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Frontal lobe syndrome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293809/a-mesenteric-traction-syndrome-affects-near-infrared-spectroscopy-evaluated-cerebral-oxygenation-because-skin-blood-flow-increases
#1
Niels D Olesen, Henrik Sørensen, Rikard Ambrus, Lars B Svendsen, Anton Lund, Niels H Secher
During abdominal surgery manipulation of internal organs may induce a "mesenteric traction syndrome" (MTS) including a triad of flushing, hypotension, and tachycardia that lasts for about 30 min. We evaluated whether MTS affects near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assessed frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) by an increase in forehead skin blood flow (SkBF). The study intended to include 10 patients who developed MTS during pancreaticoduodenectomy and 22 patients were enrolled (age 61 ± 8 years; mean ± SD)...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256922/obese-adolescents-show-reduced-cognitive-processing-speed-compared-with-healthy-weight-peers
#2
Victoria Sweat, Kathy F Yates, Renee Migliaccio, Antonio Convit
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity and obesity-associated diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MetS) continue to rise. Obesity has been linked to structural and functional brain abnormalities, particularly in the frontal lobe. METHODS: One hundred sixty-two adolescents (aged 19.53 ± 1.53 years) underwent medical, neurocognitive, and brain magnetic resonance imaging assessments. Participants were either healthy weight (BMI <25.0 kg/m(2) or BMI percentile <85%) or obese (BMI ≥30...
March 3, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246520/concurrent-low-brain-and-high-liver-uptake-on-fdg-pet-are-associated-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors
#3
Hyun-Yeol Nam, Sungmin Jun, Kyoungjune Pak, In Joo Kim
OBJECTIVE: Concurrent low brain and high liver uptake are sometimes observed on fluorine-18-labeled fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We investigated the potential clinical significance of this uptake pattern related to metabolic syndrome (MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 264 consecutive males who had undergone general health check-ups, including FDG PET/CT scans. After an overnight fast, the men had their peripheral blood drawn and the levels of various laboratory parameters measured; an FDG PET/CT scan was performed on the same day...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243339/various-imaging-manifestations-of-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-pres-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri
#4
Rajesh Raman, Radhika Devaramane, Geetha Mukunda Jagadish, Sanjana Chowdaiah
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), also called the acute hypertensive encephalopathy and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS), is a neurotoxic syndrome of cerebral vasoregulation classically characterized by bilaterally symmetrical parieto-occipital edema. However, the imaging findings are variable and may occur in other locations such as the frontal lobes, thalami, basal ganglia and brainstem. Most commonly, PRES presents with hyperintense signals on T2 and FLAIR sequences...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223812/resting-state-functional-connectivity-changes-within-the-default-mode-network-and-the-salience-network-after-antipsychotic-treatment-in-early-phase-schizophrenia
#5
Yingchan Wang, Weijun Tang, Xiaoduo Fan, Jianye Zhang, Daoying Geng, Kaida Jiang, Dianming Zhu, Zhenhua Song, Zeping Xiao, Dengtang Liu
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity (FC), particularly in the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network (SN), has been reported in schizophrenia, but little is known about the effects of antipsychotics on these networks. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of atypical antipsychotics on DMN and SN and the relationship between these effects and symptom improvement in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 33 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and treated with antipsychotics at Shanghai Mental Health Center...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214109/a-novel-mutation-in-trem2-gene-causing-nasu-hakola-disease-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Efthimios Dardiotis, Vasileios Siokas, Eva Pantazi, Maria Dardioti, Dimitrios Rikos, Georgia Xiromerisiou, Aikaterini Markou, Dimitra Papadimitriou, Matthaios Speletas, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou
Nasu-hakola disease (NHD) is a rare disease characterized by bone cysts and fractures, frontal lobe syndrome, and progressive presenile dementia. NHD may be the prototype of primary microglial disorders of the CNS or, as they have been coined, "microgliopathies". Mutations in TREM2 and TYROBP genes are known to cause NHD. Interestingly, recent evidence-associated rare genetic variants of TREM2 gene with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease...
January 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155100/posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-in-pregnancy-a-retrospective-series-of-36-patients-from-mainland-china
#7
Y Wen, B Yang, Q Huang, Y Liu
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is associated with variable predisposing risk factors including preeclampsia and eclampsia since it proposed. However, studies of large case series focusing on pregnancy-related PRES are still limited. We performed a large retrospective study of patients with pregnancy-related PRES admitted to our institution. METHODS: This was a single-center, 2010-2015 retrospective cohort study of patients with pregnancy-related PRES who underwent neuroimaging via magnetic resonance imaging or computerized tomography from mainland China...
