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Nathan P Miller, Penelope Milsom, Ginger Johnson, Juliet Bedford, Aline Simen Kapeu, Abdoulaye Oumar Diallo, Kebir Hassen, Nuzhat Rafique, Kamrul Islam, Robert Camara, Joseph Kandeh, Chea Sanford Wesseh, Kumanan Rasanathan, Jerome Pfaffmann Zambruni, Heather Papowitz
Background: The role of community health workers (CHWs) in the West Africa Ebola outbreak has been highlighted to advocate for increasing numbers of CHWs globally to build resilience, strengthen health systems, and provide emergency response capacity. However, the roles CHWs played, the challenges they faced, and their effectiveness during the outbreak are not well documented. This study assessed the impact of Ebola on community-based maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) services, documented the contribution of CHWs and other community-based actors to the Ebola response, and identified lessons learned to strengthen resilience in future emergencies...
December 2018: Journal of Global Health
John B Ruedas, Catherine E Arnold, Gustavo Palacios, John H Connor
The Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) is cleaved into two subunits (GP1 and GP2) that are both required for virus attachment and entry into cells. Sequence changes in the GP have been proposed to increase pathogenesis and to alter virus growth properties. Mutations in GP acquired during EBOV tissue culture passage have also been reported to change virus growth properties. Here we report the isolation of six amino acid mutations in EBOV GP that spontaneously appeared during recovery and passage of an EBOV-Makona GP-pseudotyped VSV, two of which also occur during passage of EBOV clinical isolates in tissue culture...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
Van Kinh Nguyen, Rafael Mikolajczyk, Esteban Abelardo Hernandez-Vargas
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemics have entailed global discussions on revamping epidemic control and prevention approaches. A general consensus is that all sources of data should be embraced to improve epidemic preparedness. As a disease transmission is inherently governed by individual-level responses, pathogen dynamics within infected hosts posit high potentials to inform population-level phenomena. We propose a multiscale approach showing that individual dynamics were able to reproduce population-level observations...
July 17, 2018: BMC Public Health
Julie Dyall, Joshua C Johnson, Brit J Hart, Elena Postnikova, Yu Cong, Huanying Zhou, Dawn M Gerhardt, Julia Michelotti, Anna N Honko, Steven Kern, Lisa Evans DeWald, Kathleen G O'Loughlin, Carol E Green, Jon C Mirsalis, Richard S Bennett, Gene G Olinger, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley
At the onset of the 2013-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD), no vaccine or antiviral medication was approved for treatment. Therefore, considerable efforts were directed towards the concept of drug repurposing or repositioning. Amiodarone, an approved multi-ion channel blocker for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia, was reported to inhibit filovirus entry in vitro. Compassionate use of amiodarone in EVD patients indicated a possible survival benefit. In support of further clinical testing, we confirmed anti-Ebola virus activity of amiodarone in different cell types...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Patrick J Howlett, Anna R Walder, Durodami R Lisk, Felicity Fitzgerald, Stephen Sevalie, Marta Lado, Abdul N'jai, Colin S Brown, Foday Sahr, Foday Sesay, Jonathon M Read, Paul J Steptoe, Nicholas A V Beare, Reena Dwivedi, Marylou Solbrig, Gibrilla F Deen, Tom Solomon, Malcolm G Semple, Janet T Scott
We describe a case series of 35 Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors during the epidemic in West Africa who had neurologic and accompanying psychiatric sequelae. Survivors meeting neurologic criteria were invited from a cohort of 361 EVD survivors to attend a preliminary clinic. Those whose severe neurologic features were documented in the preliminary clinic were referred for specialist neurologic evaluation, ophthalmologic examination, and psychiatric assessment. Of 35 survivors with neurologic sequelae, 13 had migraine headache, 2 stroke, 2 peripheral sensory neuropathy, and 2 peripheral nerve lesions...
