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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718234/paediatrics-brain-imaging-in-epilepsy-common-presenting-symptoms-and-spectrum-of-abnormalities-detected-on-mri
#1
Azmat Ali, Faiza Akram, Ghayyur Khan, Shaukat Hussain
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy, a common neurological disorder can present at any age and has a number of aetiologies with underlying brain disease being the most common aetiology. Brain imaging becomes important and mandatory in the work up for epilepsy in localization and lateralization of the seizure focus. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the department of Radiology Ayub Medical Teaching Institution Abbottabad from 1st March 2015 to 31st March 2016...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667691/subacute-demyelinating-peripheral-neuropathy-as-a-novel-presentation-of-late-infantile-metachromatic-leukodystrophy
#2
Hernan D Gonorazky, Kimberly Amburgey, Grace Yoon, Jiri Vajsar, Elysa Widjaja, James J Dowling
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is a progressive white matter disease caused by mutations in the ARSA gene(1) . There are 3 clinical subtypes that vary based on age of onset and severity of presentation. The most severe subtype is the late infantile form that presents in the second year of life (after a period of normal development) with progressive motor and cognitive deterioration and occasionally seizures. Affected individuals progress to death, usually by age 5 years. MLD is typically suspected in the appropriate clinical setting by characteristic T2 changes on brain MRI...
July 1, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638987/leukodystrophies-a-proposed-classification-system-based-on-pathological-changes-and-pathogenetic-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Marjo S van der Knaap, Marianna Bugiani
Leukodystrophies are genetically determined disorders characterized by the selective involvement of the central nervous system white matter. Onset may be at any age, from prenatal life to senescence. Many leukodystrophies are degenerative in nature, but some only impair white matter function. The clinical course is mostly progressive, but may also be static or even improving with time. Progressive leukodystrophies are often fatal, and no curative treatment is known. The last decade has witnessed a tremendous increase in the number of defined leukodystrophies also owing to a diagnostic approach combining magnetic resonance imaging pattern recognition and next generation sequencing...
June 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628708/brain-calcifications-in-adult-onset-genetic-leukoencephalopathies-a-review
#4
Xavier Ayrignac, Gaël Nicolas, Clarisse Carra-Dallière, Didier Hannequin, Pierre Labauge
Importance: Adult-onset genetic leukoencephalopathies and leukodystrophies are increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders with new diagnostic approaches and potential treatments. In the new era of genomics, the challenging interpretation of individual genetic variations requires an accurate phenotypic description and classification. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches have been proposed to improve the diagnostic process of adult-onset leukoencephalopathies...
June 19, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592043/-a-report-of-atypical-hypomyelinating-leukodystrophy-with-atrophy-of-the-basal-ganglia-and-cerebellum-caused-by-a-de-novo-mutation-in-tubulin-beta-4a-tubb4a-gene-and-literature-review
#5
Y Du, C Li, J Guo, P Guo, Z Y Li, W Zhang
Objective: To explore the clinical symptoms and neuroimaging features of a patient with atypical hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum (H-ABC) caused by a novel TUBB4A mutation. Methods: We analyzed the clinical data, imaging features and the result of genetic testing of a case diagnosed as atypical H-ABC. Results: The initial symptoms were progressive spasticity, mild cerebellar ataxia and mild cognitive impairment. MRI showed regional blurring of slight high signal on T(2)-weight and FLAIR image in white matter of the bilateral midbrain ventral, internal capsule, posteior horn of lateral ventricle and centrum semiovale, with normal bilateral cerebellar and caudoputamen nucleus...
June 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589167/demyelination-load-as-predictor-for-disease-progression-in-juvenile-metachromatic-leukodystrophy
#6
Manuel Strölin, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Christiane Kehrer, Marko Wilke, Samuel Groeschel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the extent and topography of cerebral demyelination correlates with and predicts disease progression in patients with juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). METHODS: A total of 137 MRIs of 46 patients with juvenile MLD were analyzed. Demyelination load and brain volume were quantified using the previously developed Software "clusterize." Clinical data were collected within the German Leukodystrophy Network and included full scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and gross motor function data...
