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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813542/the-african-cholera-surveillance-network-africhol-consortium-meeting-10-11-june-2015-lom%C3%A3-togo
#1
Aline Munier, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Delphine Sauvageot, Raymond B Mhlanga, Léonard Heyerdahl, Johara Nadri, Richard Wood, Issaka Ouedraogo, Alexandre Blake, Laurent Akilimali Mukelenge, Jean-Claude B Anné, Abiba Banla Kere, Lucienne Dempouo, Sakoba Keita, José P M Langa, Issa Makumbi, Elibariki R Mwakapeje, Ian J Njeru, Olubunmi E Ojo, Isaac Phiri, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Bradford D Gessner, Martin Mengel
The fifth annual meeting of the African cholera surveillance network (Africhol) took place on 10-11 June 2015 in Lomé, Togo. Together with international partners, representatives from the 11 member countries -Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe- and an invited country (Malawi) shared their experience. The meeting featured three sessions: i) cholera surveillance, prevention and control in participating countries, ii) cholera surveillance methodology, such as cholera mapping, cost-effectiveness studies and the issue of overlapping epidemics from different diseases, iii) cholera laboratory diagnostics tools and capacity building...
2017: BMC Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812842/governance-and-capacity-to-manage-resilience-of-health-systems-towards-a-new-conceptual-framework
#2
Karl Blanchet, Sara L Nam, Ben Ramalingam, Francisco Pozo-Martin
The term resilience has dominated the discourse among health systems researchers since 2014 and the onset of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is wide consensus that the global community has to help build more resilient health systems. But do we really know what resilience means, and do we all have the same vision of resilience? The present paper presents a new conceptual framework on governance of resilience based on systems thinking and complexity theories. In this paper, we see resilience of a health system as its capacity to absorb, adapt and transform when exposed to a shock such as a pandemic, natural disaster or armed conflict and still retain the same control over its structure and functions...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812539/investigating-ebola-virus-pathogenicity-using-molecular-dynamics
#3
Morena Pappalardo, Francesca Collu, James Macpherson, Martin Michaelis, Franca Fraternali, Mark N Wass
BACKGROUND: Ebolaviruses have been known to cause deadly disease in humans for 40 years and have recently been demonstrated in West Africa to be able to cause large outbreaks. Four Ebolavirus species cause severe disease associated with high mortality in humans. Reston viruses are the only Ebolaviruses that do not cause disease in humans. Conserved amino acid changes in the Reston virus protein VP24 compared to VP24 of other Ebolaviruses have been suggested to alter VP24 binding to host cell karyopherins resulting in impaired inhibition of interferon signalling, which may explain the difference in human pathogenicity...
August 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810165/human-immune-system-mouse-models-of-ebola-virus-infection
#4
REVIEW
Jessica R Spengler, Joseph Prescott, Heinz Feldmann, Christina F Spiropoulou
Human immune system (HIS) mice, immunodeficient mice engrafted with human cells (with or without donor-matched tissue), offer a unique opportunity to study pathogens that cause disease predominantly or exclusively in humans. Several HIS mouse models have recently been used to study Ebola virus (EBOV) infection and disease. The results of these studies are encouraging and support further development and use of these models in Ebola research. HIS mice provide a small animal model to study EBOV isolates, investigate early viral interactions with human immune cells, screen vaccines and therapeutics that modulate the immune system, and investigate sequelae in survivors...
August 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810081/a-risk-analysis-approach-to-prioritizing-epidemics-ebola-virus-disease-in-west-africa-as-a-case-study
#5
Whenayon Simeon Ajisegiri, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, C Raina MacIntyre
The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak affected several countries worldwide, including six West African countries. It was the largest Ebola epidemic in the history and the first to affect multiple countries simultaneously. Significant national and international delay in response to the epidemic resulted in 28,652 cases and 11,325 deaths. The aim of this study was to develop a risk analysis framework to prioritize rapid response for situations of high risk. Based on findings from the literature, sociodemographic features of the affected countries, and documented epidemic data, a risk scoring framework using 18 criteria was developed...
August 15, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807685/an-rna-polymerase-ii-driven-ebola-virus-minigenome-system-as-an-advanced-tool-for-antiviral-drug-screening
#6
Emily V Nelson, Jennifer R Pacheco, Adam Hume, Tessa N Cressey, Laure R Deflubé, John B Ruedas, John H Connor, Hideki Ebihara, Elke Mühlberger
Ebola virus (EBOV) causes a severe disease in humans with the potential for significant international public health consequences. Currently, treatments are limited to experimental vaccines and therapeutics. Therefore, research into prophylaxis and antiviral strategies to combat EBOV infections is of utmost importance. The requirement for high containment laboratories to study EBOV infection is a limiting factor for conducting EBOV research. To overcome this issue, minigenome systems have been used as valuable tools to study EBOV replication and transcription mechanisms and to screen for antiviral compounds at biosafety level 2...
