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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898208/-design-and-implementation-of-an-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-program-in-primary-care-the-experience-at-a-second-level-hospital
#1
M Ruiz-Campuzano, E García-Vázquez, J J Hernández-Roca, J Gómez-Gómez, M Canteras-Jordana, E Mené-Fenor, A Hernández-Torres, A Peláez-Ballesta
OBJECTIVE: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs are a good assistance option in a wide variety of infectious diseases. Our aim was to design and implement an OPAT program in the area of influence of a second-level hospital, with no Home Hospitalization Service available, being necessary close collaboration between hospitalization and Primary Care teams, describe our cohort, analyse the antimicrobial treatment indicated and evaluate the prognostic and risk factors associated with readmission and mortality...
November 28, 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803895/reduced-susceptibility-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactams-in-vibrio-cholerae-isolated-in-bangladesh
#2
Daniela Ceccarelli, Munirul Alam, Anwar Huq, Rita R Colwell
β-lactams are antibiotic molecules able to inhibit cell wall biosynthesis. Among other mechanisms, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is mostly associated with production of β-lactamase enzymes able to bind and hydrolyze the β-lactam ring. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases extend this ability also to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, as well as to carbapenems and monobactams. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of epidemic cholera and a public health burden for developing countries like Bangladesh...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602189/antibiotic-consumption-during-a-4-year-period-in-a-community-hospital-with-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program
#3
Humberto Guanche Garcell, Ariadna Villanueva Arias, Eliezer Alemán Fernandez, Yaquelín Batista Guerrero, Ramon N Alfonso Serrano
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the trend of antibiotic consumption in patients admitted to a community hospital in Qatar with an antimicrobial stewardship program. METHODS: This observational study was carried out in a 75-bed facility in Western Qatar over a 4-year period (2012-2015). The monitoring of antimicrobial consumption from inpatient wards was performed from the pharmacy records and presented as defined daily dose (DDD) divided by the patient days and expressed as 100 bed-days (DBD)...
September 2016: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504284/molecular-characterisation-of-nfsa-gene-in-nitrofurantoin-resistant-uropathogens
#4
Dhivyalakshmi Shanmugam, Shamsadh Begum Esak, Anbumani Narayanaswamy
INTRODUCTION: Majority of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI's) are lower UTI's which constitute the real burden in the primary care setting and are usually treated empirically. Nitrofurantoin is an underused antimicrobial for empiric therapy for community-acquired and nosocomial lower UTIs. Nitrofurantoin has a wide spectrum of action against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterococci, which are the frequent causes of nosocomial lower UTIs and also against multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms including extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producers, Amp-C producers and Carbapenamase producers...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496450/successful-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-caused-by-multiresistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-producing-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-ndm-1-with-strains-genotyping
#5
P Wilkowski, M Ciszek, K Dobrzaniecka, J Sańko-Resmer, A Łabuś, K Grygiel, T Grochowiecki, G Młynarczyk, L Pączek
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) strains have recently become a new threat in kidney transplant recipients due to the strains' resistance to almost all antibiotics, including carbapenems. METHODS: We present a case series of 3 patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by multiresistant K pneumoniae NDM-1 strains who were treated with the same protocol. Genotyping sequencing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed in all cases...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27403268/new-antituberculosis-drugs-from-clinical-trial-to-programmatic-use
#6
REVIEW
Gina Gualano, Susanna Capone, Alberto Matteelli, Fabrizio Palmieri
Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases is challenging because it relies on second-line drugs that are less potent and more toxic than those used in the clinical management of drug-susceptible TB. Moreover, treatment outcomes for MDR-TB are generally poor compared to drug sensitive disease, highlighting the need for of new drugs. For the first time in more than 50 years, two new anti-TB drugs were approved and released. Bedaquiline is a first-in-class diarylquinoline compound that showed durable culture conversion at 24 weeks in phase IIb trials...