February 2, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150524/akinetic-mutism-and-the-story-of-david
#8
Rebecca Sinden, Barbara A Wilson, Anita Rose, Nimisha Mistry
Following a description about the characteristics of akinetic mutism (AM) and how it differs from locked-in syndrome (LIS) and a disorder of consciousness (DOC), we present the case of David, a 71-year-old man with AM. David sustained a stroke following a middle cerebral artery (MCA) thrombus. A CT scan at the time detected old ischaemic infarcts affecting the right frontal lobe, the left occipital lobe and the left parietal lobe so David had bilateral brain damage. Initially thought to have a DOC, further neuropsychological assessments administered when David had improved a little, resulted in the diagnosis of AM...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140306/-retrospective-study-of-48-cases-of-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#9
Lucas Alessandro, José M Pastor Rueda, Juan F Villalonga, Verónica A Bruno, Federico Carpani, Juan B Blaquier, Sofía Tognarelli, Francisco J Varela, Alejandro Muggeri
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an infrequent form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma restricted to the CNS. More than 90% are type B and mainly affect patients aged 50-70 years. Immunodeficiency is the most important risk factor. The aim of our study was to evaluate the immune status, clinical presentation and findings in complementary studies of PCNSL patients. A retrospective analysis of 48 cases treated in our center between January 1992 and May 2015 was performed. Median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 25-84); with male predominance (2...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116580/disrupted-face-processing-in-frontotemporal-dementia-a-review-of-the-clinical-and-neuroanatomical-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Rosalind Hutchings, Romina Palermo, Olivier Piguet, Fiona Kumfor
Faces play an integral role in day-to-day functioning, particularly for social interactions where dynamic and rapid processing of information is vital. Analysis of faces allows an individual to ascertain a wide range of information including deciphering mood and identity, with these assessments directing an individual's subsequent response and behaviours. The prominent social and emotional deficits observed in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a younger-onset dementia syndrome, may in part reflect a breakdown of the face processing network...
March 2017: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100023/frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-pathogenesis-pathology-and-pathways-to-phenotype
#11
REVIEW
David M A Mann, Julie S Snowden
Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD) is a clinically, pathologically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that affect principally the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. There are three major associated clinical syndromes, behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), semantic dementia (SD) and progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA); three principal histologies, involving tau, TDP-43 and FUS proteins; and mutations in three major genes, MAPT, GRN and C9orf72, along with several other less common gene mutations...
January 18, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074769/-neuroradiological-changes-by-suppression-of-tics
#12
Sara Bohn Larsen, Camilla Birgitte Sørensen, Liselotte Skov, Nanette Mol Debes
Tourette's syndrome is characterized by involuntary tics. First choice of treatment has been pharmacological, but recently, behavioural therapy teaching patients to suppress their tics has been introduced. Neuroimaging studies have shown an increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, temporal lobes and caudate nucleus, and a decreased activity in globus pallidus and putamen during inhibition of tics. The activity in the frontal lobes changes with age, probably caused by a lack of compensatory hypertrophy. In order to fully understand the mechanism behind behavioural therapy further studies are needed...
January 2, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056870/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-nmdar-antibody-encephalitis-presents-in-atypical-types-and-coexists-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-or-neurosyphilis
#13
Kaiyu Qin, Wenqing Wu, Yuming Huang, Dongmei Xu, Lei Zhang, Bowen Zheng, Meijuan Jiang, Cheng Kou, Junhua Gao, Wurong Li, Jinglin Zhang, Sumei Wang, Yanfei Luan, Chaoling Yan, Dan Xu, Xinmei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by epileptic seizures, psychosis, dyskinesia, consciousness impairments, and autonomic instability. Symptoms are always various. Sometimes it presents in milder or incomplete forms. We report 4 cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with incomplete forms, 3 cases of which were accompanied by neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder or neurosyphilis respectively. CASE PRESENTATION: A 33-year-old man presented with dysarthria, movement disorder and occasional seizures...
