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Frontal lobe syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649612/disentangling-the-neural-correlates-of-corticobasal-syndrome-and-corticobasal-degeneration-with-systematic-and-quantitative-ale-meta-analyses
#1
Franziska Albrecht, Sandrine Bisenius, Rodrigo Morales Schaack, Jane Neumann, Matthias L Schroeter
Corticobasal degeneration is a scarce neurodegenerative disease, which can only be confirmed by histopathological examination. Reported to be associated with various clinical syndromes, its classical clinical phenotype is corticobasal syndrome. Due to the rareness of corticobasal syndrome/corticobasal degeneration and low numbers of patients included in single studies, meta-analyses are particularly suited to disentangle features of the clinical syndrome and histopathology. Using PubMed, we identified 11 magnetic resonance imaging studies measuring atrophy in 22 independent cohorts with 200 patients contrasted to 318 healthy controls...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641497/a-neuropsychiatric-analysis-of-the-cotard-delusion
#2
Aradhana Sahoo, Keith A Josephs
Cotard's syndrome, a condition in which the patient denies his or her own existence or the existence of body parts, is a rare illness that has been reported in association with several neuropsychiatric diagnoses. The majority of published literature on the topic is in the form of case reports, many of which are several years old. The authors evaluated associated diagnoses, neuroimaging, and treatments recorded in patients diagnosed with Cotard's syndrome at their institution. A search of the Mayo Clinic database for patients with mention of signs and symptoms associated with Cotard's in their records between 1996 and 2016 was conducted...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611694/acute-frontal-lobe-dysfunction-following-prefrontal-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-a-patient-with-treatment-resistant-depression
#3
Guilhem Carle, Mehdi Touat, Nicolas Bruno, Damien Galanaud, Charles-Siegfried Peretti, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Richard Levy, Carole Azuar
The potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to treat numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders has been thoroughly studied for the last two decades. Here, we report for the first time, the case of a 65-year-old woman suffering from treatment-resistant depression who developed an acute frontal lobe syndrome following eight sessions of low-frequency rTMS (LF-rTMS) to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while also treated with sertraline and mianserin. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such an unexpected acute frontal lobe dysfunction are discussed in relation to the therapeutic use of LF-rTMS in combination with pharmacotherapy in depressed patients...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598840/neuropsychological-symptoms-in-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-patients-in-germany
#4
Anna Krasnianski, Geeske T Bohling, Uta Heinemann, Daniela Varges, Bettina Meissner, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer, Andreas Reif, Inga Zerr
BACKGROUND: The polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) and the PrPSc types 1 and 2 belong to a molecular classification of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) that correlates well with the clinical and neuropathological phenotype of sCJD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to perform the first detailed evaluation of neuropsychological deficits in a large group of definite sCJD patients with known molecular subtype. METHODS: We analyzed neuropsychological symptoms in a cohort of 248 sCJD patients with known M129 V polymorphism of PRNP and prion protein type...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596202/persistent-lesion-hyperintensity-on-brain-diffusion-weighted-mri-is-an-early-sign-of-intravascular-lymphoma
#5
Takashi Kageyama, Haruo Yamanaka, Fumihiko Nakamura, Toshihiko Suenaga
A 63-year-old man presented with right-sided hemianopia and unsteady gait. Brain MRI revealed multiple hyperintense infarct-like lesions on diffusion-weighted images (DWI). Hyperintensity persisted in some of these lesions even after 6 weeks, although his symptoms were ameliorated then. The patient developed episodic dizziness and a transient event of apraxia at 18 weeks after the first episode. Brain MRI revealed additional hyperintense lesions on DWI, which persisted even after 7 weeks. Eventually, the patient manifested cauda equina syndrome 39 weeks after the first episode...
June 8, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579383/clinical-and-biological-phenotypes-of-frontotemporal-dementia-perspectives-for-disease-modifying-therapies
#6
S Gazzina, M A Manes, A Padovani, B Borroni
Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition which encompasses a group of clinically, neuropathologically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by selective involvement of the frontal and temporal lobes. FTD is characterized by changes in behaviour and personality, frontal executive deficits and language dysfunction. Different phenotypes have been defined on the basis of presenting clinical symptoms, behavioural variants of FTD (bvFTD) and primary progressive aphasia (PPA), which includes nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (avPPA) and semantic variant PPA (svPPA)...
