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Frontal lobe syndrome

Camila V Ventura, Maria Paula Fernandez, Ivan A Gonzalez, Delia M Rivera-Hernandez, Roberto Lopez-Alberola, Maria Peinado, Angelica A Floren, Patricia A Rodriguez, Basil K Williams, Gabriela de la Vega Muns, Ana J Rodriguez, Catherin Negron, Brenda Fallas, Audina M Berrocal
A 6-day-old female baby with known diagnosis of congenital Zika infection was referred for ophthalmologic examination. The mother (37 years old) was referred for a pruritic rash, conjunctival hyperemia, and malaise at 12 weeks of gestation while still living in Venezuela. Upon arrival to Miami, Zika virus (ZIKV) exposure was confirmed during prenatal screening. At birth, due to the known exposure, a complete congenital ZIKV workup was performed, including brain ultrasound and MRI, which disclosed calcifications in the frontal lobe...
October 1, 2016: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
Sebastian Walther, Lea Schäppi, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Katharina Stegmayer
Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome that not only frequently occurs in the context of schizophrenia but also in other conditions. The neural correlates of catatonia remain unclear due to small-sized studies. We therefore compared resting-state cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and gray matter (GM) density between schizophrenia patients with current catatonia and without catatonia and healthy controls. We included 42 schizophrenia patients and 41 controls. Catatonia was currently present in 15 patients (scoring >2 items on the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale screening)...
October 11, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Fang Li, Jizhen Feng, Dongmei Gao, Jieqiong Wang, Chunhong Song, Sheng Wei, Mingqi Qiao
The effects of the Shuyu capsule on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression in a rat model of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) depression and on 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and hippocampal neuron 5-HT3 channel current were investigated, to elucidate its mechanism of action against PMS depression. PMS depression model rats were divided into depression and Shuyu- and fluoxetine-treated groups, which were compared to control rats for frontal lobe and hippocampal 5-HT3AR and 5-HT3BR expression and behavior. The depressed model rats displayed symptoms of depression, which were reduced in treated and normal control rats...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Takayuki Komatsu, Tomohisa Nomura, Hiroki Takami, So Sakamoto, Keiko Mizuno, Hajime Sekii, Kotaro Hatta, Manabu Sugita
A 42-year-old Japanese woman with a 10-year history of schizophrenia was admitted due to a disturbance in consciousness that met the diagnostic criteria for both neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) and malignant catatonia. Despite systemic supportive treatments, the catatonic symptoms preceding autonomic symptoms persisted. The symptoms improved after lorazepam administration, leading to a retrospective diagnosis of malignant catatonia. Catatonia is thought to be caused by a dysfunction of ganmma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the cortico-cortical networks of the frontal lobes, which causes hypoactivity of the dopaminergic transmission in the subcortical areas...
2016: Internal Medicine
Maria A Rocca, Laura Vacchi, Mariaemma Rodegher, Alessandro Meani, Vittorio Martinelli, Francesca Possa, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi
Using fMRI during a face encoding (FE) task, we investigated the behavioral and fMRI correlates of FE in patients with relapse-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) at different stages of the disease and their relation with attentive-executive performance and structural MRI measures of disease-related damage. A fMRI FE task was administered to 75 MS patients (11 clinically isolated syndromes - CIS, 40 relapsing-remitting - RRMS - and 24 secondary progressive - SPMS) and 22 healthy controls (HC). fMRI activity during the face encoding condition was correlated with behavioral, clinical, neuropsychological and structural MRI variables...
October 6, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Bekir Enes Demiryürek, Aslı Aksoy Gündogdu, Bilgehan Atılgan Acar, Aybala Neslihan Alagoz
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is an involuntary and rare neurological disorder emerges at upper extremity. AHS is a disconnection syndrome with the symptoms of losing sense of agency and sense of ownership, and presence of involuntary autonomic motor activity. There are frontal, callosal and posterior types of AHS and each of them occurs depend on the lesions of different of the brain. Posterior variant is a rarely encountered AHS type compared to others. AHS, generally regarded as persistent, but rarely maybe observed as paroxysmal...