June 24, 2016: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372390/the-first-point-prevalence-survey-of-health-care-associated-infection-and-antimicrobial-use-in-a-japanese-university-hospital-a-pilot-study
#7
Hiroshi Morioka, Aki Hirabayashi, Mitsutaka Iguchi, Yuka Tomita, Daizo Kato, Naokazu Sato, Miyuki Hyodo, Naoko Kawamura, Takuya Sadomoto, Kazuya Ichikawa, Takayuki Inagaki, Yoshiaki Kato, Yuichi Kouyama, Yoshinori Ito, Tetsuya Yagi
BACKGROUND: Point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in Japanese hospitals have not yet been reported. The purpose of this pilot PPS study was to evaluate the epidemiology of health care-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use in a Japanese tertiary university hospital. METHODS: A 1-day, cross-sectional PPS was performed at a Japanese university hospital. Data on demographics, active HAIs, and antimicrobial use of all inpatients were collected using a data collection form...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366158/fosfomycin-a-first-line-oral-therapy-for-acute-uncomplicated-cystitis
#8
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Andrew J Walkty, James A Karlowsky
Fosfomycin is a new agent to Canada approved for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) in adult women infected with susceptible isolates of E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. We reviewed the literature regarding the use of oral fosfomycin for the treatment of AUC. All English-language references from 1975 to October 2015 were reviewed. In Canada, fosfomycin tromethamine is manufactured as Monurol® and is available as a 3-gram single dose sachet. Fosfomycin has a unique chemical structure, inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis at an earlier site compared to β-lactams with no cross-resistance with other agents...
2016: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313268/ceftazidime-avibactam-versus-doripenem-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-urinary-tract-infections-including-acute-pyelonephritis-recapture-a-phase-3-randomized-trial-program
#9
Florian M Wagenlehner, Jack D Sobel, Paul Newell, Jon Armstrong, Xiangning Huang, Gregory G Stone, Katrina Yates, Leanne B Gasink
BACKGROUND: The global emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae highlights the urgent need to reduce carbapenem dependence. The phase 3 RECAPTURE program compared the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam and doripenem in patients with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), including acute pyelonephritis. METHODS: Hospitalized adults with suspected or microbiologically confirmed cUTI/acute pyelonephritis were randomized 1:1 to ceftazidime-avibactam 2000 mg/500 mg every 8 hours or doripenem 500 mg every 8 hours (doses adjusted for renal function), with possible oral antibiotic switch after ≥5 days (total treatment duration up to 10 days or 14 days for patients with bacteremia)...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27290830/-evaluation-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-tebipenem-pivoxil-granules-for-pediatric-in-pneumonia-otitis-media-and-sinusitis
#10
Hiroshi Kataoka, Hiroshi Kasahara, Yuji Sasagawa, Masato Matsumoto, Seiya Shimada
We conducted a postmarketing surveillance of tebipenem pivoxil granules (Orapenem® fine granules 10% for pediatric), an oral carbapenem antibacterial agent, between April 2010 and March 2013 to evaluate the safety and efficacy in patients with pneumonia or otitis media, or sinusitis Of 3,547 patients enrolled, 3,540 from whom survey forms were collected were analyzed. Of these 3,540 patients, there were a total of 3,331 patients included in the safety analysis, 2,844 in the efficacy analysis, 2,769 in the clinical efficacy analysis, and 461 in the bacteriological efficacy analysis...
February 2016: Japanese Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27142181/the-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiome-in-infectious-complications-during-induction-chemotherapy-for-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#11
Jessica R Galloway-Peña, Daniel P Smith, Pranoti Sahasrabhojane, Nadim J Ajami, W Duncan Wadsworth, Naval G Daver, Roy F Chemaly, Lisa Marsh, Shashank S Ghantoji, Naveen Pemmaraju, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Katayoun Rezvani, Amin M Alousi, Jennifer A Wargo, Elizabeth J Shpall, Phillip A Futreal, Michele Guindani, Joseph F Petrosino, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis, Samuel A Shelburne
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing data on the impact of the microbiome on cancer, the dynamics and role of the microbiome in infection during therapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are unknown. Therefore, the authors sought to determine correlations between microbiome composition and infectious outcomes in patients with AML who were receiving induction chemotherapy (IC). METHODS: Buccal and fecal specimens (478 samples) were collected twice weekly from 34 patients with AML who were undergoing IC...
July 15, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27044838/assessment-of-aquo-ethanolic-extract-of-camellia-sinensis-against-carbapenem-resistant-escherichia-coli-in-vivo-trials-in-a-murine-model
#12
Pallavi Thakur, Raman Chawla, Alka Narula, Rajeev Goel, Rajesh Arora, Rakesh Kumar Sharma
The prevalence of Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli (CRE) has increased considerably during the last decade, which can be ascribed to relative scarcity of effective non toxic antimicrobial agents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of aquo-ethanolic (1:1) extract of leaves of Camellia sinensis (PTRC-31911-A) against Carbapenem Resistant Escherichia coli at preclinical level using peritonitis infection model in Sprague Dawley rats. Efficacy analysis of PTRC-31911-A involved enumeration of CRE colonies in blood and urine samples of test animals for a period of 5 days from infection...