June 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571231/central-variant-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-rare-case-report
#7
K G Srinivasan, Padhmini Balasubramanian, K R Mayilvaganan, Usha Nandhini Kannan, Mohamed Bilal
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological condition associated with headache, altered mental status, dizziness and white matter vasogenic oedema in parieto-occipital region. It is often associated with hypertension but can also occur in diverse clinical settings like immunosuppression, eclampsia, etc. It is due to failure of autoregulatory mechanism of posterior circulation in response to change in blood pressure. We hereby report a rare case of central variant of PRES secondary to severe hypertension diagnosed with 3T MRI...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549937/is-learning-episodic-memory-distinct-cognitive-and-neuroanatomic-correlates-of-immediate-recall-during-learning-trials-in-neurologically-normal-aging-and-neurodegenerative-cohorts
#8
K B Casaletto, G Marx, S Dutt, J Neuhaus, R Saloner, L Kritikos, B Miller, J H Kramer
Although commonly interpreted as a marker of episodic memory during neuropsychological exams, relatively little is known regarding the neurobehavior of "total learning" immediate recall scores. Medial temporal lobes are clearly associated with delayed recall performances, yet immediate recall may necessitate networks beyond traditional episodic memory. We aimed to operationalize cognitive and neuroanatomic correlates of total immediate recall in several aging syndromes. Demographically-matched neurologically normal adults (n=91), individuals with Alzheimer's disease (n=566), logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia (PPA) (n=34), behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (n=97), semantic variant PPA (n=71), or nonfluent/agrammatic variant PPA (n=39) completed a neurocognitive battery, including the CVLT-Short Form trials 1-4 Total Immediate Recall; a majority subset also completed a brain MRI...
May 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544889/juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-as-a-spectrum-disorder-a-focused-review
#9
REVIEW
Betül Baykan, Peter Wolf
In consequence of newer research juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is no longer seen as a homogeneous disease. The causes of the existing variance are only partially known yet. We discuss to what extent the phenotypical spectrum of this polygenetically determined disorder expresses genetically defined endophenotypes, or is due to mere quantitative differences in the expression of the core phenotype. Of the three common seizure types of JME, myoclonic, generalized tonic-clonic and absences, absences also occur independently and are strong candidates for an endophenotype...
July 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538242/neuropsychiatric-features-of-neurosyphilis-frequency-relationship-with-the-severity-of-cognitive-impairment-and-comparison-with-alzheimer-disease
#10
Xiaomei Zhong, Haishan Shi, Le Hou, Ben Chen, Qi Peng, Xinru Chen, Zhangying Wu, Yanhua Wang, Naikeng Mai, Xingbing Huang, Yuping Ning
BACKGROUND: The pattern of neuropsychiatric features of patients with neurosyphilis and the impact of the severity of cognitive impairment on neuropsychiatric syndromes are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the neuropsychiatric features of patients with neurosyphilis, and compare the impact of the severity of cognitive impairment on the neuropsychiatric syndromes between neurosyphilis and Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS: Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the degree of cognitive impairment were assessed in a case-control study of 91 neurosyphilis, 162 AD, 157 mild cognitive impairment, and 139 normal controls by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scale and Clinical Dementia Rating scale, respectively...
2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516077/toxoplasmic-encephalitis-in-patient-with-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#11
Sang-Bok Lee, Tae-Gyu Lee
Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is an opportunistic infection found in immunocompromised patients and TE related cerebral mass lesion is often reported in acquired immunodeficiency acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, incidence of TE related AIDS in Korea is still rare and is unfamiliar to neurosurgeons. Differential diagnosis is needed to rule out other brain lesions. A 39-year-old man visited the emergency room with rapid progressive left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a ring-enhanced mass lesion in his right frontal lobe...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503077/an-unusual-association-of-headache-epilepsy-and-late-onset-kleist-s-pseudodepression-syndrome-in-frontal-lobe-cavernoma-of-the-cerebral-left-hemisphere
#12
Domenico Chirchiglia, Attilio Della Torre, Domenico Murrone, Pasquale Chirchiglia, Rosa Marotta
Cerebral cavernous angioma or cavernoma is a benign vascular malformation, usually asymptomatic. It is infrequent and often its discovery is incidental, a so-called incidentaloma. However, these lesions can be symptomatic, causing headaches, epilepsy, cerebral hemorrhage and other neurological signs depending on the brain area involved. Frontal localization is responsible for psychiatric disorders, particularly the prefrontal region, leading to prefrontal syndrome, a condition common in all frontal lobe tumors...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483398/frontotemporal-degeneration-in-a-child
#13
Tyler Terrill, Juan M Pascual
BACKGROUND: There is a predilection for the frontal and temporal lobes in certain cases of dementia in the adult, leading to the syndrome of frontotemporal dementia. However, this syndrome has seemed to elude the developing brain until now. METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe an example of apparently selective neurodegeneration of the frontal and temporal regions during development associated with some of the clinical, magnetic resonance imaging, and fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan features of canonical frontotemporal dementia in the adult...
