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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941617/the-effect-of-a-non-denaturing-detergent-and-a-guanidinium-based-inactivation-agent-on-the-viability-of-ebola-virus-in-mock-clinical-serum-samples
#1
J E Burton, L Easterbrook, J Pitman, D Anderson, S Roddy, D Bailey, R Vipond, C Bruce, A D Roberts
The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa required the rapid testing of clinical material for the presence of potentially high titre Ebola virus (EBOV). Safe, fast and effective methods for the inactivation of such clinical samples are required so that rapid diagnostic tests including downstream analysis by RT-qPCR or nucleotide sequencing can be carried out. One of the most commonly used guanidinium - based denaturing agents, AVL (Qiagen) has been shown to fully inactivate EBOV once ethanol is added, however this is not compatible with the use of automated nucleic acid extraction systems...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939358/recrudescence-of-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-west-africa-2014-2016
#2
Hyojung Lee, Hiroshi Nishiura
OBJECTIVES: There have been errors in determining the end of Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic when adhering to the criteria of the World Health Organization. The present study aimed to review and learn from all known recrudescent events in West Africa in 2014-2016. METHODS: <ABS-P>Background: mechanisms of five erroneous declarations in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone from 2014 to 2016 were reviewed. RESULTS: Three recrudescent cases were suspected to have been caused by sexual contact with survivors, one due to international migration, and one linked to a potentially immunocompromised mother...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937957/whole-blood-based-multiplex-immunoassays-for-the-evaluation-of-human-biomarker-responses-to-emerging-viruses-in-resource-limited-regions
#3
Jessica R Harmon, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou, Anita K McElroy
Many emerging viruses such as Ebola and Lassa occur in resource-limited areas of the world. The advent of multiplex immunoassays has facilitated the study of biomarkers of disease since only small amounts of clinical material are required; however, such assays are designed and validated for only plasma or serum. This is a significant impediment when studying infectious diseases in the context of an outbreak in a developing nation. Plasma or serum can be difficult to obtain in the field due to the need for additional processing of infectious materials...
September 22, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937795/using-mystery-patient-drills-to-assess-hospital-ebola-preparedness-in-new-york-city-2014-2015
#4
Mary Foote, Roshni Daver, Celia Quinn
In response to the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa, rapid measures were taken to ensure readiness at frontline New York City (NYC) healthcare facilities, including mandating monthly EVD mystery patient drills to test screening protocols. This study analyzed after-action reports to describe the use of mystery patient drills to test rapid identification and isolation of potential EVD cases in NYC emergency departments. NYC hospitals were required to develop protocols for EVD screening and isolation, and to conduct drills with an actor presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of EVD...
September 22, 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934370/the-risk-of-sustained-sexual-transmission-of-zika-is-underestimated
#5
Antoine Allard, Benjamin M Althouse, Laurent Hébert-Dufresne, Samuel V Scarpino
Pathogens often follow more than one transmission route during outbreaks-from needle sharing plus sexual transmission of HIV to small droplet aerosol plus fomite transmission of influenza. Thus, controlling an infectious disease outbreak often requires characterizing the risk associated with multiple mechanisms of transmission. For example, during the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, weighing the relative importance of funeral versus health care worker transmission was essential to stopping disease spread...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933343/the-european-medical-corps-first-public-health-team-mission-and-future-perspectives
#6
Joana M Haussig, Ettore Severi, Jonathan Hj Baum, Veerle Vanlerberghe, Amparo Laiseca, Laurent Defrance, Cristina Brailescu, Denis Coulombier, Josep Jansa
The 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa challenged traditional international mechanisms for public health team mobilisation to control outbreaks. Consequently, in February 2016, the European Union (EU) launched the European Medical Corps (EMC), a mechanism developed in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) to rapidly deploy teams and equipment in response to public health emergencies inside and outside the EU. Public Health Teams (PHTs), a component of the EMC, consist of experts in communicable disease prevention and control from participating countries and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), to support affected countries and WHO in risk assessment and outbreak response...
September 14, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932714/evaluation-of-clinicians-reporting-proficiency-and-their-risk-perceptions-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-ebonyi-state-nigeria
#7
Nnennaya Anthony Ajayi, Chiedozie Kingsley Ojide, Immanuel Anthony Ajayi, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja
INTRODUCTION: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a highly contagious infection with a high case fatality rate. Thus, there is a crucial need for early detection and reporting of any individual suspected to have EVD in order to facilitate containment strategies. The aim of our study was to evaluate clinicians' reporting proficiency and their risk perceptions of EVD in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among clinicians...