August 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Laura Rodriguez-Pérez, Javier Ramos-Soriano, Alfonso Pérez-Sánchez, Beatriz M Illescas, Antonio Muñoz, Joanna Luczkowiak, Fatima Lasala, Javier Rojo, Rafael Delgado, Nazario Martín
SWCNTs, MWCNTs and SWCNHs have been employed as virus mimicking nanocarbon platforms for the multivalent presentation of carbohydrates in an artificial Ebola virus infection model assay. These carbon nanoforms have been chemically modified by the covalent attachment of glycodendrons and glycofullerenes using the CuAAC "click chemis-try" approach. This modification dramatically increases the water solubility of these structurally different nanocarbons. Their efficiency to block DC-SIGN mediated viral infection by an artificial Ebola virus has been tested in a cellu-lar experimental assay finding that glycoconjugates based on MWCNTs functionalized with glycofullerenes are potent inhibitors of viral infection...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Avishay Edri, Avishai Shemesh, Muhammed Iraqi, Omri Matalon, Michael Brusilovsky, Uzi Hadad, Olga Radinsky, Orly Gershoni-Yahalom, John M Dye, Ofer Mandelboim, Mira Barda-Saad, Leslie Lobel, Angel Porgador
The Ebola virus (EBOV) uses evasion mechanisms that directly interfere with host T-cell antiviral responses. By steric shielding of human leukocyte antigen class-1, the Ebola glycoprotein (GP) blocks interaction with T-cell receptors (TCRs), thus rendering T cells unable to attack virus-infected cells. It is likely that this mechanism could promote increased natural killer (NK) cell activity against GP-expressing cells by preventing the engagement of NK inhibitory receptors; however, we found that primary human NK cells were less reactive to GP-expressing HEK293T cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
David S Fedson
Almost all new treatments being developed for the next influenza pandemic target the virus. During the Ebola crisis in West Africa, patients were treated with an inexpensive generic statin/angiotensin receptor blocker combination that appeared to greatly improve survival. These drugs target the host response, not the virus, and probably reverse endothelial dysfunction. Scientists and health officials have shown little interest in this idea. Yet, during the early months of the next pandemic, vaccines will be unavailable and treatment options will be limited...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
Ziying Han, Michael P Schwoerer, Philip Hicks, Jingjing Liang, Gordon Ruthel, Corbett T Berry, Bruce D Freedman, Cari A Sagum, Mark T Bedford, Sachdev S Sidhu, Marius Sudol, Ronald N Harty
Lassa fever virus (LFV) belongs to the Arenaviridae family and can cause acute hemorrhagic fever in humans. The LFV Z protein plays a central role in virion assembly and egress, such that independent expression of LFV Z leads to the production of virus-like particles (VLPs) that mimic egress of infectious virus. LFV Z contains both PTAP and PPPY L-domain motifs that are known to recruit host proteins that are important for mediating efficient virus egress and spread. The viral PPPY motif is known to interact with specific host WW-domain bearing proteins...
July 13, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Thomas Luke, Richard S Bennett, Dawn M Gerhardt, Tracey Burdette, Elena Postnikova, Steven Mazur, Anna N Honko, Nicholas Oberlander, Russell Byrum, Dan Ragland, Marisa St Claire, Krisztina B Janosko, Gale Smith, Gregory Glenn, Jay Hooper, John Dye, Subhamoy Pal, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly, Theron Hamilton, Kenneth Frey, Laura Bollinger, Jiro Wada, Hua Wu, Jin-An Jiao, Gene G Olinger, Bronwyn Gunn, Galit Alter, Surender Khurana, Lisa E Hensley, Eddie Sullivan, Peter B Jahrling
Transchromosomic bovines (Tc-bovines) adaptively produce fully human polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies after exposure to immunogenic antigen(s). The National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research and collaborators rapidly produced and then evaluated anti-Ebola virus IgG immunoglobulins (collectively termed SAB-139) purified from Tc-bovine plasma after sequential hyperimmunization with an Ebola virus Makona isolate glycoprotein nanoparticle vaccine. SAB-139 was characterized by several in vitro production, research, and clinical level assays using wild-type Makona-C05 or recombinant virus/antigens from different Ebola virus variants...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Tatsunari Kondoh, Michael Letko, Vincent J Munster, Rashid Manzoor, Junki Maruyama, Wakako Furuyama, Hiroko Miyamoto, Asako Shigeno, Daisuke Fujikura, Yoshihiro Takadate, Reiko Yoshida, Manabu Igarashi, Heinz Feldmann, Andrea Marzi, Ayato Takada
Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a host receptor involved in the envelope glycoprotein (GP)-mediated entry of filoviruses into cells, is believed to be a major determinant of cell susceptibility to filovirus infection. It is known that proteolytically digested Ebola virus (EBOV) GP interacts with 2 protruding loops in domain C of NPC1. Using previously published structural data and the National Center for Biotechnology Information Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) database, we identified 10 naturally occurring missense SNPs in human NPC1...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alberto Cagigi, John Misasi, Aurélie Ploquin, Daphne A Stanley, David Ambrozak, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Rosemarie D Mason, Mario Roederer, Nancy J Sullivan
