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Frontal lobe syndrome

Leila Saadatpour, Usama Tariq, Alicia Parker, Leilani Doty, Kenneth M Heilman
Mixed transcortical aphasia (MTA) is characterized by decreased spontaneous speech, impaired naming, and poor comprehension, but with intact repetition. MTA has been reported to be the sequela of left hemisphere watershed infarction that isolates Wernicke's perisylvian arc. We report a 55-year-old right-handed woman who began having word-finding difficulty and then gradually developed impaired spontaneous speech, comprehension, and naming, but with intact repetition. Magnetic resonance imaging showed atrophy in the left frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes...
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Adam D Smitherman, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
Introduction: Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway through which recovery may occur. Methods: Diffusion spectrum imaging from the Human Connectome Project was used for tractography analysis...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Maximilian Hansbauer, Thomas Wobrock, Birgit Kunze, Berthold Langguth, Michael Landgrebe, Peter Eichhammer, Elmar Frank, Joachim Cordes, Wolfgang Wölwer, Georg Winterer, Wolfgang Gaebel, Göran Hajak, Christian Ohmann, Pablo E Verde, Marcella Rietschel, Raees Ahmed, William G Honer, Berend Malchow, Wolfgang Strube, Thomas Schneider-Axmann, Peter Falkai, Alkomiet Hasan
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left frontal lobe is discussed to be a promising add-on treatment for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) has been used as outcome parameter in several previous rTMS trials, but studies focusing on PANSS factor analyses are lacking. For this purpose, we used the available PANSS data of the 'rTMS for the Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia' (RESIS) trial to calculate different literature-based PANSS factors and to re-evaluate the impact of rTMS on negative symptoms in this trial...
February 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter correlates of apathy and impulsivity in the major syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, using diffusion-weighted imaging and data from the PiPPIN (Pick's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Prevalence and Incidence) study. We included behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: Seventy patients and 30 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging at 3-tesla after detailed assessment of apathy and impulsivity...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
Kimitoshi Sato, Shun Tsudaka, Takanori Miki, Norikata Kobayashi, Taro Yamashita, Kiyoharu Imataka, Takashi Yoshida, Fuminori Shimizu
The concept of "watershed shift"(WS)has been proposed as a cause of the ischemic complications following a superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery(STA-MCA)bypass operation performed for the management of moyamoya disease. Previous reports have observed that only 1.2-5.7% of the patients who underwent a bypass operation for the management of moyamoya disease developed cerebral infarction secondary to the WS phenomenon. To date, the WS phenomenon has not been objectively proven on imaging studies...
February 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
A B Gago-Veiga, R Toledano, I García-Morales, M A Pérez-Jiménez, J Bernar, A Gil-Nagel
BACKGROUND: Ring chromosome 20 (R20) syndrome is a chromosomal disorder characterized mainly by drug-resistant frontal lobe seizures, recurrent nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), and typical EEG features. The aim of this study was to investigate if this triad is common and specific to all patients with R20. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study (from 2000 to 2011), we selected patients who fulfilled at least two out of three criteria: drug-resistant frontal lobe seizures, recurrent NCSE, and characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) features...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Aimee F Luat, Michael E Behen, Harry T Chugani, Csaba Juhász
PURPOSE: Most children with Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) develop seizures that may contribute to neurocognitive status. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that very early seizure onset has a particularly detrimental effect on the cognitive and/or motor outcomes of children with unilateral SWS. We also tested whether side of SWS brain involvement modulates the effect of seizure variables on the pattern of cognitive abnormalities. METHODS: Thirty-four children (22 girls; mean age 6...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Serdal Gungor, Betul Kilic, Yilmaz Tabel, Ayse Selimoglu, Unsal Ozgen, Sezai Yilmaz
Objective: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by typical radiologic findings in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum. The symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, focal neurologic deficits, and seizures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological features of PRES in children and to emphasize the recognition of atypical features. Materials & Methods: We retrospectively examined 23 children with PRES from Mar 2010-Apr 2015 in Inonu University Turgut Ozal Medical Center in Turkey...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
Shuran Huang, Lingyun Gao, Yueqin Chen, Xiang Guo, Deguo Liu, Jiehuan Wang, Zhitao Shi, Zhanguo Sun, Feng Jin, Weijian Chen, Yunjun Yang
OBJECTIVE: Vascular and hemodynamic changes were not consistent in symptomatic and non-symptomatic cerebral hemisphere in patients with symptomatic moyamoya syndrome (MMS). Thus, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the hemodynamic difference between symptomatic and non-symptomatic cerebral hemisphere in patients with symptomatic MMS. METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with symptomatic MMS were retrospectively collected. All cases underwent CTP examination...
