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Oral carbapenem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326811/combinations-of-avibactam-and-carbapenems-exhibit-enhanced-potencies-against-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-abscessus
#1
Amit Kaushik, Chhavi Gupta, Stefanie Fisher, Elizabeth Story-Roller, Christos Galanis, Nicole Parrish, Gyanu Lamichhane
AIM: The objective of this study was to assess if avibactam, a new β-lactamase inhibitor, can restore the potency of carbapenems, a sub-class of β-lactams, against Mycobacterium abscessus clinical isolates. MATERIALS & METHODS: Twenty-eight M. abscessus clinical isolates that are resistant to multiple drugs currently used to treat its infection were included. MIC of carbapenems alone and in combination with avibactam against these strains were determined. RESULTS: Tebipenem, an oral carbapenem, and ertapenem and panipenem exhibited the greatest shift in MIC when supplemented with avibactam...
February 16, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271693/comparison-of-the-novel-oxa-48-and-kpc-k-set-assay-and-blue-carba-test-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-using-pcr-as-a-reference-method
#2
Fatma Erdem, Ayham Abulaila, Zerrin Aktas, Oral Oncul
BACKGROUND: Rapid, simple, and accurate laboratory detection of carbapenemases is very important for proper antibiotic therapy and infection control. METHODS: In this study, carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates were used to evaluate the performance of a new lateral flow immunochromatographic (IC) assay, the OXA-48 and KPC K-SeT assay, and modified Blue-Carba test (BCT) for the rapid detection of OXA-48 carbapenemase in comparison with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270102/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-rapidly-growing-mycobacteria-isolated-in-japan
#3
Shuji Hatakeyama, Yuki Ohama, Mitsuhiro Okazaki, Yoko Nukui, Kyoji Moriya
BACKGROUND: Difficult-to-treat infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are increasingly observed in clinical settings. However, studies on antimicrobial susceptibilities and effective treatments against RGM in Japan are limited. METHODS: We conducted susceptibility testing of potential antimicrobial agents, including tigecycline and tebipenem, against RGM. Clinical RGM isolates were collected from a university hospital in Japan between December 2010 and August 2013...
March 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238680/pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-treated-with-a-three-day-course-of-tebipenem-pivoxil
#4
Hiroshi Sakata, Haruo Kuroki, Kazunobu Ouchi, Takeshi Tajima, Satoshi Iwata
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 3-day treatment regimen of tebipenem pivoxil for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. Tebipenem pivoxil was administered to 49 patients, and its effectiveness was evaluated in 36 patients 2-4 days after initiation of treatment. Thirty-two patients were cured 7-15 days after initiation of treatment. Body temperature was significantly lower on the day following initial administration (median 38.8 to 37.0 °C, n = 33). Leukocyte counts and C-reactive protein levels were significantly reduced by Day 2-4 of treatment (median 16,100 to 7800 white blood cells/μL, and 5...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216018/prospective-randomised-controlled-study-evaluating-early-modification-of-oral-microbiota-following-admission-to-the-intensive-care-unit-and-oral-hygiene-with-chlorhexidine
#5
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Oleg Gavrilko, Saulo de Almeida, Eigi Ricardo Sumi, Thiago Alberto, Jaime Luis Rocha, Edvaldo Antonio Rosa
OBJECTIVES: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most commonly used oral hygiene product for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). The change in dental plaque (DP) microbiota following CHX use in patients under MV has not been described previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria associated with VAP and the coverage of DP within the oral cavity in patients administered CHX. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind study in patients (n=16) under MV who were mouth-rinsed with either CHX or placebo...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162982/revival-of-old-antibiotics-needs-the-state-of-evidence-and-expectations
#6
Hiba Zayyad, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
The gap between the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new antibiotic development has drawn attention to old antibiotics whose spectrum of coverage frequently comprises highly resistant bacteria. However, these antibiotics have frequently not undergone the structured process of antibiotic development of modern antibiotics, from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies establishing safe and effective dosing, establishment of susceptibility breakpoints, to clinical trials establishing clinical safety and effectiveness...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088889/-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#7
Bálint Velkey, Eszter Vitális, Zsuzsanna Vitális
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III...
