows, several kilometers in length and heights of up to 50 or 60 m above the original landscape. They are highly dispersive and erodible. Legislation demands that these spoil piles be rehabilitated to minimize on-site and off-site discharges of sediment and salt into the surrounding environment...
2018: PloS One
Adugna Abdi Woldesemayat, David M Modise, Junaid Gemeildien, Bongani K Ndimba, Alan Christoffels
BACKGROUND: Crop response to the changing climate and unpredictable effects of global warming with adverse conditions such as drought stress has brought concerns about food security to the fore; crop yield loss is a major cause of concern in this regard. Identification of genes with multiple responses across environmental stresses is the genetic foundation that leads to crop adaptation to environmental perturbations. METHODS: In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to assess candidate genes for multiple stress responses across-species...
2018: PloS One
Eduardo Leorri, Andrew R Zimmerman, Siddhartha Mitra, Robert R Christian, Francisco Fatela, David J Mallinson
The age and ability of salt marshes to accumulate and sequester carbon is often assessed using the carbon isotopic signatures (Δ14 C and δ13 C) of sedimentary organic matter. However, transfers of allochthonous refractory carbon (CRF ) from the watershed to marshes would not represent new C sequestration. To better understand how refractory carbon (CRF ) inputs affect assessments of marsh age and C sequestration, Δ14 C and δ13 C of both total organic carbon (TOC), CRF , and non-CRF organic matter fractions were measured in salt marshes from four contrasting systems on the North Atlantic coast...
March 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Robert D Armstrong, Benson M Kariuki, David W Knight, Graham J Hutchings
Glucaric acid has potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and polymer industries yet no methodology exists within the public domain for isolation of this key bio-derived platform molecule as a pure, crystalline solid. Here we demonstrate the difficulties, which arise in doing so and report development of a process for derivation of free-glucaric acid from its Ca2+ /K+ glucarate salts, which are both commercially available. Employing Amberlyst-15 (H+ ) exchange resin and azeotrope drying, powdered glucaric acid is prepared at > 99...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Organic Chemistry
David M Warsinger, Emily W Tow, Laith A Maswadeh, Grace B Connors, Jaichander Swaminathan, John H Lienhard V
Enhanced fouling resistance has been observed in recent variants of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination which use time-varying batch or semi-batch processes, such as closed-circuit RO (CCRO) and pulse flow RO (PFRO). However, the mechanisms of batch processes' fouling resistance are not well-understood, and models have not been developed for prediction of their fouling performance. Here, a framework for predicting reverse osmosis fouling is developed by comparing the fluid residence time in batch and continuous (conventional) reverse osmosis systems to the nucleation induction times for crystallization of sparingly soluble salts...
February 5, 2018: Water Research
James B Adams, Tapan Audhya, Elizabeth Geis, Eva Gehn, Valeria Fimbres, Elena L Pollard, Jessica Mitchell, Julie Ingram, Robert Hellmers, Dana Laake, Julie S Matthews, Kefeng Li, Jane C Naviaux, Robert K Naviaux, Rebecca L Adams, Devon M Coleman, David W Quig
This study involved a randomized, controlled, single-blind 12-month treatment study of a comprehensive nutritional and dietary intervention. Participants were 67 children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ages 3-58 years from Arizona and 50 non-sibling neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. Treatment began with a special vitamin/mineral supplement, and additional treatments were added sequentially, including essential fatty acids, Epsom salt baths, carnitine, digestive enzymes, and a healthy gluten-free, casein-free, soy-free (HGCSF) diet...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
Vajira R Wanniarachchi, Lettee Dametto, Crystal Sweetman, Yuri Shavrukov, David A Day, Colin L D Jenkins, Kathleen L Soole
Plants have a non-energy conserving bypass of the classical mitochondrial cytochrome c pathway, known as the alternative respiratory pathway (AP). This involves type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (NDs) on both sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane, ubiquinone, and the alternative oxidase (AOX). The AP components have been widely characterised from Arabidopsis, but little is known for monocot species. We have identified all the genes encoding components of the AP in rice and barley and found the key genes which respond to oxidative stress conditions...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maja Cindrić, Mihaela Perić, Marijeta Kralj, Irena Martin-Kleiner, Marie-Hélène David-Cordonnier, Hana Čipčić Paljetak, Mario Matijašić, Donatella Verbanac, Grace Karminski-Zamola, Marijana Hranjec