January 27, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Christopher D Whelan, Andre Altmann, Juan A Botía, Neda Jahanshad, Derrek P Hibar, Julie Absil, Saud Alhusaini, Marina K M Alvim, Pia Auvinen, Emanuele Bartolini, Felipe P G Bergo, Tauana Bernardes, Karen Blackmon, Barbara Braga, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Anna Calvo, Sarah J Carr, Jian Chen, Shuai Chen, Andrea Cherubini, Philippe David, Martin Domin, Sonya Foley, Wendy França, Gerrit Haaker, Dmitry Isaev, Simon S Keller, Raviteja Kotikalapudi, Magdalena A Kowalczyk, Ruben Kuzniecky, Soenke Langner, Matteo Lenge, Kelly M Leyden, Min Liu, Richard Q Loi, Pascal Martin, Mario Mascalchi, Marcia E Morita, Jose C Pariente, Raul Rodríguez-Cruces, Christian Rummel, Taavi Saavalainen, Mira K Semmelroch, Mariasavina Severino, Rhys H Thomas, Manuela Tondelli, Domenico Tortora, Anna Elisabetta Vaudano, Lucy Vivash, Felix von Podewils, Jan Wagner, Bernd Weber, Yi Yao, Clarissa L Yasuda, Guohao Zhang, Nuria Bargalló, Benjamin Bender, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi, Boris C Bernhardt, Ingmar Blümcke, Chad Carlson, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, Fernando Cendes, Luis Concha, Norman Delanty, Chantal Depondt, Orrin Devinsky, Colin P Doherty, Niels K Focke, Antonio Gambardella, Renzo Guerrini, Khalid Hamandi, Graeme D Jackson, Reetta Kälviäinen, Peter Kochunov, Patrick Kwan, Angelo Labate, Carrie R McDonald, Stefano Meletti, Terence J O'Brien, Sebastien Ourselin, Mark P Richardson, Pasquale Striano, Thomas Thesen, Roland Wiest, Junsong Zhang, Annamaria Vezzani, Mina Ryten, Paul M Thompson, Sanjay M Sisodiya
Progressive functional decline in the epilepsies is largely unexplained. We formed the ENIGMA-Epilepsy consortium to understand factors that influence brain measures in epilepsy, pooling data from 24 research centres in 14 countries across Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australia. Structural brain measures were extracted from MRI brain scans across 2149 individuals with epilepsy, divided into four epilepsy subgroups including idiopathic generalized epilepsies (n =367), mesial temporal lobe epilepsies with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE; left, n = 415; right, n = 339), and all other epilepsies in aggregate (n = 1026), and compared to 1727 matched healthy controls...
January 22, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Leah M Mattiaccio, Ioana L Coman, Carlie A Thompson, Wanda P Fremont, Kevin M Antshel, Wendy R Kates
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with deficits in cognitive and emotional processing. This syndrome represents one of the highest risk factors for the development of schizophrenia. Previous studies of functional connectivity (FC) in 22q11DS report aberrant connectivity patterns in large-scale networks that are associated with the development of psychotic symptoms. METHODS: In this study, we performed a functional connectivity analysis using the CONN toolbox to test for differential connectivity patterns between 54 individuals with 22q11DS and 30 healthy controls, between the ages of 17-25 years old...
January 20, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Venkat Swaroop Achuta, Tommi Möykkynen, Ulla-Kaisa Peteri, Giorgio Turconi, Claudio Rivera, Kari Keinänen, Maija L Castrén
Altered neuronal network formation and function involving dysregulated excitatory and inhibitory circuits are associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS). We examined functional maturation of the excitatory transmission system in FXS by investigating the response of FXS patient-derived neural progenitor cells to the glutamate analog (AMPA). Neural progenitors derived from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines generated from boys with FXS had augmented intracellular Ca2+ responses to AMPA and kainate that were mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) lacking the GluA2 subunit...