January 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074531/antibiotic-use-during-infectious-episodes-in-the-first-6-months-of-anticancer-treatment-a-swedish-cohort-study-of-children-aged-7-16-years
#8
M Af Sandeberg, E Johansson, L Wettergren, O Björk, O Hertting, A Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing cancer therapy are at risk for infectious complications that require hospitalization and antimicrobial therapy. Host factors such as age and underlying disease may predict the risk of severe infections in these children. To describe the increased morbidity due to infections in children with cancer, we characterized the antibiotic use during the infectious complications in a national cohort of children 7-16 years of age with cancer. PROCEDURE: Data on infectious complications were prospectively collected from the medical records of all newly diagnosed children with cancer, aged 7-16 years, in Sweden between 2004 and 2006...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898208/-design-and-implementation-of-an-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-program-in-primary-care-the-experience-at-a-second-level-hospital
#9
M Ruiz-Campuzano, E García-Vázquez, J J Hernández-Roca, J Gómez-Gómez, M Canteras-Jordana, E Mené-Fenor, A Hernández-Torres, A Peláez-Ballesta
OBJECTIVE: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs are a good assistance option in a wide variety of infectious diseases. Our aim was to design and implement an OPAT program in the area of influence of a second-level hospital, with no Home Hospitalization Service available, being necessary close collaboration between hospitalization and Primary Care teams, describe our cohort, analyse the antimicrobial treatment indicated and evaluate the prognostic and risk factors associated with readmission and mortality...
November 28, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803895/reduced-susceptibility-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactams-in-vibrio-cholerae-isolated-in-bangladesh
#10
Daniela Ceccarelli, Munirul Alam, Anwar Huq, Rita R Colwell
β-lactams are antibiotic molecules able to inhibit cell wall biosynthesis. Among other mechanisms, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is mostly associated with production of β-lactamase enzymes able to bind and hydrolyze the β-lactam ring. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases extend this ability also to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, as well as to carbapenems and monobactams. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of epidemic cholera and a public health burden for developing countries like Bangladesh...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602189/antibiotic-consumption-during-a-4-year-period-in-a-community-hospital-with-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program
#11
Humberto Guanche Garcell, Ariadna Villanueva Arias, Eliezer Alemán Fernandez, Yaquelín Batista Guerrero, Ramon N Alfonso Serrano
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the trend of antibiotic consumption in patients admitted to a community hospital in Qatar with an antimicrobial stewardship program. METHODS: This observational study was carried out in a 75-bed facility in Western Qatar over a 4-year period (2012-2015). The monitoring of antimicrobial consumption from inpatient wards was performed from the pharmacy records and presented as defined daily dose (DDD) divided by the patient days and expressed as 100 bed-days (DBD)...
September 2016: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504284/molecular-characterisation-of-nfsa-gene-in-nitrofurantoin-resistant-uropathogens
#12
Dhivyalakshmi Shanmugam, Shamsadh Begum Esak, Anbumani Narayanaswamy
INTRODUCTION: Majority of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI's) are lower UTI's which constitute the real burden in the primary care setting and are usually treated empirically. Nitrofurantoin is an underused antimicrobial for empiric therapy for community-acquired and nosocomial lower UTIs. Nitrofurantoin has a wide spectrum of action against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterococci, which are the frequent causes of nosocomial lower UTIs and also against multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms including extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producers, Amp-C producers and Carbapenamase producers...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496450/successful-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-caused-by-multiresistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-producing-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-ndm-1-with-strains-genotyping
#13
P Wilkowski, M Ciszek, K Dobrzaniecka, J Sańko-Resmer, A Łabuś, K Grygiel, T Grochowiecki, G Młynarczyk, L Pączek
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) strains have recently become a new threat in kidney transplant recipients due to the strains' resistance to almost all antibiotics, including carbapenems. METHODS: We present a case series of 3 patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by multiresistant K pneumoniae NDM-1 strains who were treated with the same protocol. Genotyping sequencing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed in all cases...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403268/new-antituberculosis-drugs-from-clinical-trial-to-programmatic-use
#14
REVIEW
Gina Gualano, Susanna Capone, Alberto Matteelli, Fabrizio Palmieri
Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is challenging because it relies on second-line drugs that are less potent and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible TB. Moreover, treatment outcomes for MDR-TB are generally poor compared to drug sensitive disease, highlighting the need for of new drugs. For the first time in more than 50 years, two new anti-TB drugs were approved and released. Bedaquiline is a first-in-class diarylquinoline compound that showed durable culture conversion at 24 weeks in phase IIb trials...