July 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473920/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-pres
#14
Sreenivasa Rao Sudulagunta, Mahesh Babu Sodalagunta, Monica Kumbhat, Aravinda Settikere Nataraju
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by a headache, seizures, altered mental status and visual loss and characterized by white matter vasogenic edema affecting the posterior occipital and parietal lobes of the brain predominantly. This clinical syndrome is increasingly recognized due to improvement and availability of brain imaging specifically magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 35-year-old female with the history of unsafe abortion and massive blood transfusion 10 days ago was brought to the emergency room with three episodes of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, urinary incontinence and altered sensorium since 3 hours...
April 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457650/orthostatic-myoclonus-after-brain-tumor-radiation-insights-from-two-lesional-cases
#15
Jeremy K Cutsforth-Gregory, Julie E Hammack, Joseph Y Matsumoto
INTRODUCTION: Orthostatic myoclonus (OM) is a recognized syndrome of gait unsteadiness accompanied by lower limb myoclonus provoked by the assumption of an upright posture. OM typically affects the elderly and is often associated with neurodegenerative disease. We sought to review the clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics of OM due to brain tumor treatment, the first reported lesional cases of this rare disorder. METHODS: The database of the Mayo Clinic Rochester Movement Disorders Laboratory was searched for all patients diagnosed with OM from January 2007 to December 2016...
April 26, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450688/a-case-of-55-year-old-man-with-first-ever-generalized-seizure-diagnosed-with-sturge-weber-syndrome-type-iii-by-characteristic-mri-findings
#16
Hidehiro Ishikawa, Yuichiro Ii, Atsushi Niwa, Keita Matsuura, Masayuki Maeda, Hidekazu Tomimoto
A 55-year-old man with no mental retardation had presented a history of frequent transient clumsiness of his right upper and lower extremities for about 20 years. He was admitted to a general hospital with weakness of right side of the body, and first-ever generalized seizure attack occurred the next day. Brain CT showed calcification in the left cerebral cortices. So he was referred to our hospital. On neurological examination, he had mild clumsiness of his right upper limb and right pyramidal tract sign. He had neither facial port-wine stain nor glaucoma...
April 27, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424054/an-unusual-delusion-of-duplication-in-a-patient-affected-by-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#17
Paolo Solla, Gioia Mura, Antonino Cannas, Gianluca Floris, Davide Fonti, Gianni Orofino, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Francesco Marrosu
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most frequent diagnosis of progressive degenerative dementia in older people. Delusions are common features in DLB and, among them, Capgras syndrome represents the most frequent disturbance, characterized by the recurrent and transient belief that a familiar person, often a close family member or caregiver, has been replaced by an identical-looking imposter. However, other delusional conditions near to misidentification syndromes can occur in DLB patients and may represent a major psychiatric disorder, although rarely studied systematically...
April 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416429/-life-threatening-sleepwalking-elpenor-s-syndrome-in-a-10-year-old-child
#18
M-A Madigand-Tordjman, P-J Egler, F Bertran, M Jokic, F Guénolé
Though benign in the majority of cases, sleepwalking sometimes causes injuries due, among other causes, to falls. Such accidents can be life-threatening - a situation that has been termed Elpenor syndrome (in reference to an accident experienced by a character in Homer's epic The Odyssey) - in particular when entailing defenestration. This syndrome has been described in adults and adolescents; we report here a case in a child. OBSERVATION: This 10-year-old girl was admitted at night to our hospital after a 3-m fall at home...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407202/altered-white-matter-integrity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-an-iq-100-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#19
K Nickel, L Tebartz van Elst, E Perlov, D Endres, G T Müller, A Riedel, T Fangmeier, S Maier
OBJECTIVE: White matter (WM) alterations have been reported in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, impaired connectivity of limbic structures may be related to social deficits. Heterogeneous findings could be explained in terms of differences in sample characteristics and methodology. In this context, non-syndromic forms might differ substantially in WM structure from secondary ASD forms. METHOD: In an attempt to recruit a homogeneous study sample, we included adults with high-functioning ASD and an IQ > 100 to decrease the influence of syndromic forms being often associated with cognitive deficits...
June 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398337/sex-differences-in-frontal-lobe-connectivity-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-conditions
#20
E A Zeestraten, M C Gudbrandsen, E Daly, M T de Schotten, M Catani, F Dell'Acqua, M-C Lai, A N V Ruigrok, M V Lombardo, B Chakrabarti, S Baron-Cohen, C Ecker, D G M Murphy, M C Craig
Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are more prevalent in males than females. The biological basis of this difference remains unclear. It has been postulated that one of the primary causes of ASC is a partial disconnection of the frontal lobe from higher-order association areas during development (that is, a frontal 'disconnection syndrome'). Therefore, in the current study we investigated whether frontal connectivity differs between males and females with ASC. We recruited 98 adults with a confirmed high-functioning ASC diagnosis (61 males: aged 18-41 years; 37 females: aged 18-37 years) and 115 neurotypical controls (61 males: aged 18-45 years; 54 females: aged 18-52 years)...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
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