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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333986/building-the-road-to-a-regional-zoonoses-strategy-a-survey-of-zoonoses-programmes-in-the-americas
#1
Melody J Maxwell, Mary H Freire de Carvalho, Armando E Hoet, Marco A N Vigilato, Julio C Pompei, Ottorino Cosivi, Victor J Del Rio Vilas
BACKGROUND: In recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332721/rapid-detection-and-quantification-of-ebola-zaire-virus-by-one-step-real-time-quantitative-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction
#2
Young-Tae Ro, Anysha Ticer, Ricardo Carrion, Jean L Patterson
Since Ebola virus causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with mortality rates as high as 90%, the rapid and accurate detection of the virus is essential both for controlling the infection and for preventing further transmission. Here, we introduce one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the rapid and quantitative detection of an Ebola Zaire strain using GP, VP24 or VP40 gene as a target. Routine assay conditions for hydrolysis probe detection were established by the manufacturer's protocol used in the assays...
March 23, 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332466/towards-a-coherent-global-framework-for-health-financing-recommendations-and-recent-developments
#3
Trygve Ottersen, Riku Elovainio, David B Evans, David McCoy, Di Mcintyre, Filip Meheus, Suerie Moon, Gorik Ooms, John-Arne Røttingen
The articles in this special issue have demonstrated how unprecedented transitions have come with both challenges and opportunities for health financing. Against the background of these challenges and opportunities, the Working Group on Health Financing at the Chatham House Centre on Global Health Security laid out, in 2014, a set of policy responses encapsulated in 20 recommendations for how to make progress towards a coherent global framework for health financing. These recommendations pertain to domestic financing of national health systems, global public goods for health, external financing for national health systems and the cross-cutting issues of accountability and agreement on a new global framework...
April 2017: Health Economics, Policy, and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332182/status-update-on-women-s-reproductive-health-care-and-obstetrics-gynecology-postgraduate-training-in-post-ebola-sierra-leone
#4
Rachel Chan Seay, A P Koroma, Jenell Coleman, Clark T Johnson, Emmanuel A Ugwa, Jean Anderson
Academic partnerships can help to expand the women's reproductive healthcare workforce and improve maternal mortality.(1) In-country postgraduate and continuing medical education opportunities are key to training and retaining specialized physicians. The present report describes a developing academic partnership to build capacity in Sierra Leone following the Ebola virus disease epidemic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331957/digital-triplex-dna-assay-based-on-plasmonic-nanocrystals
#5
Guohua Li, Liang Zhu, Yonghong He, Hui Tan, Shuqing Sun
A new analytical method has been developed to detect three kinds of DNA simultaneously based on magnetic beads and color-encoded plasmonic nanocrystals. Magnetic beads modified with capture DNA are employed to collect the specific target DNA, and color-encoded plasmonic nanocrystals are applied to signal the target through DNA hybridization. As a proof of concept, three types of representative metal nanocrystals of gold nanoparticle (AuNP), gold nanorod (AuNR), and gold/silver nanoparticle (Au/AgNP) were employed to signal three dissimilar virus-related protective antigen genes, Ebola virus (EV), Variola virus (VV), and Bacillus anthracis (BA), respectively...
March 22, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331098/recombinant-modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-generating-ebola-virus-like-particles
#6
Marc Schweneker, Andrea S Laimbacher, Gert Zimmer, Susanne Wagner, Elisabeth M Schraner, Michael Wolferstätter, Marieken Klingenberg, Ulrike Dirmeier, Robin Steigerwald, Henning Lauterbach, Hubertus Hochrein, Paul Chaplin, Mark Suter, Jürgen Hausmann
There are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccines to treat or protect against the severe hemorrhagic fever and death caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). Ebola virus-like particles (EBOV-VLPs) consisting of the matrix protein VP40, the glycoprotein (GP) and the nucleoprotein (NP) are highly immunogenic and protective in non-human primates against Ebola virus disease (EVD). We have constructed a modified vaccinia virus Ankara-Bavarian Nordic(®) (MVA-BN(®)) recombinant co-expressing VP40 and glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV Mayinga and the nucleoprotein (NP) of Taï Forest virus (TAFV) (MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP) to launch non-infectious EBOV-VLPs as a second vaccine modality in the MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP-vaccinated organism...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331091/ebolaviruses-associated-with-differential-pathogenicity-induce-distinct-host-responses-in-human-macrophages
#7
Judith Olejnik, Adriana Forero, Laure R Deflubé, Adam J Hume, Whitney A Manhart, Andrew Nishida, Andrea Marzi, Michael G Katze, Hideki Ebihara, Angela L Rasmussen, Elke Mühlberger