August 11, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807438/synthesis-conformational-study-and-antiviral-activity-of-l-like-neplanocin-derivatives
#7
Qi Chen, Amber Davidson
The l-like enantiomer of 9-(trans-2', trans-3'-dihydroxycyclopent-4'-enyl)-3-deazaadenine (DHCDA) (1), its 3-deaza-3-bromo derivative (3), and the conformational restricted methanocarba (MC) nucleoside analogues (2 and 4) were synthesized. X-ray crystal structures showed the L isomer MC analogue 4 adopts a similar North-like locked conformation as conventional D-MC nucleosides, while the DHCDA analogue 3 preferred south-like conformer. Compounds 1 and 4 showed potent antiviral activity against norovirus, while compound 2 and 3 were less potent or inactive...
August 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806109/reflections-on-leadership-and-governance-from-the-incident-manager-of-liberia-s-ebola-response
#8
Tolbert Nyenswah
The 2014-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease occurred in a region with a recent history of civil war, unstable health systems, and widespread poverty. Despite these contextual challenges, the national Ebola response in Liberia controlled transmission under strong leadership that was able to rapidly coordinate activities, to manage local and international players, and to adapt upon recognizing missteps. Such leadership has persisted to improve public health capacity in post-Ebola Liberia. This article highlights the progress made toward developing a resilient health security system with capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to disease threats before they reach epidemic level...
August 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805465/what-we-are-watching-top-global-infectious-disease-threats-2013-2016-an-update-from-cdc-s-global-disease-detection-operations-center
#9
Kira A Christian, A Danielle Iuliano, Timothy M Uyeki, Eric D Mintz, Stuart T Nichol, Pierre Rollin, J Erin Staples, Ray R Arthur
To better track public health events in areas where the public health system is unable or unwilling to report the event to appropriate public health authorities, agencies can conduct event-based surveillance, which is defined as the organized collection, monitoring, assessment, and interpretation of unstructured information regarding public health events that may represent an acute risk to public health. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Global Disease Detection Operations Center (GDDOC) was created in 2007 to serve as CDC's platform dedicated to conducting worldwide event-based surveillance, which is now highlighted as part of the "detect" element of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA)...
August 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805464/advancing-preparedness-for-highly-hazardous-contagious-diseases-admitting-10-simulated-patients-with-mers-cov
#10
Angela Vasa, Philip W Smith, Michelle Schwedhelm, Theodore J Cieslak, John Lowe, Christopher J Kratochvil, Elizabeth L Beam, Kate Boulter, Angela Hewlett
The Ebola outbreak of 2014-2016 highlighted the need for the development of a more robust healthcare infrastructure in the United States to provide isolation care for patients infected with a highly hazardous contagious disease. Routine exercises and skills practice are required to effectively and safely prepare care teams to confidently treat this special population of patients. The Nebraska Biocontainment Unit (NBU) at Nebraska Medicine in Omaha has been conducting exercises since 2005 when the unit was opened...
August 14, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798200/wearable-physiological-monitoring-for-human-thermal-work-strain-optimization
#11
Mark J Buller, Alexander Pearson Welles, Karl E Friedl
Safe performance limits of soldiers and athletes have typically relied on predictive work-rest models of ambient conditions, average work intensity, and characteristics of the population. Bioengineering advances in noninvasive sensor technologies including miniaturization, reduced cost, power requirements, and comfort now make it possible to produce individual predictions of safe thermal-work limits. These precision medicine assessments depend on the development of thoughtful algorithms based on physics and physiology...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795602/immunogenicity-of-the-recombinant-adenovirus-type-5-vector-based-ebola-vaccine-ad5-ebov-expressing-the-glycoprotein-of-the-2014-epidemic-strain-in-mice
#12
Ling Wang, Jing Jing Liu, Yan Kong, Li Hua Hou, Yu Hua Li
The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa has brought great threat to the public health worldwide. Development of Ebola vaccine is urgent. A novel recombinant adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine (Ad5-EBOV) based on the 2014 Zaire Guinea epidemic strain was developed in China. A good safety profile and robust immune response elicited by Ad5-EBOV were confirmed in Phase I and Phase II clinical trial. However, clinical studies of Ebola vaccine are still at an early stage and no solid efficacy data for human beings yet...
August 10, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794491/ebola-virus-vp24-interacts-with-np-to-facilitate-nucleocapsid-assembly-and-genome-packaging
#13
Logan Banadyga, Thomas Hoenen, Xavier Ambroggio, Eric Dunham, Allison Groseth, Hideki Ebihara
Ebola virus causes devastating hemorrhagic fever outbreaks for which no approved therapeutic exists. The viral nucleocapsid, which is minimally composed of the proteins NP, VP35, and VP24, represents an attractive target for drug development; however, the molecular determinants that govern the interactions and functions of these three proteins are still unknown. Through a series of mutational analyses, in combination with biochemical and bioinformatics approaches, we identified a region on VP24 that was critical for its interaction with NP...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791241/ebola-virus-disease-essential-clinical-knowledge
#14
REVIEW
Mahmoud Tawfik Khalafallah, Omar Ali Aboshady, Shaban Ahmed Moawed, Menna Said Ramadan
Since its initial outbreak in 1976, Ebola virus disease (EVD) has affected thousands of people, causing severe illness with high mortality rates. In the absence of a vaccine or effective specific treatment, as well as the lack of early diagnostic and detective methods, the EVD outbreak has generated a significant worldwide health concern. Insufficient health-care system resources, deficient infection control measures, and the shortage of appropriate personal protective equipment acted as amplifiers of the outbreak extension, especially in poorly resourced and unprepared communities...