We recently identified a single potently neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb), mAb114, isolated from a human survivor of natural Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) infection, which fully protects nonhuman primates (NHPs) against lethal EBOV challenge. To evaluate the ability of vaccination to generate mAbs such as mAb114, we cloned antibodies from NHPs vaccinated with vectors encoding the EBOV glycoprotein (GP). We identified 14 unique mAbs with potent binding to GP, 4 of which were neutralized and had the functional characteristics of mAb114...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maiken W Rosenstierne, Christopher E Jensen, Anders Fomsgaard
The rapid diagnosis of an infection is essential for the outbreak management, risk containment, and patient care. We have previously shown a method for the rapid bedside inactivation of the Ebola virus during blood sampling for safe nucleic acid (NA) tests by adding a commercial lysis/binding buffer directly into the vacuum blood collection tubes. Using this bedside inactivation approach, we have developed a safe, rapid, and simplified bedside NA extraction method for the subsequent detection of a virus in lysis/binding buffer-inactivated whole blood...
June 30, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sarah Browne, Tarweh Carter, Risa Eckes, Greg Grandits, Melvin Johnson, Irene Moore, Laura McNay
Introduction: This article describes a retrospective review of participant follow-up and retention strategies in the Partnership for Research on the Ebola Virus in Liberia (PREVAIL) I Vaccine Trial. It illustrates and analyzes strategies used to retain participants in an emergency clinical research response vaccine trial conducted during the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Liberia. Methods: An anecdotal review of participant retention strategies developed and employed during the PREVAIL I vaccine trial...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Alexandre Guimarães Vasconcellos, Bruna de Paula Fonseca E Fonseca, Carlos Medicis Morel
INTRODUCTION: Countries have traditionally been split into two major groups: developed or industrialized ("the North") and developing or underdeveloped ("the South"). Several authors and organizations have challenged this classification to recognize countries that have reached an intermediate stage of social and economic development. As proposed by Morel and collaborators in 2005, the concept of Innovative Developing Countries (IDCs) defines a group of nations with impactful scientific programs...
July 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Lawrence O Gostin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Daniel Perez Martins, Michael Barros, Massimiliano Pierobon, Meenakshisundaram Kandhavelu, Pietro Lio, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam
The outbreak of Ebola virus in recent years has resulted in numerous research initiatives to seek new solutions to contain the virus. A number of approaches that have been investigated include new vaccines to boost the immune system. An alternative post-exposure treatment is presented in this paper. The proposed approach for clearing Ebola virus can be developed through a microfluidic attenuator, which contains the engineered bacteria that traps Ebola flowing through the blood onto its membrane. The paper presents the analysis of the chemical binding force between the virus and a genetically engineered bacterium considering the opposing forces acting on the attachment point, including hydrodynamic tension and drag force...
May 15, 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Steven Yeh, Jessica G Shantha, Brent Hayek, Ian Crozier, Justine R Smith
In the wake of the international Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak from 2014 to 2016, thousands of EVD survivors are at-risk of ophthalmic manifestations, as well as systemic sequelae including arthralgias, abdominal pain, psychosocial stressors, and risk of viral persistence in immune-privileged organs. Ophthalmic manifestations in EVD survivors include a spectrum of disease ranging from anterior uveitis to panuveitis, which confers a high risk of vision impairment and blindness, particularly given the access and resource limitations for ophthalmic subspecialty care in West Africa...
July 11, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Joanna May Kesten, Suzanne Audrey, Maya Holding, Caroline Coope, Nick Young, Colin S Brown, Jenny Harries, Matthew Hickman, Isabel Oliver
Introduction: In response to the 2013-2016 West African outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), Public Health England introduced enhanced screening at major UK ports of entry. Our aim was to explore screeners' and screened travellers' perceptions of screening as part of an evaluation of the screening programme. Methods: We undertook qualitative focus groups and semistructured interviews with screeners and travellers who had returned from affected countries before and after the introduction of screening in England...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Ann O'Leary, Mohamed F Jalloh, Yuval Neria
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: BMJ Global Health
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