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Oral carbapenem

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587974/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-sitafloxacin-vs-ertapenem-as-a-switch%C3%A2-therapy-after-treatment-for-acute-pyelonephritis-caused-by-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-a-pilot-study
#1
Chitprasong Malaisri, Angsana Phuphuakrat, Arrug Wibulpolprasert, Pitak Santanirand, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul
BACKGROUND: The overuse and misuse of carbapenems have contributed to the antibiotic resistance crisis. The role of oral fluoroquinolones as a switch therapy for the treatment of urinary tract infection from Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of sitafloxacin and ertapenem for non-bacteremic acute pyelonephritis caused by ESBL-EC. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial of patients with acute pyelonephritis caused by ESBL-EC was performed as a pilot study...
August 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555497/ldtmav2-a-nonclassical-transpeptidase-and-susceptibility-of-mycobacterium-avium-to-carbapenems
#2
Rohini Mattoo, Evan P Lloyd, Amit Kaushik, Pankaj Kumar, Julie L Brunelle, Craig A Townsend, Gyanu Lamichhane
AIM: Mycobacterium avium infections, especially in immune-compromised individuals, present a significant challenge as therapeutic options are limited. In this study, we investigated if M. avium genome encodes nonclassical transpeptidases and if newer carbapenems are effective against this mycobacteria. MATERIALS & METHODS: Biochemical and microbiological approaches were used to identify and characterize a nonclassical transpeptidase, namely L,D-transpeptidase, in M...
May 30, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513809/oral-gentamicin-therapy-for-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-gut-colonization-in-hematologic-patients-a-single-center-experience
#3
Paola Lambelet, Carlo Tascini, Simona Fortunato, Alessandro Stefanelli, Federico Simonetti, Chiara Vettori, Alessandro Leonildi, Francesco Menichetti
The mortality for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) infection ranges from 18 to 48% depending on the type of therapy. Mortality rates in hematologic patients are even higher, up to 85%. Gut decontamination with oral gentamicin might be an option to avoid a subsequent KPC-Kp infection in colonized patients. We treated 14 hematologic patients with oral gentamicin, 80 mg four times daily, for 7 to 25 days in order to eradicate KPC-Kp from the gut, starting oral gentamicin therapy when possible after the discontinuation of systemic antibiotic therapy...
May 17, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499830/implementation-of-a-systematic-culturing-program-to-monitor-the-efficacy-of-endoscope-reprocessing-outcomes-and-costs
#4
Gene K Ma, David A Pegues, Michael L Kochman, Kevin Alby, Neil O Fishman, Marianne Saunders, Carolyn Grous, Daniel T Dempsey, Gregory G Ginsberg
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued guidance for duodenoscope culturing and reprocessing in response to outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) duodenoscope-related infections. Based on this guidance, we implemented best practices for reprocessing and developed a systematic process for culturing endoscopes with elevator levers. The aim of this study is to report the outcomes and direct costs of this program...
May 10, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469304/fosfomycin-susceptibility-among-multidrug-resistant-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-carbapenem-resistant-uropathogens
#5
Sayantan Banerjee, Mallika Sengupta, Tanoy Kumer Sarker
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases. With the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR), therapeutic options for treatment of UTIs are becoming limited. Fosfomycin has emerged as a novel oral therapeutic option with bactericidal activity against the MDR uropathogens. We evaluated the susceptibility pattern of uropathogens to this antibiotic. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted for 6 months in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India to evaluate whether the common uropathogens were susceptible to fosfomycin...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390962/in-vitro-activity-of-fosfomycin-trometamol-and-other-oral-antibiotics-against-multidrug-resistant-uropathogens
#6
Maria Lina Mezzatesta, Giulia La Rosa, Gaetano Maugeri, Tiziana Zingali, Carla Caio, Andrea Novelli, Stefania Stefani
Clinical midstream and urinary catheter isolates (n = 106) of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus saprophyticus were tested against fosfomycin using the agar dilution method, the broth microdilution method and the gradient test described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Nitrofurantoin, co-trimoxazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were tested using the gradient test alone...
June 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368074/management-of-carbapenem-resistant-k-pneumoniae-in-allogenic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-the-turin-bundle
#7
Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Silvia Corcione, Stefania Raviolo, Benedetto Bruno, Alessandro Busca
Carbapenem resistance has evolved rapidly since 2001 and the distribution of Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CR-Kp) is currently a public health concern worldwide. In the haematological setting, especially in allogenic transplant, CR-KP infections were associated with a mortality up to 65%. Aim of this report is to describe the management of patients colonized by CR-Kp and undergoing allo- HSCT with a multiple-step intervention strategy: the "Turin bundle". Steps included oral gentamicin (GO) within 20 days before allo-HSCT, avoidance of levofloxacin prophylaxis during neutropenia, treatment of febrile neutropenia with tigecycline 100 mg bid and piperacillin-tazobactam at standard dosages and early appropriate combination therapy for patients with severe sepsis...