January 16, 2018: Science Signaling
Chikako Ogawa, Hiroyuki Kidokoro, Tatsuya Fukasawa, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Naoko Ishihara, Yuji Ito, Yoko Sakaguchi, Yu Okai, Atsuko Ohno, Tomohiko Nakata, Yoshiteru Azuma, Ayako Hattori, Tetsuo Kubota, Takeshi Tsuji, Akihiro Hirakawa, Hisashi Kawai, Jun Natsume
OBJECTIVE: To clarify longitudinal changes in white matter microstructures from the onset of disease in patients with West syndrome (WS) of unknown etiology. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was prospectively performed at onset and at 12 and 24 months old in 17 children with WS of unknown etiology. DTI was analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and tract-specific analysis (TSA) of 13 fiber tracts, and fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were compared with those of 42 age-matched controls...
February 2018: Epilepsia
Michael Saadeh, Yili Zhao, Hadiza Galadima, Rabih Chaoui, Elena Sinkovskaya, Alfred Abuhamad
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the size and position of the cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) or dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) with healthy fetuses. METHODS: The CSP length, CSP width, and frontal lobe length were measured in 185 healthy fetuses (404 scans), 11 fetuses with HLHS (16 scans), and 11 fetuses with d-TGA (12 scans) between January 2005 and April 2016. Each measurement was compared between healthy fetuses and those with HLHS or d-TGA, controlling for the biparietal diameter...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Sudhansu Chokroverty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2017: Sleep Medicine
Robynne George, Alex Langford
An 82-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department following bizarre behaviour. Police had noticed him driving erratically through his village. He did not stop when instructed, drove slowly home and appeared 'vacant' on questioning. While in hospital, he had approximately 15 episodes of catatonia, involving rigidity, negativism, mutism except echolalia and perseveration, automatic obedience and utilisation phenomena, lasting 2-20 min each. Between episodes, he was amnestic but otherwise well. Electroencephalography demonstrated bifrontal slowing with left-sided emphasis, and captured two focal onset partial seizures with the clinical correlate of the syndrome described above...
December 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Anoop Kuttikat, Valdas Noreika, Srivas Chennu, Nicholas Shenker, Tristan Bekinschtein, Christopher A Brown
Chronic pain in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has been linked to tactile misperceptions and deficits in somatotopic representation of the affected limb. In this study, we identify altered cognitive processing of tactile stimuli in CRPS patients that we propose marks heterogeneity in tactile decision-making mechanisms. In a case-control design, we compared middle- and late-latency somatosensory evoked potentials in response to pseudorandomized mechanical stimulation of the digits of both hands (including CRPS-affected and nonaffected sides) between 13 CRPS patients and 13 matched healthy controls...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Katerina A Tetzloff, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Mary M Machulda, Christopher G Schwarz, Matthew L Senjem, Robert I Reid, Anthony J Spychalla, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
The agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia affects normal grammatical language production, often occurs with apraxia of speech, and is associated with left frontal abnormalities on cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. We aimed to perform a detailed assessment of longitudinal change on structural and molecular neuroimaging to provide a complete picture of neurodegeneration in these patients, and to determine how patterns of progression compare to patients with isolated apraxia of speech (primary progressive apraxia of speech)...
January 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
S G Khachatryan, Yu S Tunyan
In this review, the authors discuss the problem of management of the patient with epilepsy with regard an impact of epileptic seizures and syndromes on sleep structure. Sleep disorders can lead to worsening of seizure control and general medical condition of the patients. However, seizures themselves and types of epilepsy can affect the sleep architecture. One of the most frequent symptoms of disordered sleep in epilepsy patients is excessive daytime sleepiness, which can be a consequence of poor sleep quality due to frequent nocturnal seizures or excessive interictal epileptiform activity during sleep leading to frequent arousals...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Pedro Pires, Patricia Jungmann, Jully Moura Galvão, Adriano Hazin, Luiza Menezes, Ricardo Ximenes, Gabriele Tonni, Edward Araujo Júnior
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging and clinical findings in a clinical series following congenital Zika virus syndrome during the first epidemic Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: We (the authors) conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected case series of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly born to mothers with presumed/confirmed congenital ZIKV syndrome. Prenatal ultrasound findings were reviewed to identify potential central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities...
December 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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