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Frontal lobe syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223812/resting-state-functional-connectivity-changes-within-the-default-mode-network-and-the-salience-network-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-early-phase-schizophrenia
#1
Yingchan Wang, Weijun Tang, Xiaoduo Fan, Jianye Zhang, Daoying Geng, Kaida Jiang, Dianming Zhu, Zhenhua Song, Zeping Xiao, Dengtang Liu
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), particularly in the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), has been reported in schizophrenia, but little is known about the effects of antipsychotics on these networks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of atypical antipsychotics on DMN and SN and the relationship between these effects and symptom improvement in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 33 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with antipsychotics at Shanghai Mental Health Center...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214109/a-novel-mutation-in-trem2-gene-causing-nasu-hakola-disease-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Efthimios Dardiotis, Vasileios Siokas, Eva Pantazi, Maria Dardioti, Dimitrios Rikos, Georgia Xiromerisiou, Aikaterini Markou, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Matthaios Speletas, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou
Nasu-hakola disease (NHD) is a rare disease characterized by bone cysts and fractures, frontal lobe syndrome, and progressive presenile dementia. NHD may be the prototype of primary microglial disorders of the CNS or, as they have been coined, "microgliopathies". Mutations in TREM2 and TYROBP genes are known to cause NHD. Interestingly, recent evidence-associated rare genetic variants of TREM2 gene with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease...
January 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155100/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-pregnancy-a-retrospective-series-of-36-patients-from-mainland-china
#3
Y Wen, B Yang, Q Huang, Y Liu
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is associated with variable predisposing risk factors including preeclampsia and eclampsia since it proposed. However, studies of large case series focusing on pregnancy-related PRES are still limited. We performed a large retrospective study of patients with pregnancy-related PRES admitted to our institution. METHODS: This was a single-center, 2010-2015 retrospective cohort study of patients with pregnancy-related PRES who underwent neuroimaging via magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography from mainland China...
February 2, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150524/akinetic-mutism-and-the-story-of-david
#4
Rebecca Sinden, Barbara A Wilson, Anita Rose, Nimisha Mistry
Following a description about the characteristics of akinetic mutism (AM) and how it differs from locked-in syndrome (LIS) and a disorder of consciousness (DOC), we present the case of David, a 71-year-old man with AM. David sustained a stroke following a middle cerebral artery (MCA) thrombus. A CT scan at the time detected old ischaemic infarcts affecting the right frontal lobe, the left occipital lobe and the left parietal lobe so David had bilateral brain damage. Initially thought to have a DOC, further neuropsychological assessments administered when David had improved a little, resulted in the diagnosis of AM...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140306/-retrospective-study-of-48-cases-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#5
Lucas Alessandro, José M Pastor Rueda, Juan F Villalonga, Verónica A Bruno, Federico Carpani, Juan B Blaquier, Sofía Tognarelli, Francisco J Varela, Alejandro Muggeri
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an infrequent form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma restricted to the CNS. More than 90% are type B and mainly affect patients aged 50-70 years. Immunodeficiency is the most important risk factor. The aim of our study was to evaluate the immune status, clinical presentation and findings in complementary studies of PCNSL patients. A retrospective analysis of 48 cases treated in our center between January 1992 and May 2015 was performed. Median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 25-84); with male predominance (2...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116580/disrupted-face-processing-in-frontotemporal-dementia-a-review-of-the-clinical-and-neuroanatomical-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Rosalind Hutchings, Romina Palermo, Olivier Piguet, Fiona Kumfor
Faces play an integral role in day-to-day functioning, particularly for social interactions where dynamic and rapid processing of information is vital. Analysis of faces allows an individual to ascertain a wide range of information including deciphering mood and identity, with these assessments directing an individual's subsequent response and behaviours. The prominent social and emotional deficits observed in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a younger-onset dementia syndrome, may in part reflect a breakdown of the face processing network...
January 23, 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100023/frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-pathogenesis-pathology-and-pathways-to-phenotype
#7
REVIEW
David Ma Mann, Julie S Snowden
Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) is a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that affect principally the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. There are three major associated clinical syndromes, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD) and progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA); three principal histologies, involving tau, TDP-43 and FUS proteins; and mutations in three major genes, MAPT, GRN and C9orf72, along with several other less common gene mutations...
January 18, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074769/-neuroradiological-changes-by-suppression-of-tics
#8
Sara Bohn Larsen, Camilla Birgitte Sørensen, Liselotte Skov, Nanette Mol Debes
Tourette's syndrome is characterized by involuntary tics. First choice of treatment has been pharmacological, but recently, behavioural therapy teaching patients to suppress their tics has been introduced. Neuroimaging studies have shown an increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes and caudate nucleus, and a decreased activity in globus pallidus and putamen during inhibition of tics. The activity in the frontal lobes changes with age, probably caused by a lack of compensatory hypertrophy. In order to fully understand the mechanism behind behavioural therapy further studies are needed...