Ebola virus (EBOV) and Reston virus (RESTV) are members of the Ebolavirus genus which greatly differ in their pathogenicity. While EBOV causes a severe disease in humans characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response and elevated cytokine and chemokine production, there are no reported disease-associated human cases of RESTV infection, suggesting that RESTV is non-pathogenic for humans. The underlying mechanisms determining the pathogenicity of different ebolavirus species are not yet known. In this study we dissect the host response to EBOV and RESTV infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329226/risk-in-the-red-zone-outcomes-for-children-admitted-to-ebola-holding-units-in-sierra-leone-without-ebola-virus-disease
#8
F Fitzgerald, K Wing, A Naveed, M Gbessay, J C G Ross, F Checchi, D Youkee, M B Jalloh, D Baion, A Mustapha, H Jah, S Lako, S Oza, S Boufkhed, R Feury, J Bielicki, E Williamson, D M Gibb, N Klein, F Sahr, S Yeung
We collected data on 1054 children admitted to Ebola Holding Units in Sierra Leone and describe outcomes of 697/1054 children testing negative for Ebola virus disease (EVD) and accompanying caregivers. Case-fatality was 9%; 3/630(0.5%) children discharged testing negative were readmitted EVD-positive. Nosocomial EVD transmission risk may be lower than feared.
March 18, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329169/dynamics-of-ebola-rna-persistence-in-semen-report-from-the-postebogui-cohort-in-guinea
#9
Fabien Subtil, Charlotte Delaunay, Alpha Kabinet Keita, Mamadou Sow, Abdoulaye Ii Touré, Sandrine Leroy, Philippe Msellati, N'Fally Magassouba, Sylvain Baize, Hervé Raoul, René Ecochard, Moumié Barry, Eric Delaporte, Jean-François Etard
This study modeled the presence of EBOV-RNA in the semen of male Ebola survivors participating in the Postebogui study in Guinea. The median time of RT-PCR negativity was 46.4 days after symptom onset (95% CI: [11; 82.6]). The results emphasize the importance of the WHO recommendations for survivors' management.
March 14, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328984/using-simulation-to-aid-trial-design-ring-vaccination-trials
#10
Matt David Thomas Hitchings, Rebecca Freeman Grais, Marc Lipsitch
BACKGROUND: The 2014-6 West African Ebola epidemic highlights the need for rigorous, rapid clinical trial methods for vaccines. A challenge for trial design is making sample size calculations based on incidence within the trial, total vaccine effect, and intracluster correlation, when these parameters are uncertain in the presence of indirect effects of vaccination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a stochastic, compartmental model for a ring vaccination trial. After identification of an index case, a ring of contacts is recruited and either vaccinated immediately or after 21 days...
March 22, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326814/ebola-how-a-people-s-science-helped-end-an-epidemic
#11
Vappu Taipale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325495/two-approaches-to-forecast-ebola-synthetic-epidemics
#12
David Champredon, Michael Li, Benjamin M Bolker, Jonathan Dushoff
We use two modelling approaches to forecast synthetic Ebola epidemics in the context of the RAPIDD Ebola Forecasting Challenge. The first approach is a standard stochastic compartmental model that aims to forecast incidence, hospitalization and deaths among both the general population and health care workers. The second is a model based on the renewal equation with latent variables that forecasts incidence in the whole population only. We describe fitting and forecasting procedures for each model and discuss their advantages and drawbacks...
February 24, 2017: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322693/influence-of-referral-pathway-on-ebola-virus-disease-case-fatality-rate-and-effect-of-survival-selection-bias
#13
Frauke Rudolf, Mads Damkjær, Suzanne Lunding, Kenn Dornonville de la Cour, Alyssa Young, Tim Brooks, Tom Sesay, Alex P Salam, Sharmistha Mishra, Merete Storgaard
Case-fatality rates in Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) varied widely during the Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa. We assessed the influence of referral pathway on ETC case-fatality rates with a retrospective cohort of 126 patients treated at the Mathaska ETC in Port Loko, Sierra Leone. The patients consisted of persons who had confirmed EVD when transferred to the ETC or who had been diagnosed onsite. The case-fatality rate for transferred patients was 46% versus 67% for patients diagnosed onsite (p = 0...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322076/closer-than-ever-to-an-ebola-virus-vaccine
#14
Logan Banadyga, Andrea Marzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317453/ebola-virus-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-control-threat-to-humans-lessons-learnt-and-preparedness-plans-an-update-on-its-40-year-s-journey
#15
Raj Kumar Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik, Muthannan Andavar Ramakrishnan, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Rekha Khandia, Ruchi Tiwari, Ashok Munjal, Mani Saminathan, Swati Sachan, Perumal Arumugam Desingu, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil Kumar Joshi
Ebola virus (EBOV) is an extremely contagious pathogen and causes lethal hemorrhagic fever disease in man and animals with high fatality rates. The recently occurred Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks in the West African countries have categorized it as an international health concern. For the virus maintenance and transmission, the non-human primates and reservoir hosts like fruit bats have played a vital role. Furthermore, the virus may also get transferred through contaminated biological fluids like breast milk, tears, urine, semen, blood, etc...