October 2016: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Z I Wang, B Krishnan, D W Shattuck, R M Leahy, A N V Moosa, E Wyllie, R C Burgess, N B Al-Sharif, A A Joshi, A V Alexopoulos, J C Mosher, U Udayasankar, S E Jones
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rasmussen syndrome, also known as Rasmussen encephalitis, is typically associated with volume loss of the affected hemisphere of the brain. Our aim was to apply automated quantitative volumetric MR imaging analyses to patients diagnosed with Rasmussen encephalitis, to determine the predictive value of lobar volumetric measures and to assess regional atrophy differences as well as monitor disease progression by using these measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients (42 scans) with diagnosed Rasmussen encephalitis were studied...
September 8, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Qi-Yu Bo, Xiu-He Zhao, Xue Yang, Sheng-Jun Wang
Late onset postpartum eclampsia (LPE) is defined by its onset at >48 h after delivery. Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome (RPES) associated with LPE is uncommon, with the majority of RPES cases having a late postpartum onset within 4 weeks after childbirth. The present study reported the case of a 15-year old female presenting with convulsions that began 5 weeks after delivery. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain revealed multiple lesions in the cortex, subcortical region and deep white matter of the bilateral cerebellum, and occipital, frontal and parietal lobes...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Manuela Tondelli, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Andrea Ruggieri, Stefano Meletti
Despite the common assumption that genetic generalized epilepsies are characterized by a macroscopically normal brain on magnetic resonance imaging, subtle structural brain alterations have been detected by advanced neuroimaging techniques in Childhood Absence Epilepsy syndrome. We applied quantitative structural MRI analysis to a group of adolescents and adults with Juvenile Absence Epilepsy (JAE) in order to investigate micro-structural brain changes using different brain measures. We examined grey matter volumes, cortical thickness, surface areas, and subcortical volumes in 24 patients with JAE compared to 24 healthy controls; whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and Freesurfer analyses were used...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Merih Altintas, Leman Inanc, Gamze Akcay Oruc, Selim Arpacioglu, Huseyin Gulec
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate synthetic cannabinoid (SC)-induced psychosis in terms of patient profile and clinical characteristics with reference to concurrently hospitalized schizophrenic patients. METHODS: A total of 81 male patients diagnosed with psychotic disorder induced by the use of SCs (n=50; mean (standard deviation [SD]) age: 25.9 (5.5) years) or with schizophrenia (n=31, mean (SD) age: 42.9 (11.6) years) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, diagnosis criteria who were concurrently hospitalized at Erenköy Mental and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital were included in this cross-sectional study...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Duygu Kayar Calili, Nevzat Mehmet Mutlu, Ayse Pinar Mutlu Titiz, Zeynep Nur Akcaboy, Eda Macit Aydin, Isil Ozkocak Turan
Fahr Syndrome is a rare disease where calcium and other minerals are stored bilaterally and symmetrically in the basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate nucleus and white matter. Fahr Syndrome is associated with various metabolic disorders, mainly parathyroid disorders. The presented case discusses a 64-year old male patient admitted to the intensive care unit of our hospital diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia and urosepsis. The cranial tomography examination to explain his nonspecific neurological symptoms showed bilateral calcifications in the temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital lobes, basal ganglia, cerebellar hemisphere and medulla oblongata posteriorly...
August 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Philine Senf, Lena Scheuren, Martin Holtkamp
OBJECTIVE: In patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), a specific personality profile suggestive of frontal lobe dysfunctions has been described. From a neurobiological point of view, the frontal lobe seems to be crucial for creative processes, although the exact role remains unclear. The theory of creative paradoxical functional facilitation (PFF) assumes that disinhibited frontal lobe function can enhance creative abilities. The aim of the current study was to explore our hypothesis that JME is associated with higher artistic creativity based on the theory of PFF...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Agatino Battaglia, Laura Bernardini, Isabella Torrente, Antonio Novelli, Gloria Scarselli
Previous reports summarized the seizure types occurring in patients with idic(15) syndrome. To better define this issue, we retrospectively analyzed the evolution of electroencephalogram findings and seizures in 35 patients with confirmed idic(15). Epilepsy occurred in 28 patients (80%), with a median age of onset of 3 years 3 months. The initial seizures were infantile spasms associated with a hypsarrhythmic electroencephalogram (nine patients), focal/generalized tonic (seven patients), or atypical absences (eight patients)...