January 2, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056870/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-nmdar-antibody-encephalitis-presents-in-atypical-types-and-coexists-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-or-neurosyphilis
#9
Kaiyu Qin, Wenqing Wu, Yuming Huang, Dongmei Xu, Lei Zhang, Bowen Zheng, Meijuan Jiang, Cheng Kou, Junhua Gao, Wurong Li, Jinglin Zhang, Sumei Wang, Yanfei Luan, Chaoling Yan, Dan Xu, Xinmei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by epileptic seizures, psychosis, dyskinesia, consciousness impairments, and autonomic instability. Symptoms are always various. Sometimes it presents in milder or incomplete forms. We report 4 cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with incomplete forms, 3 cases of which were accompanied by neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder or neurosyphilis respectively. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old man presented with dysarthria, movement disorder and occasional seizures...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054126/longitudinal-multi-modal-neuroimaging-in-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome
#10
Sun-Young Oh, Rainer Boegle, Peter Zu Eulenburg, Matthias Ertl, Ji-Soo Kim, Marianne Dieterich
To investigate structural, metabolic, and functional connectivity changes in visual and oculomotor structures in a patient with paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, serial resting-state functional and structural MRI, and FDG-PET data were collected during the acute stage and later on when the opsoclonus had resolved. In the acute stage, an FDG-PET scan demonstrated a substantially increased metabolism in structures around the deep cerebellar nuclei [e.g., fastigial nucleus (FN)] and a relatively reduced metabolism in the bilateral occipital lobes which normalized over 12 months...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042559/successful-anticoagulation-therapy-for-antiphospholipid-syndrome-with-mobile-aortic-thrombi
#11
Hyun Oh Park, Seong Ho Moon, Jong Woo Kim, Joung Hun Byun, Sung Hwan Kim, Jun Ho Yang, Chung-Eun Lee, Jong-Duk Kim
Hypercoagulable states have been associated with aortic thrombosis. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is one of the commonest types of acquired thrombophilia. We report the case of successful anticoagulation management in an APS patient with mobile thrombi within the aorta. A 58-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department (ED) with right-sided hemiparesis. His first symptoms were noted approximately 12-16 hours before presentation to the ED. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed acute embolic infarction of the left frontal and parietotemporal lobes...
December 2016: Vascular Specialist International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041615/functional-anatomy-of-the-macaque-temporo-parieto-frontal-connectivity
#12
REVIEW
Elena Borra, Giuseppe Luppino
The primate parietal lobe is primarily dedicated to the processing of sensory information for the guidance of motor behavior, based on the integration of sensory with motor signals (sensorimotor transformations), mediated by specific, strong, and reciprocal connections with the motor cortex. Sensorimotor transformations have been regarded as an automatic process carried out independently from the temporal cortex, which is considered the location where sensory information is used for perceptual processes. However, both human and non-human primate studies have shown interactions between these two regions in different aspects of sensorimotor and cognitive processes...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038340/spatio-temporal-and-kinematic-gait-analysis-in-patients-with-frontotemporal-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-through-3d-motion-capture
#13
Rosaria Rucco, Valeria Agosti, Francesca Jacini, Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Pasquale Varriale, Manuela De Stefano, Graziella Milan, Patrizia Montella, Giuseppe Sorrentino
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) are characterized respectively by atrophy in the medial temporal lobe with memory loss and prefrontal and anterior temporal degeneration with dysexecutive syndrome. In this study, we hypothesized that specific gait patterns are induced by either frontal or temporal degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we studied the gait pattern in bvFTD (23) and AD (22) patients in single and dual task ("motor" and "cognitive") conditions...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027860/from-nocturnal-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-to-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-a-35-year-diagnostic-challenge
#14
REVIEW
Paolo Tinuper, Francesca Bisulli
Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a focal epilepsy with seizures arising mainly during sleep and characterized by complex, often bizarre, motor behavior or sustained dystonic posturing. First described in 1981, it was initially considered a motor disorder of sleep and was named nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia (NPD). The unusual seizure semiology, onset during sleep, and often uninformative scalp EEG and brain MRI make it difficult to distinguish NPD attacks from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias...