Novel nitro (3a-3f)- and amino (4a-4f and 5a-5f)-substituted 2-benzimidazolyl and 2-benzothiazolyl benzo[b]thieno-2-carboxamides were designed and synthesized as potential antibacterial agents. The antibacterial activity of these compounds has been evaluated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Moraxella catarrhalis). The most promising antibacterial activity was observed for the nitro- and amino-substituted benzimidazole derivatives 3a, 4a, 5a and 5b with MICs 2-8 [Formula: see text]...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Diversity
Fred Stephen Sarfo, Linda M Mobula, Gilbert Burnham, Daniel Ansong, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka, David Ofori-Adjei
BACKGROUND: The burden of uncontrolled hypertension in Low-and-Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is high, with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and chronic renal failure in these settings. OBJECTIVE: To assess the factors associated with uncontrolled blood pressure control in a cross-section of Ghanaian hypertensive subjects involved in an on-going multicenter epidemiological study aimed at improving access to hypertension treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 2,870 participants with hypertension with or without diabetes who were enrolled at 5 hospitals in Ghana (2 tertiary, 2 district and 1 rural hospital)...
2018: PloS One
Nadia Lombardi, Stefania Vitale, David Turrà, Massimo Reverberi, Corrado Fanelli, Francesco Vinale, Roberta Marra, Michelina Ruocco, Alberto Pascale, Giada d'Errico, Sheridan Lois Woo, Matteo Lorito
Plant roots release complex mixtures of bioactive molecules including compounds that affect the activity and modify the composition of the rhizosphere microbiome. In this work, we investigated the initial phase of the interaction between tomato and an effective biocontrol strain of Trichoderma harzianum (T22). We found that root exudates (RE), obtained from plants grown in a split root system and exposed to a choice of biotic and abiotic stress factors (wounding, salt, pathogen attack), stimulate the growth and act as chemoattractants of the biocontrol fungus...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Zi-Ru Chen, Lu Kuang, Yi-Qun Gao, Ya-Ling Wang, David E Salt, Dai-Yin Chao
Zinc (Zn) is an essential element for plant growth and development, and Zn derived from crop plants in the diet is also important for human health. Here, we report that genetic variation in Heavy Metal-ATPase 4 ( HMA4 ) controls natural variation in leaf Zn content. Investigation of the natural variation in leaf Zn content in a world-wide collection of 349 Arabidopsis thaliana wild collected accessions identified two accessions, Van-0 and Fab-2, which accumulate significantly lower Zn when compared with Col-0...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Justine M Abais-Battad, Hayley Lund, Daniel J Fehrenbach, John Henry Dasinger, David L Mattson
The current study, performed in Dahl Salt-Sensitive (SS) and SS-Rag1-/- rats lacking T- and B- lymphocytes, tested the hypothesis that immune cells amplify salt-sensitive hypertension and kidney damage in response to a high protein diet. After weaning, SS and SS-Rag1-/- rats were placed on an isocaloric, 0.4% NaCl diet containing normal (18%) or high (30%) protein. At 9 weeks of age, rats were switched to a 4.0% NaCl diet containing the same amount of dietary protein and maintained on the high salt diet for 3 weeks...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Oscar Cabeza, Luisa Segade, Montserrat Domínguez-Pérez, Esther Rilo, David Ausín, Anna Martinelli, Negin Yaghini, Bernhard Gollas, Manfred Kriechbaum, Olga Russina, Alessandro Triolo, Elena López-Lago, Luis M Varela
This paper extends the study of the induced temperature change in the mesostructure and in the physical properties occurring in aqueous mixtures of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium octyl-sulfate [EMIm][OSO4 ]. For some compositions, these mixtures undergo a phase transition between the liquid (isotropic in the mesoscale) and the mesomorphic state (lyotropic liquid crystalline) at about room temperature. The behavior of mixtures doped with a divalent metal sulfate was investigated in order to observe their applicability as electrolytes...
March 14, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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