October 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Sumaira Nabi, Haris Majid Rajput, Mazhar Badshah, Shahzad Ahmed
A 17-year-old Pakistani female patient presented with acute onset flaccid quadriparesis with nerve conduction studies showing demyelinating polyneuropathy consistent with Guillain-Barre' syndrome. She was treated with 4 plasmapheresis sessions. She developed raised blood pressure, headache, visual loss and generalised seizures on the 13th day of admission. MRI of the brain on contrast showed findings of altered signals low on T1-weighted image, high on T2-weighted image and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery in the white matter of bilateral occipital, parietal and right frontal lobe consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Makoto Isozaki, Yoshikazu Arai, Yoshifumi Higashino, Hidehiko Okazawa, Ken-Ichiro Kikuta
A 64-year-old, right-handed man underwent endovascular treatment for internal carotid artery stenosis after experiencing a left-hemispheric transient ischemic attack. (15)O-gas and H 2 (15) O positron emission tomography revealed slightly reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF), elevated cerebral blood volume, and severely reduced cerebral vasoreactivity in the ipsilateral hemisphere as determined by an acetazolamide challenge test. The patient underwent left carotid artery stenting (CAS) via a prefemoral approach under local anesthesia without any complications...
August 2, 2016: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
William A Schraegle, Nancy L Nussbaum, Arianna K Stefanatos
Findings of material-specific influences on memory performance in pediatric epilepsy are inconsistent and merit further investigation. This study compared 90 children (aged 6years to 16years) with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to determine whether they displayed distinct list-learning and verbal memory profiles on the California Verbal Learning Test - Children's Version (CVLT-C). Group comparison identified greater risk of memory impairment in children with TLE and FLE syndromes but not for those with CAE...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Julia Huemer, Belinda Plattner, Nadja Planer, Hans Steiner, Martha Feucht
BACKGROUND: To describe the rates and types of psychiatric disorders among adolescents with chronic symptomatic epilepsies and to evaluate syndrome-specific differences between temporal lobe (TLE) and frontal lobe (FLE) epilepsies. METHODS: A cross-sectional single-center study design applying the Youth Self Report (YSR) to investigate psychopathological symptoms and the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI) to investigate personality dimensions was used. Consecutive adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age with drug-resistant symptomatic TLE and FLE were investigated during pre-surgical evaluation prior to epilepsy surgery...
November 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Keita Kuya, Shinya Fujii, Fuminori Miyoshi, Koyo Ohno, Yuki Shinohara, Yoshihiro Maegaki, Toshihide Ogawa
A 1-year-old boy was admitted because of febrile status epilepticus (FSE). A secondary cluster of seizures was seen on day 5 after onset, and the patient eventually displayed developmental delay. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormal findings on day 1 after onset, but showed reduced diffusion in the subcortical regions of bilateral frontal lobes on day 5 after onset. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) was diagnosed. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) revealed reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) in bilateral frontal lobes on day 1 after onset and showed increased CBF in the corresponding region in the subacute phase...
July 23, 2016: Brain & Development
Cathleen Haense, Kirsten R Müller-Vahl, Florian Wilke, Christoph Schrader, Holger H Capelle, Lilli Geworski, Frank M Bengel, Joachim K Krauss, Georg Berding
In this study, alterations in brain perfusion have been investigated in patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) compared with control subjects. In addition, we investigated the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and centromedian-parafascicular/ventralis oralis internus nuclei of the thalamus (CM/Voi) and sham (SHAM) stimulation on cerebral blood flow. In a prospective controlled, randomized, double-blind setting, five severely affected adult patients with TS with predominant motor or vocal tics (mean total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale: 39) underwent serial brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography with (99m)Tc-ECD...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Janalee Stokken, Eisha Wali, Troy Woodard, Pablo F Recinos, Raj Sindwani
BACKGROUND: Giant frontal mucoceles, characterized by significant intracranial and/or intraorbital extension, can present with significant neurologic symptoms. Although typical mucoceles are managed endoscopically, giant mucoceles are often treated with an open or combined approach due to various concerns, including frontal lobe displacement, size, and rapid decompression of the intracranial component. The impact of significant intracranial extension on outcomes is not well described...
July 2016: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
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