January 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017753/amplitude-of-tissue-oxygenation-index-change-predicts-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-during-carotid-artery-stenting
#15
Hun Soo Park, Ichiro Nakagawa, Shohei Yokoyama, Yasushi Motoyama, Young Su Park, Takeshi Wada, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Hiroyuki Nakase
OBJECTIVE: Hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) following carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a rare but serious complication. HPS is associated with preoperative hemodynamic impairment due to poor collateral flow and intraoperative cerebral ischemia. Filter-type embolic protection devices (EPDs) maintain anterograde carotid flow during CAS and somewhat prevent HPS. Early treatment of patients undergoing CAS and at risk for HPS is essential. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows non-invasive, real-time measurement of frontal lobe regional cerebral O2 saturation (TOI; tissue oxygenation index)...
December 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990258/case-report-84-year-old-woman-with-alien-hand-syndrome
#16
Ihtesham Aatif Qureshi, Daniel Korya, Darine Kassar, Mohammed Moussavi
Background: Alien hand syndrome [AHS] is a rare and ill-defined neurological disorder. It produces complex, goal-directed motion of one hand that is involuntarily instigated. This syndrome characteristically arises after brain trauma, brain surgery, stroke or encephalitis. We describe a case of AHS in a patient who had a previous episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage affecting the left frontal lobe and corpus callosum. Case presentation: An 84-year-old woman presented to the emergency department complaining of headaches and several episodes of her left arm moving as if it was groping around trying to grab at her own body...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989972/frontal-lobe-decortication-frontal-lobectomy-with-ventricular-preservation-in-epilepsy-part-1-anatomical-landmarks-and-surgical-technique
#17
Hung Tzu Wen, Leila Maria Da Róz, Albert L Rhoton, Luiz Henrique Martins Castro, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira
BACKGROUND: An extensive frontal resection is a frequently performed neurosurgical procedure, especially for treating brain tumor and refractory epilepsy. However, there is paucity of reports available regarding its surgical anatomy and technique. OBJECTIVES: To present the anatomical landmarks and surgical technique of the frontal lobe decortication (FLD) in epilepsy. The goals are to maximize the gray matter removal, spare primary and supplementary motor areas, and preserving frontal horn...
October 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988073/longitudinal-trajectories-of-cortical-thickness-as-a-biomarker-for-psychosis-in-individuals-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#18
Seetha Ramanathan, Leah M Mattiaccio, Ioana L Coman, Jo-Anna C Botti, Wanda Fremont, Stephen V Faraone, Kevin M Antshel, Wendy R Kates
OBJECTIVE: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) or velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is a genetic condition that has been identified as the highest genetic risk factor for developing psychotic illnesses. This unique biological nature of 22q11DS provides a valuable opportunity to explore predictive biomarkers of psychosis. In this study, we examined the relationship of cortical thickness and surface area between various brain regions and prodromal symptoms of psychosis. METHODS: 75 probands with 22q11DS, 32 age-matched controls and 28 siblings underwent MRIs over 2 or 3 timepoints...
December 14, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919067/genome-wide-changes-in-lncrna-splicing-and-regional-gene-expression-patterns-in-autism
#19
Neelroop N Parikshak, Vivek Swarup, T Grant Belgard, Manuel Irimia, Gokul Ramaswami, Michael J Gandal, Christopher Hartl, Virpi Leppa, Luis de la Torre Ubieta, Jerry Huang, Jennifer K Lowe, Benjamin J Blencowe, Steve Horvath, Daniel H Geschwind
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves substantial genetic contributions. These contributions are profoundly heterogeneous but may converge on common pathways that are not yet well understood. Here, through post-mortem genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the largest cohort of samples analysed so far, to our knowledge, we interrogate the noncoding transcriptome, alternative splicing, and upstream molecular regulators to broaden our understanding of molecular convergence in ASD. Our analysis reveals ASD-associated dysregulation of primate-specific long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), downregulation of the alternative splicing of activity-dependent neuron-specific exons, and attenuation of normal differences in gene expression between the frontal and temporal lobes...
December 15, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915581/ftld-tdp-and-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-in-comorbidity-a-report-of-two-cases-with-different-clinical-presentations
#20
Kateřina Storey, Silvie Johanidesová, Radoslav Matěj, Jiří Keller, Zdeněk Rohan, Robert Rusina
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (FTLD-TDP) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are distinct neurodegenerations with different clinical presentations. We report two cases with FTLD-TDP and PSP in comorbidity: a patient with amnestic dementia developing frontal lobe dementia, Parkinsonism and supranuclear gaze palsy and a patient with cerebellar ataxia and nystagmus developing akinesia, rigidity, and subcortical dementia. Neuropathological examination revealed neuronal and glial tau pathology together with ubiquitin, and phospho-TDP-43-immunoreactivities in the hippocampus, striatum, mesencephalon, and frontal and temporal cortices...
December 3, 2016: Neurocase
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