September 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931675/comparative-transcriptomics-highlights-the-role-of-the-ap1-transcription-factor-in-the-host-response-to-ebolavirus
#8
James W Wynne, Shawn Todd, Victoria Boyd, Mary Tachedjian, Reuben Klein, Brian Shiell, Megan Dearnley, Alexander J McAuley, Amanda P Woon, Anthony W Purcell, Glenn A Marsh, Michelle L Baker
Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus comprise two genera of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Despite considerable research efforts, the molecular events following Ebola virus (EBOV) infection are poorly understood. With the view of identifying host factors that underpin EBOV pathogenesis, we compared the transcriptomes of EBOV-infected human, pig and bat kidney cells using an RNAseq approach. Despite a significant difference in viral transcription/replication between the cell lines, all cells responded to EBOV infection through a robust induction of extracellular growth factors...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930583/ibuprofen-as-a-template-molecule-for-drug-design-against-ebola-virus
#9
Slobodan Paessler, Cheng Huang, Milan Sencanski, Nevena Veljkovic, Vladimir Perovic, Sanja Glisic, Veljjko Veljkovic
The Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa 2015 and Congo 2017, point out an urgent need for development of drugs against this important pathogen. Previously, by repurposing virtual screening of 6438 drugs from DrugBank, ibuprofen was selected as a possible inhibitor of the Ebola virus infection. The results of an additional docking analysis as well as experimental results showing measurable anti-Ebola effect of ibuprofen in cell culture suggest ibuprofen as a promising molecular template for the development of drugs for treatment of the infection by Ebola virus...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930167/host-transcriptional-response-to-ebola-virus-infection
#10
REVIEW
Emily Speranza, John H Connor
Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a serious illness that causes severe disease in humans and non-human primates (NHPs) and has mortality rates up to 90%. EVD is caused by the Ebolavirus and currently there are no licensed therapeutics or vaccines to treat EVD. Due to its high mortality rates and potential as a bioterrorist weapon, a better understanding of the disease is of high priority. Multiparametric analysis techniques allow for a more complete understanding of a disease and the host response. Analysis of RNA species present in a sample can lead to a greater understanding of activation or suppression of different states of the immune response...
September 20, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929904/sexual-behaviours-in-the-context-of-the-ebola-virus-disease-evd-in-ghana
#11
Eric Y Tenkorang
Evidence suggests that Ebola virus disease can be transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, in particular through contact with the semen of an infected person. Yet few studies examine sexual behaviours in the context of Ebola. Using data collected from 460 women and 340 men within 40 selected communities in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, this study employed hierarchical linear modelling to examine individual and community-level factors that influence willingness to engage in behaviours that protect against the sexual transmission of Ebola...
September 20, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929557/survivors-perceptions-of-public-health-messages-during-an-ebola-crisis-in-liberia-and-sierra-leone-an-exploratory-study
#12
Patricia Schwerdtle, Veronique De Clerck, Virginia Plummer
The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was the largest epidemic of Ebola ever recorded. The healthcare workforce was diminished and exhausted as the region emerged from civil war. Few qualitative, descriptive studies have been conducted to date that concentrate on the voices of Ebola survivors and their perceptions of health messages. In this study, we employed an interpretive, qualitative design to explore participant experiences. Twenty five survivors who had recovered from Ebola were recruited from three villages in Liberia and Sierra Leone in August 2015...
September 20, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929318/monitoring-and-evaluating-the-ebola-response-effort-in-two-liberian-communities
#13
Davison Munodawafa, Matshidiso Rebecca Moeti, Peter Malekele Phori, Stephen B Fawcett, Ithar Hassaballa, Charles Sepers, Florence DiGennaro Reed, Jerry A Schultz, Ephraim Tafadzwa Chiriseri
Although credited with ultimately reducing incidence of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa, little is known about the amount and kind of Ebola response activities associated with reducing the incidence of EVD. Our team monitored Ebola response activities and associated effects in two rural counties in Liberia highly affected by Ebola. We used a participatory monitoring and evaluation system, and drew upon key informant interviews and document review, to systematically capture, code, characterize, and communicate patterns in Ebola response activities...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928377/viral-outbreaks-involve-destabilized-evolutionary-networks-evidence-from-ebola-influenza-and-zika
#14
Stéphane Aris-Brosou, Neke Ibeh, Jessica Noël
Recent history has provided us with one pandemic (Influenza A/H1N1) and two severe viral outbreaks (Ebola and Zika). In all three cases, post-hoc analyses have given us deep insights into what triggered these outbreaks, their timing, evolutionary dynamics, and phylogeography, but the genomic characteristics of outbreak viruses are still unclear. To address this outstanding question, we searched for a common denominator between these recent outbreaks, positing that the genome of outbreak viruses is in an unstable evolutionary state, while that of non-outbreak viruses is stabilized by a network of correlated substitutions...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923947/tpc2-polymorphisms-associated-with-a-hair-pigmentation-phenotype-in-humans-result-in-gain-of-channel-function-by-independent-mechanisms