March 20, 2017: Veterinary Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315708/2016-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#16
REVIEW
Ramesh Akkina, Heinz Ellerbrok, William Hall, Hideki Hasegawa, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Harold Kleanthous, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Victor Romanowski, Hirofumi Sawa, Anders Vahlne
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 in order to strengthen research and responses to current viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemic threats. There are now 38 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. GVN scientists meet annually to learn about each other's current research, address collaborative priorities and plan future programs. The 2016 meeting was held from October 23-25 in Hokkaido, Japan, in partnership with the Japanese Society for Virology, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan and the Research Center for Zoonosis Control of Hokkaido University...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306518/biochemical-testing-in-a-laboratory-tent-and-semi-intensive-care-of-ebola-patients-on-site-in-a-remote-part-of-guinea-a-paradigm-shift-based-on-a-bleach-sensitive-point-of-care-device
#17
Leonid M Irenge, Jean-Michel Dindart, Jean-Luc Gala
BACKGROUND: During the West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, a Belgian laboratory was deployed for supporting the Ebola treatment unit (ETU) of N'Zerekore, Guinea. Besides diagnosis of EVD and malaria, biochemical parameters were tested and used to guide supportive treatment of EVD. METHODS: To preserve analytes stability, lithium-heparin blood samples were analyzed using the i-STAT® point-of-care testing (POCT) handheld device without the viral inactivation step...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303774/physiological-evaluation-of-personal-protective-ensembles-recommended-for-use-in-west-africa
#18
Aitor Coca, Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Tianzhou Wu, Jeff Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer
OBJECTIVE: Personal protective equipment (PPE) provides health care workers with a barrier to prevent human contact with viruses like Ebola and potential transmission of the disease. However, PPE can also introduce an additional physiological burden from potentially increased heat stress. This study evaluated the human physiological and subjective responses to continuous light exercise within environmental conditions similar to those in West Africa while wearing 3 different, commonly used PPE ensembles (E1, E2, and E3)...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303772/physiological-evaluation-of-cooling-devices-in-conjunction-with-personal-protective-ensembles-recommended-for-use-in-west-africa
#19
Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Amanda Strauch, Tianzhou Wu, Jeffery Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer, Aitor Coca
OBJECTIVE: Cooling devices (CDs) worn under personal protective equipment (PPE) can alleviate some of the heat stress faced by health care workers responding to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. METHODS: Six healthy, young individuals were tested while wearing 4 different CDs or no cooling (control) under PPE in an environmental chamber (32°C/92% relative humidity) while walking (3 METs, 2.5 mph, 0% grade) on a treadmill for 60 minutes. Exercise was preceded by a 15-minute stabilization period and a 15-minute donning period...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303239/epidemiology-of-ebola-virus-disease-in-the-western-area-region-of-sierra-leone-2014-2015
#20
Margaret Lamunu, Olushayo Oluseun Olu, James Bangura, Zabulon Yoti, Thomas Takpau Samba, David Kabba Kargbo, Foday Mohamed Dafae, Muhammad Ali Raja, Noah Sempira, Michael Lyazi Ivan, Aarti Sing, Fredson Kurti-George, Negusu Worku, Pamela Mitula, Louisa Ganda, Robert Samupindi, Roland Conteh, Kande-Bure Kamara, Beatrice Muraguri, Michael Kposowa, Joseph Charles, Malimbo Mugaga, Christopher Dye, Anshu Banerjee, Pierre Formenty, Brima Kargbo, Raymond Bruce Aylward
INTRODUCTION: Western Area (WA) of Sierra Leone including the capital, Freetown, experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola from 2014 to 2015. At the onset of the epidemic, there was little information about the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and risk factors in urban settings as previous outbreaks were limited to rural/semi-rural settings. This study, therefore, aimed to describe the epidemiology of the outbreak and the factors which had most impact on the transmission of the epidemic and whether there were different drivers from those previously described in rural settings...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
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