June 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580052/mri-diagnosis-of-infantile-alexander-disease-in-a-14-month-old-african-boy
#7
Nondumiso Dlamini, Vicci du Plessis
Alexander disease, also known as fibrinoid leukodystrophy, is a rare leukoencephalopathy which occurs due to a mutation in the glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) gene. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven to be highly sensitive in making the diagnosis. Typical MRI findings, in combination with positive genetic blood analysis, confirm the diagnosis.
October 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561206/4h-leukodystrophy-a-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-scoring-system
#8
Suzanne Vrij-van den Bos, Janna A Hol, Roberta La Piana, Inga Harting, Adeline Vanderver, Frederik Barkhof, Ferdy Cayami, Wessel N van Wieringen, Petra J W Pouwels, Marjo S van der Knaap, Geneviève Bernard, Nicole I Wolf
4H (hypomyelination, hypodontia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) leukodystrophy (4H) is an autosomal recessive hypomyelinating white matter (WM) disorder with neurologic, dental, and endocrine abnormalities. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system for 4H. A scoring system (0-54) was developed to quantify hypomyelination and atrophy of different brain regions. Pons diameter and bicaudate ratio were included as measures of cerebral and brainstem atrophy, and reference values were determined using controls...
June 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459997/hypomorphic-mutations-in-polr3a-are-a-frequent-cause-of-sporadic-and-recessive-spastic-ataxia
#9
Martina Minnerop, Delia Kurzwelly, Holger Wagner, Anne S Soehn, Jennifer Reichbauer, Feifei Tao, Tim W Rattay, Michael Peitz, Kristina Rehbach, Alejandro Giorgetti, Angela Pyle, Holger Thiele, Janine Altmüller, Dagmar Timmann, Ilker Karaca, Martina Lennarz, Jonathan Baets, Holger Hengel, Matthis Synofzik, Burcu Atasu, Shawna Feely, Marina Kennerson, Claudia Stendel, Tobias Lindig, Michael A Gonzalez, Rüdiger Stirnberg, Marc Sturm, Sandra Roeske, Johanna Jung, Peter Bauer, Ebba Lohmann, Stefan Herms, Stefanie Heilmann-Heimbach, Garth Nicholson, Muhammad Mahanjah, Rajech Sharkia, Paolo Carloni, Oliver Brüstle, Thomas Klopstock, Katherine D Mathews, Michael E Shy, Peter de Jonghe, Patrick F Chinnery, Rita Horvath, Jürgen Kohlhase, Ina Schmitt, Michael Wolf, Susanne Greschus, Katrin Amunts, Wolfgang Maier, Ludger Schöls, Peter Nürnberg, Stephan Zuchner, Thomas Klockgether, Alfredo Ramirez, Rebecca Schüle
Despite extensive efforts, half of patients with rare movement disorders such as hereditary spastic paraplegias and cerebellar ataxias remain genetically unexplained, implicating novel genes and unrecognized mutations in known genes. Non-coding DNA variants are suspected to account for a substantial part of undiscovered causes of rare diseases. Here we identified mutations located deep in introns of POLR3A to be a frequent cause of hereditary spastic paraplegia and cerebellar ataxia. First, whole-exome sequencing findings in a recessive spastic ataxia family turned our attention to intronic variants in POLR3A, a gene previously associated with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy type 7...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438749/respiratory-difficulty-with-palatal-laryngeal-and-respiratory-muscle-tremor-in-adult-onset-alexander-s-disease
#10
John McAuley, Rowena Taylor, Anita Simonds, Sanjiv Chawda
Sleep apnoea and respiratory difficulties are reported in adult-onset Alexander's disease (AOAD), an autosomal-dominant leukodystrophy that presents mainly with progressive ataxia. We demonstrate for the first time that the respiratory symptoms can result from association of palatal tremor with a similar tremor of laryngeal and respiratory muscles that interrupts normal inspiration and expiration.A 60-year-old woman presented with progressive ataxia, palatal tremor and breathlessness. MRI revealed medullary atrophy, bilateral T2 hyperintensities in the dentate nuclei and hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD)...