#15
Yu-Kai Chao, Verena Schludi, Cheng-Chang Chen, Elisabeth Butz, O N Phuong Nguyen, Martin Müller, Jens Krüger, Claudia Kammerbauer, Manu Ben-Johny, Angelika M Vollmar, Carola Berking, Martin Biel, Christian A Wahl-Schott, Christian Grimm
Two-pore channels (TPCs) are endolysosomal cation channels. Two members exist in humans, TPC1 and TPC2. Functional roles associated with the ubiquitously expressed TPCs include VEGF-induced neoangiogenesis, LDL-cholesterol trafficking and degradation, physical endurance under fasting conditions, autophagy regulation, the acrosome reaction in sperm, cancer cell migration, and intracellular trafficking of pathogens such as Ebola virus or bacterial toxins (e.g., cholera toxin). In a genome-wide association study for variants associated with human pigmentation characteristics two coding variants of TPC2, rs35264875 (encoding M484L) and rs3829241 (encoding G734E), have been found to be associated with a shift from brown to blond hair color...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923111/a-novel-coltivirus-related-virus-isolated-from-free-tailed-bats-from-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-is-able-to-infect-human-cells-in-vitro
#16
Sabrina Weiss, Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski, Andreas Kurth, Siv Aina J Leendertz, Fabian H Leendertz
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic transmission events play a major role in the emergence of novel diseases. While such events are virtually impossible to predict, wildlife screening for potential emerging pathogens can be a first step. Driven by recent disease epidemics like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola, bats have gained special interest as reservoirs of emerging viruses. METHODS: As part of a bigger study investigating pathogens in African bats we screened animals for the presence of known and unknown viruses...
September 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922082/combinatorial-peptide-based-epitope-mapping-from-ebola-virus-dna-vaccines-and-infections-reveals-residue-level-determinants-of-antibody-binding
#17
Daniel R Ripoll, Daniel A J Mitchell, Lesley C Dupuy, Anders Wallqvist, Connie Schmaljohn, Sidhartha Chaudhury
Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is highly lethal and results in severe febrile bleeding disorders that affect humans and non-human primates. One of the therapeutic approaches for treating EBOV infection focus largely on cocktails of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to specific regions of the EBOV glycoprotein (GP) and neutralize the virus. Recent structural studies using cryo-electron microscopy have identified key epitopes for several EBOV mAbs. While such information has yielded deep insights into antibody binding, limitations on resolution of these structures often preclude a residue-level analysis of EBOV epitopes...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919042/new-tools-for-the-visualization-of-biological-pathways
#18
Tomojit Ghosh, Xiaofeng Ma, Michael Kirby
This paper presents several geometrically motivated techniques for the visualization of high-dimensional biological data sets. The Grassmann manifold provides a robust framework for measuring data similarity in a subspace context. Sparse radial basis function classification as a visualization technique leverages recent advances in radial basis function learning via convex optimization. In the spirit of deep belief networks, supervised centroid-encoding is proposed as a way to exploit class label information...
September 14, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918539/accelerating-vaccine-development-during-the-2013-2016-west-african-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak
#19
Elizabeth S Higgs, Sheri A Dubey, Beth A G Coller, Jakub K Simon, Laura Bollinger, Robert A Sorenson, Barthalomew Wilson, Martha C Nason, Lisa E Hensley
The Ebola virus disease outbreak that began in Western Africa in December 2013 was unprecedented in both scope and spread, and the global response was slower and less coherent than was optimal given the scale and pace of the epidemic. Past experience with limited localized outbreaks, lack of licensed medical countermeasures, reluctance by first responders to direct scarce resources to clinical research, community resistance to outside interventions, and lack of local infrastructure were among the factors delaying clinical research during the outbreak...
September 17, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917841/graphene-vp40-interactions-and-potential-disruption-of-the-ebola-virus-matrix-filaments
#20
Jeevan B Gc, Rudramani Pokhrel, Nisha Bhattarai, Kristen A Johnson, Bernard S Gerstman, Robert V Stahelin, Prem P Chapagain
Ebola virus infections cause hemorrhagic fever that often results in very high fatality rates. In addition to exploring vaccines, development of drugs is also essential for treating the disease and preventing the spread of the infection. The Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 exists in various conformational and oligomeric forms and is a potential pharmacological target for disrupting the virus life-cycle. Here we explored graphene-VP40 interactions using molecular dynamics simulations and graphene pelleting assays...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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