July 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780227/insights-into-the-immune-manipulation-mechanisms-of-pollen-allergens-by-protein-domain-profiling
#15
Seema Patel, Aruna Rani, Arun Goyal
Plant pollens are airborne allergens, as their inhalation causes immune activation, leading to rhinitis, conjunctivitis, sinusitis and oral allergy syndrome. A myriad of pollen proteins belonging to profilin, expansin, polygalacturonase, glucan endoglucosidase, pectin esterase, and lipid transfer protein class have been identified. In the present in silico study, the protein domains of fifteen pollen sequences were extracted from the UniProt database and submitted to the interactive web tool SMART (Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool), for finding the protein domain profiles...
July 29, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780120/vaccines-against-ebola-virus
#16
Navin Venkatraman, Daniel Silman, Pedro M Folegatti, Adrian V S Hill
We have just witnessed the largest and most devastating outbreak of Ebola virus disease, which highlighted the urgent need for development of an efficacious vaccine that could be used to curtail future outbreaks. Prior to 2014, there had been limited impetus worldwide to develop a vaccine since the virus was first discovered in 1976. Though too many lives were lost during this outbreak, it resulted in the significantly accelerated clinical development of a number of candidate vaccines through an extraordinary collaborative global effort coordinated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and involving a number of companies, trial centres, funders, global stakeholders and agencies...
August 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779833/high-containment-pathogen-preparation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#17
REVIEW
Brian T Garibaldi, Daniel S Chertow
The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak highlighted the need to build national and worldwide capacity to provide care for patients with highly infectious diseases. Specialized biocontainment units were successful in treating several critically ill patients with Ebola virus disease both in the United States and Europe. Several key principles underlie the care of critically ill patients in a high-containment environment. Environmental factors, staffing, equipment, training, laboratory testing, procedures, and waste management each present unique challenges...
September 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771956/knowledge-risk-perception-and-mitigation-measures-towards-ebola-virus-disease-by-potentially-exposed-bushmeat-handlers-in-north-central-nigeria-any-critical-gap
#18
N B Alhaji, S Yatswako, E Y Oddoh
The bushmeat industry has been a topic of increasing importance among public health officials for its influence on zoonotic diseases transmission, such as Ebola virus disease (EVD), a rare and severe infectious disease of humans and non-human primates. This survey assessed knowledge/awareness, risk perceptions and mitigation practices towards EVD among bushmeat handlers in north-central Nigeria. These characteristics are premise to level of preparedness against appropriate risk prevention and control. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted between January and December 2015 on 395 bushmeat handlers...
August 3, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768904/mapping-the-clinical-outcomes-and-genetic-evolution-of-ebola-virus-in-sierra-leone
#19
Tao Li, Hong-Wu Yao, Di Liu, Hong-Guang Ren, Yi Hu, David Kargbo, Yue Teng, Yong-Qiang Deng, Hui-Jun Lu, Xiong Liu, Kun Liu, Li-Qun Fang, Nian-Zhi Ning, Gary Wong, Foday Dafae, Abdul Kamara, AiPing Wu, Tai-Jiao Jiang, Zhan Li, Jie Huang, Yu Sun, Jun Qian, Brima Kargbo, Jia-Fu Jiang, Hui Wang, Wu-Chun Cao
Sierra Leone was the most severely affected country in Western Africa during the 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Previous genome surveillance studies have revealed the origin, diversity, and evolutionary dynamics of the Ebola virus (EBOV); however, the information regarding EBOV sequences is insufficient, especially the clinical outcomes, given that the correlation between the clinical outcomes and the genetic evolution of EBOV is still not clear. Here, we collected and curated a comprehensive data set that includes 514 EBOV genome sequences from patients with confirmed EVD (including 60 sequences not previously studied), >87...
August 3, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768877/immunodominance-of-adenovirus-derived-cd8-t-cell-epitopes-interferes-with-the-induction-of-transgene-specific-immunity-in-adenovirus-based-immunization
#20
Dominik Schöne, Camilla Patrizia Hrycak, Sonja Windmann, Dennis Lapuente, Ulf Dittmer, Matthias Tenbusch, Wibke Bayer
Adenovirus (Ad)-based immunization is a popular approach in vaccine development, and Ad-based vectors are renowned for their potential to induce strong CD8(+) T cell responses to the encoded transgene. Surprisingly, we found before in the mouse Friend retrovirus (FV) model that Ad-based immunization did not induce CD8(+) T cell responses to the FV Leader-Gag-derived immunodominant epitope GagL85-93 We show now that induction of GagL85-93-specific CD8(+) T cells was highly effective when Leader-Gag was delivered by plasmid DNA immunization, implying a role for Ad-derived epitopes in mediating unresponsiveness...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Virology
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