January 5, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054126/longitudinal-multi-modal-neuroimaging-in-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome
#14
Sun-Young Oh, Rainer Boegle, Peter Zu Eulenburg, Matthias Ertl, Ji-Soo Kim, Marianne Dieterich
To investigate structural, metabolic, and functional connectivity changes in visual and oculomotor structures in a patient with paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, serial resting-state functional and structural MRI, and FDG-PET data were collected during the acute stage and later on when the opsoclonus had resolved. In the acute stage, an FDG-PET scan demonstrated a substantially increased metabolism in structures around the deep cerebellar nuclei [e.g., fastigial nucleus (FN)] and a relatively reduced metabolism in the bilateral occipital lobes which normalized over 12 months...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042559/successful-anticoagulation-therapy-for-antiphospholipid-syndrome-with-mobile-aortic-thrombi
#15
Hyun Oh Park, Seong Ho Moon, Jong Woo Kim, Joung Hun Byun, Sung Hwan Kim, Jun Ho Yang, Chung-Eun Lee, Jong-Duk Kim
Hypercoagulable states have been associated with aortic thrombosis. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is one of the commonest types of acquired thrombophilia. We report the case of successful anticoagulation management in an APS patient with mobile thrombi within the aorta. A 58-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department (ED) with right-sided hemiparesis. His first symptoms were noted approximately 12-16 hours before presentation to the ED. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed acute embolic infarction of the left frontal and parietotemporal lobes...
December 2016: Vascular Specialist International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041615/functional-anatomy-of-the-macaque-temporo-parieto-frontal-connectivity
#16
REVIEW
Elena Borra, Giuseppe Luppino
The primate parietal lobe is primarily dedicated to the processing of sensory information for the guidance of motor behavior, based on the integration of sensory with motor signals (sensorimotor transformations), mediated by specific, strong, and reciprocal connections with the motor cortex. Sensorimotor transformations have been regarded as an automatic process carried out independently from the temporal cortex, which is considered the location where sensory information is used for perceptual processes. However, both human and non-human primate studies have shown interactions between these two regions in different aspects of sensorimotor and cognitive processes...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038340/spatio-temporal-and-kinematic-gait-analysis-in-patients-with-frontotemporal-dementia-and-alzheimer-s-disease-through-3d-motion-capture
#17
Rosaria Rucco, Valeria Agosti, Francesca Jacini, Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Pasquale Varriale, Manuela De Stefano, Graziella Milan, Patrizia Montella, Giuseppe Sorrentino
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bvFTD) are characterized respectively by atrophy in the medial temporal lobe with memory loss and prefrontal and anterior temporal degeneration with dysexecutive syndrome. In this study, we hypothesized that specific gait patterns are induced by either frontal or temporal degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we studied the gait pattern in bvFTD (23) and AD (22) patients in single and dual task ("motor" and "cognitive") conditions...
December 21, 2016: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027860/from-nocturnal-frontal-lobe-epilepsy-to-sleep-related-hypermotor-epilepsy-a-35-year-diagnostic-challenge
#18
REVIEW
Paolo Tinuper, Francesca Bisulli
Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is a focal epilepsy with seizures arising mainly during sleep and characterized by complex, often bizarre, motor behavior or sustained dystonic posturing. First described in 1981, it was initially considered a motor disorder of sleep and was named nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia (NPD). The unusual seizure semiology, onset during sleep, and often uninformative scalp EEG and brain MRI make it difficult to distinguish NPD attacks from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias...
January 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017753/amplitude-of-tissue-oxygenation-index-change-predicts-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-during-carotid-artery-stenting
#19
Hun Soo Park, Ichiro Nakagawa, Shohei Yokoyama, Yasushi Motoyama, Young Su Park, Takeshi Wada, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Hiroyuki Nakase
OBJECTIVE: Hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) after carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a rare but serious complication. HPS is associated with preoperative hemodynamic impairment as the result of poor collateral flow and intraoperative cerebral ischemia. Filter-type embolic protection devices maintain anterograde carotid flow during CAS and prevent HPS somewhat. The early treatment of patients undergoing CAS and at risk for HPS is essential. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows noninvasive, real-time measurement of frontal lobe regional cerebral O2 saturation (TOI; tissue oxygenation index)...
March 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990258/case-report-84-year-old-woman-with-alien-hand-syndrome
#20
Ihtesham Aatif Qureshi, Daniel Korya, Darine Kassar, Mohammed Moussavi
Background: Alien hand syndrome [AHS] is a rare and ill-defined neurological disorder. It produces complex, goal-directed motion of one hand that is involuntarily instigated. This syndrome characteristically arises after brain trauma, brain surgery, stroke or encephalitis. We describe a case of AHS in a patient who had a previous episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage affecting the left frontal lobe and corpus callosum. Case presentation: An 84-year-old woman presented to the emergency department complaining of headaches and several episodes of her left arm moving as if it was groping around trying to grab at her own body...
2016: F1000Research
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