April 23, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401768/primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-presenting-with-severe-predominant-cognitive-impairment-and-psychiatric-symptoms-a-challenging-case
#11
Alberto Andrea Zambon, Giordano Cecchetti, Francesca Caso, Roberto Santangelo, Cristina Baldoli, Maria Grazia Natali Sora, Giancarlo Comi, Giuseppe Magnani, Vittorio Martinelli
Severe cognitive dysfunction is a frequent feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), normally associated with later stages of the disease in adult population. Nevertheless, progressive cognitive and neuropsychiatric disturbances might rarely be the presenting and predominant symptom. In order to better characterize this peculiar phenotype of MS, we report on the case of a 38-year-old man who referred to our hospital with the suspect of hereditary leukodystrophy after 5 years of behavioral and mood abnormalities, global cognitive dysfunction, clumsiness, and very mild pyramidal and cerebellar signs...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393430/a-mutation-in-the-tubb4a-gene-leads-to-microtubule-accumulation-with-hypomyelination-and-demyelination
#12
Ian D Duncan, Marianna Bugiani, Abigail B Radcliff, John J Moran, Camila Lopez-Anido, Phu Duong, Benjamin K August, Nicole I Wolf, Marjo S van der Knaap, John Svaren
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to define the genetic cause of the profound hypomyelination in the taiep rat model and determine its relevance to human white matter disease. METHODS: Based on previous localization of the taiep mutation to rat chromosome 9, we tested whether the mutation resided within the Tubb4a (β-tubulin 4A) gene, because mutations in the TUBB4A gene have been described in patients with central nervous system hypomyelination. To determine whether accumulation of microtubules led to progressive demyelination, we analyzed the spinal cord and optic nerves of 2-year-old rats by light and electron microscopy...
May 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374019/cntnap1-mutations-cause-cns-hypomyelination-and-neuropathy-with-or-without-arthrogryposis
#13
Holger Hengel, Alex Magee, Muhammad Mahanjah, Jean-Michel Vallat, Robert Ouvrier, Mohammad Abu-Rashid, Jamal Mahamid, Rebecca Schüle, Martin Schulze, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Peter Bauer, Stephan Züchner, Rajech Sharkia, Ludger Schöls
OBJECTIVE: To explore the phenotypic spectrum and pathophysiology of human disease deriving from mutations in the CNTNAP1 gene. METHODS: In a field study on consanguineous Palestinian families, we identified 3 patients carrying homozygous mutations in the CNTNAP1 gene using whole-exome sequencing. An unrelated Irish family was detected by screening the GENESIS database for further CNTNAP1 mutations. Neurophysiology, MRI, and nerve biopsy including electron microscopy were performed for deep phenotyping...
April 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302242/vanishing-white-matter-vwm-disease-presenting-as-neuro-ovarian-failure
#14
Abidullah Khan, Mohammad Humayun, Maimoona Ayub, Iqbal Haider, Fahad Ajmal, Syed Saad Shah
A 19-year girl was admitted with a one-month history of worsening spastic paraparesis, cerbellar ataxia, visual decline and worsening headaches on a background of walking difficulty, progressive quadriparesis and migraine since the age of 10 years. She had no sensory loss, and cranial nerves examination was notable for optic atrophy with crescent formation only. She had primary amenorrhea and underdeveloped secondary sexual characteristics. Ultrasonograhic studies of the pelvis confirmed small ovaries, and uterus...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254515/hereditary-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Christian Baastrup Søndergaard, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Christine Krarup Hansen, Hanne Christensen
Cerebral small vessel disease is considered hereditary in about 5% of patients and is characterized by lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensities on MRI. Several monogenic hereditary diseases causing cerebral small vessel disease and stroke have been identified. The purpose of this systematic review is to provide a guide for determining when to consider molecular genetic testing in patients presenting with small vessel disease and stroke. CADASIL, CARASIL, collagen type IV mutations (including PADMAL), retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, Fabry disease, hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, and forkhead box C1 mutations are described in terms of genetics, pathology, clinical manifestation, imaging, and diagnosis...