April 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27002635/bloodstream-infections-in-neutropenic-cancer-patients-a-practical-update
#13
Giulia Gustinetti, Malgorzata Mikulska
Bloodstream infections (BSI) are among the most frequent complications in neutropenic cancer patients and, if caused by Gram-negative rods, are associated with high mortality. Thus, fever during neutropenia warrants prompt empirical antibiotic therapy which should be active against the most frequent Gram-negatives. In the last decade, there has been a worldwide increase in multidrug resistant (MDR) strains. In these cases, the traditional choices such as oral therapy, ceftazidime, cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam, or even carbapenems, might be ineffective...
April 2, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989065/tetracycline-antibiotics-and-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Trudy H Grossman
Tetracyclines possess many properties considered ideal for antibiotic drugs, including activity against Gram-positive and -negative pathogens, proven clinical safety, acceptable tolerability, and the availability of intravenous (IV) and oral formulations for most members of the class. As with all antibiotic classes, the antimicrobial activities of tetracyclines are subject to both class-specific and intrinsic antibiotic-resistance mechanisms. Since the discovery of the first tetracyclines more than 60 years ago, ongoing optimization of the core scaffold has produced tetracyclines in clinical use and development that are capable of thwarting many of these resistance mechanisms...
April 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26949908/-in-process-citation
#15
Christina Forstner, Mathias W Pletz
Infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria are increasing worldwide. Glycopeptides, linezolid, daptomycin and 5th generation cephalosporins ("MRSA-cephalsoporins") are used against severe infections with MRSA, combination partners are rifampin and fosfomycin. Treatment options against VRE-infections are limited to linezolid, daptomycin and tigecyclin. New agents with activity against MRSA and VRE are tedizolid, dalbvancin and oritavancin. For monotherapy of severe infections due to 3MRGN carbapenems are available...
February 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26751436/antibacterial-properties-of-tebipenem-pivoxil-tablet-a-new-oral-carbapenem-preparation-against-a-variety-of-pathogenic-bacteria-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
Qi Yao, Jingkun Wang, Tao Cui, Zhi Yang, Mei Su, Peiyue Zhao, Hong Yan, Yi Zhan, Hongbo Yang
AIMS: To systemically investigate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial properties of tebipenem pivoxil tablet. In addition, acute toxicity of this preparation was also studied. METHODS: In vitro, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) or minimal inhibitory concentration (MBC) were determined by using the serial 2-fold broth or agar dilution methods. Further, cumulative MIC inhibition curves were then made to assess the antibacterial effects of the drug at various concentrations...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26728713/burkholderia-pseudomallei-causing-bone-and-joint-infections-a-clinical-update
#17
REVIEW
Nadeem Sajjad Raja, Christine Scarsbrook
Burkholderia pseudomallei (B. pseudomallei), a causative agent of an emerging infectious disease melioidosis, is endemic in the tropical regions of the world. Due to increased international travel, the infection is now also seen outside of the tropics. The majority of patients with identified risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, heavy alcohol use, malignancy, chronic lung and kidney disease, corticosteroid use, thalassemia, rheumatic heart disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and cardiac failure acquire this organism through percutaneous inoculation or inhalation...
March 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26620376/spectrum-and-treatment-of-anaerobic-infections
#18
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
Anaerobes are the most predominant components of the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are a frequent cause of endogenous bacterial infections. Anaerobic infections can occur in all body locations: the central nervous system, oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin, and soft tissues. Treatment of anaerobic infection is complicated by their slow growth in culture, by their polymicrobial nature and by their growing resistance to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial therapy is frequently the only form of therapy needed, whereas in others it is an important adjunct to drainage and surgery...
January 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26390730/-bacterial-infections-in-the-early-period-after-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#19
V N Vavilov, M Iu Aver'ianova, S N Bondarenko, N V Stancheva, L S Zubarovskaia, B V Afanas'ev
AIM: To study the incidence and risk factors of bacterial infections and the efficiency of empirical antibacterial therapy in patients in the early period after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 155 patients who had undergone allo-HSCT. Myeloablative conditioning was used in 39% of the patients. All the patients with neutropenia (NP) received antibiotic prophylaxis with fluoroquinolones until recovery of white blood cell counts or before systemic antibiotic therapy...
2015: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365224/antimicrobials-therapy-of-anaerobic-infections
#20
Itzhak Brook
Anaerobes predominant in the normal human skin and mucous membranes bacterial flora are often a cause of endogenous infections. Anaerobic bacteria are difficult to isolate from infectious sites, and are often overlooked. Anaerobic infections caused by anaerobes can occur in all body sites, including the central nervous system (CNS), oral cavity, head and neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis, skin and soft tissues. The treatment of these infections is complicated by the slow growth of these organisms, their polymicrobial nature and the growing resistance of anaerobes to antimicrobials agents...
June 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
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