June 24, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372390/the-first-point-prevalence-survey-of-health-care-associated-infection-and-antimicrobial-use-in-a-japanese-university-hospital-a-pilot-study
#15
Hiroshi Morioka, Aki Hirabayashi, Mitsutaka Iguchi, Yuka Tomita, Daizo Kato, Naokazu Sato, Miyuki Hyodo, Naoko Kawamura, Takuya Sadomoto, Kazuya Ichikawa, Takayuki Inagaki, Yoshiaki Kato, Yuichi Kouyama, Yoshinori Ito, Tetsuya Yagi
BACKGROUND: Point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in Japanese hospitals have not yet been reported. The purpose of this pilot PPS study was to evaluate the epidemiology of health care-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use in a Japanese tertiary university hospital. METHODS: A 1-day, cross-sectional PPS was performed at a Japanese university hospital. Data on demographics, active HAIs, and antimicrobial use of all inpatients were collected using a data collection form...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366158/fosfomycin-a-first-line-oral-therapy-for-acute-uncomplicated-cystitis
#16
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Andrew J Walkty, James A Karlowsky
Fosfomycin is a new agent to Canada approved for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in adult women infected with susceptible isolates of E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin for the treatment of AUC. All English-language references from 1975 to October 2015 were reviewed. In Canada, fosfomycin tromethamine is manufactured as Monurol® and is available as a 3-gram single dose sachet. Fosfomycin has a unique chemical structure, inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis at an earlier site compared to β-lactams with no cross-resistance with other agents...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313268/ceftazidime-avibactam-versus-doripenem-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections-including-acute-pyelonephritis-recapture-a-phase-3-randomized-trial-program
#17
Florian M Wagenlehner, Jack D Sobel, Paul Newell, Jon Armstrong, Xiangning Huang, Gregory G Stone, Katrina Yates, Leanne B Gasink
BACKGROUND: The global emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae highlights the urgent need to reduce carbapenem dependence. The phase 3 RECAPTURE program compared the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam and doripenem in patients with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), including acute pyelonephritis. METHODS: Hospitalized adults with suspected or microbiologically confirmed cUTI/acute pyelonephritis were randomized 1:1 to ceftazidime-avibactam 2000 mg/500 mg every 8 hours or doripenem 500 mg every 8 hours (doses adjusted for renal function), with possible oral antibiotic switch after ≥5 days (total treatment duration up to 10 days or 14 days for patients with bacteremia)...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27290830/-evaluation-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-tebipenem-pivoxil-granules-for-pediatric-in-pneumonia-otitis-media-and-sinusitis
#18
Hiroshi Kataoka, Hiroshi Kasahara, Yuji Sasagawa, Masato Matsumoto, Seiya Shimada
We conducted a postmarketing surveillance of tebipenem pivoxil granules (Orapenem® fine granules 10% for pediatric), an oral carbapenem antibacterial agent, between April 2010 and March 2013 to evaluate the safety and efficacy in patients with pneumonia or otitis media, or sinusitis Of 3,547 patients enrolled, 3,540 from whom survey forms were collected were analyzed. Of these 3,540 patients, there were a total of 3,331 patients included in the safety analysis, 2,844 in the efficacy analysis, 2,769 in the clinical efficacy analysis, and 461 in the bacteriological efficacy analysis...
February 2016: Japanese Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142181/the-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiome-in-infectious-complications-during-induction-chemotherapy-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#19
Jessica R Galloway-Peña, Daniel P Smith, Pranoti Sahasrabhojane, Nadim J Ajami, W Duncan Wadsworth, Naval G Daver, Roy F Chemaly, Lisa Marsh, Shashank S Ghantoji, Naveen Pemmaraju, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Katayoun Rezvani, Amin M Alousi, Jennifer A Wargo, Elizabeth J Shpall, Phillip A Futreal, Michele Guindani, Joseph F Petrosino, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Samuel A Shelburne
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing data on the impact of the microbiome on cancer, the dynamics and role of the microbiome in infection during therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are unknown. Therefore, the authors sought to determine correlations between microbiome composition and infectious outcomes in patients with AML who were receiving induction chemotherapy (IC). METHODS: Buccal and fecal specimens (478 samples) were collected twice weekly from 34 patients with AML who were undergoing IC...
July 15, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044838/assessment-of-aquo-ethanolic-extract-of-camellia-sinensis-against-carbapenem-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-vivo-trials-in-a-murine-model
#20
Pallavi Thakur, Raman Chawla, Alka Narula, Rajeev Goel, Rajesh Arora, Rakesh Kumar Sharma
The prevalence of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli (CRE) has increased considerably during the last decade, which can be ascribed to relative scarcity of effective non toxic antimicrobial agents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aquo-ethanolic (1:1) extract of leaves of Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) against Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli at preclinical level using peritonitis infection model in Sprague Dawley rats. Efficacy analysis of PTRC-31911-A involved enumeration of CRE colonies in blood and urine samples of test animals for a period of 5 days from infection...
April 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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