April 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249300/4h-leukodystrophy-a-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-scoring-system
#16
Suzanne Vrij-van den Bos, Janna A Hol, Roberta La Piana, Inga Harting, Adeline Vanderver, Frederik Barkhof, Ferdy Cayami, Wessel N van Wieringen, Petra J W Pouwels, Marjo S van der Knaap, Geneviève Bernard, Nicole I Wolf
4H (hypomyelination, hypodontia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) leukodystrophy (4H) is an autosomal recessive hypomyelinating white matter (WM) disorder with neurologic, dental, and endocrine abnormalities. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring system for 4H. A scoring system (0-54) was developed to quantify hypomyelination and atrophy of different brain regions. Pons diameter and bicaudate ratio were included as measures of cerebral and brainstem atrophy, and reference values were determined using controls...
March 1, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243630/redefining-the-phenotype-of-alsp-and-aars2-mutation-related-leukodystrophy
#17
REVIEW
Rahul Lakshmanan, Matthew E Adams, David S Lynch, Justin A Kinsella, Rahul Phadke, Jonathan M Schott, Elaine Murphy, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jeremy Chataway, Henry Houlden, Nick C Fox, Indran Davagnanam
OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the phenotype of 2 clinically, radiologically, and pathologically similar leukodystrophies, adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) and alanyl-transfer RNA synthetase 2 mutation-related leukodystrophy (AARS2-L), and highlight key differentiating features. METHODS: ALSP and AARS2-L cases were identified from the adult-onset leukodystrophy database at our institution. In addition, cases with imaging findings were identified from a literature review...
April 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130616/investigation-of-the-motor-system-in-two-siblings-with-canavan-s-disease-a-combined-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-tms-diffusion-tensor-imaging-dti-study
#18
V K Kimiskidis, Vasileios Papaliagkas, S Papagiannopoulos, D Zafeiriou, D Kazis, E Tsatsali-Foroglou, Z Kouvatsou, V Kapina, D Koutsonikolas, G Anogianakis, T Geroukis, S Bostantjopoulou
Canavan's disease (CD) is a hereditary leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the aspartoacylase gene (ASPA), leading to spongiform degeneration of the white matter and severe impairment of psychomotor development. We present the cases of two non-Jewish sisters with CD that have a milder and protracted clinical course compared to typical CD. MRI imaging revealed bilateral high-signal-intensity areas in the thalami and the internal capsule and MR spectroscopy showed typical findings for CD (a marked increase in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels)...
April 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117190/childhood-leukodystrophies-a-literature-review-of-updates-on-new-definitions-classification-diagnostic-approach-and-management
#19
REVIEW
Mahmoud Reza Ashrafi, Ali Reza Tavasoli
Childhood leukodystrophies are a growing category of neurological disorders in pediatric neurology practice. With the help of new advanced genetic studies such as whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), the list of childhood heritable white matter disorders has been increased to more than one hundred disorders. During the last three decades, the basic concepts and definitions, classification, diagnostic approach and medical management of these disorders much have changed. Pattern recognition based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has played an important role in this process...
May 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991992/neurological-outcomes-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-cerebral-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-late-onset-metachromatic-leukodystrophy-and-hurler-syndrome
#20
Jonas Alex Morales Saute, Carolina Fischinger Moura de Souza, Fabiano de Oliveira Poswar, Karina Carvalho Donis, Lillian Gonçalves Campos, Adriana Vanessa Santini Deyl, Maira Graeff Burin, Carmen Regla Vargas, Ursula da Silveira Matte, Roberto Giugliani, Maria Luiza Saraiva-Pereira, Leonardo Modesti Vedolin, Lauro José Gregianin, Laura Bannach Jardim
Objective: To describe survival and neurological outcomes after HSCT for these disorders. Methods: Seven CALD, 2 MLD and 2 MPS-IH patients underwent HSCT between 2007 and 2014. Neurological examinations, magnetic resonance imaging, molecular and biochemical studies were obtained at baseline and repeated when appropriated. Results: Favorable outcomes were obtained with 4/5 related and 3/6 unrelated donors. Two patients died from procedure-related complications...
December 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
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