April 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350901/gram-negative-bacterial-infections-research-priorities-accomplishments-and-future-directions-of-the-antibacterial-resistance-leadership-group
#8
Yohei Doi, Robert A Bonomo, David C Hooper, Keith S Kaye, James R Johnson, Cornelius J Clancy, Joshua T Thaden, Martin E Stryjewski, David van Duin
Antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria is one of the most pressing challenges in the field of infectious diseases and is one of 4 key areas of unmet medical need identified by the Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG). The mission of the Gram-Negative Committee is to advance our knowledge of these challenging infections and implement studies to improve patient outcomes. Studies have fallen primarily into 2 broad categories: prospective cohort studies and interventional trials...
March 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326811/combinations-of-avibactam-and-carbapenems-exhibit-enhanced-potencies-against-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-abscessus
#9
Amit Kaushik, Chhavi Gupta, Stefanie Fisher, Elizabeth Story-Roller, Christos Galanis, Nicole Parrish, Gyanu Lamichhane
AIM: The objective of this study was to assess if avibactam, a new β-lactamase inhibitor, can restore the potency of carbapenems, a sub-class of β-lactams, against Mycobacterium abscessus clinical isolates. MATERIALS & METHODS: Twenty-eight M. abscessus clinical isolates that are resistant to multiple drugs currently used to treat its infection were included. MIC of carbapenems alone and in combination with avibactam against these strains were determined. RESULTS: Tebipenem, an oral carbapenem, and ertapenem and panipenem exhibited the greatest shift in MIC when supplemented with avibactam...
February 16, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271693/comparison-of-the-novel-oxa-48-and-kpc-k-set-assay-and-blue-carba-test-for-the-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-using-pcr-as-a-reference-method
#10
Fatma Erdem, Ayham Abulaila, Zerrin Aktas, Oral Oncul
BACKGROUND: Rapid, simple, and accurate laboratory detection of carbapenemases is very important for proper antibiotic therapy and infection control. METHODS: In this study, carbapenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) isolates were used to evaluate the performance of a new lateral flow immunochromatographic (IC) assay, the OXA-48 and KPC K-SeT assay, and modified Blue-Carba test (BCT) for the rapid detection of OXA-48 carbapenemase in comparison with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270102/antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-rapidly-growing-mycobacteria-isolated-in-japan
#11
Shuji Hatakeyama, Yuki Ohama, Mitsuhiro Okazaki, Yoko Nukui, Kyoji Moriya
BACKGROUND: Difficult-to-treat infections caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are increasingly observed in clinical settings. However, studies on antimicrobial susceptibilities and effective treatments against RGM in Japan are limited. METHODS: We conducted susceptibility testing of potential antimicrobial agents, including tigecycline and tebipenem, against RGM. Clinical RGM isolates were collected from a university hospital in Japan between December 2010 and August 2013...
March 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238680/pediatric-community-acquired-pneumonia-treated-with-a-three-day-course-of-tebipenem-pivoxil
#12
Hiroshi Sakata, Haruo Kuroki, Kazunobu Ouchi, Takeshi Tajima, Satoshi Iwata
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 3-day treatment regimen of tebipenem pivoxil for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. Tebipenem pivoxil was administered to 49 patients, and its effectiveness was evaluated in 36 patients 2-4 days after initiation of treatment. Thirty-two patients were cured 7-15 days after initiation of treatment. Body temperature was significantly lower on the day following initial administration (median 38.8 to 37.0 °C, n = 33). Leukocyte counts and C-reactive protein levels were significantly reduced by Day 2-4 of treatment (median 16,100 to 7800 white blood cells/μL, and 5...
May 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216018/prospective-randomised-controlled-study-evaluating-early-modification-of-oral-microbiota-following-admission-to-the-intensive-care-unit-and-oral-hygiene-with-chlorhexidine
#13
Felipe Francisco Tuon, Oleg Gavrilko, Saulo de Almeida, Eigi Ricardo Sumi, Thiago Alberto, Jaime Luis Rocha, Edvaldo Antonio Rosa
OBJECTIVES: Chlorhexidine (CHX) is the most commonly used oral hygiene product for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). The change in dental plaque (DP) microbiota following CHX use in patients under MV has not been described previously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pathogenic bacteria associated with VAP and the coverage of DP within the oral cavity in patients administered CHX. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind study in patients (n=16) under MV who were mouth-rinsed with either CHX or placebo...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162982/revival-of-old-antibiotics-needs-the-state-of-evidence-and-expectations
#14
Hiba Zayyad, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
The gap between the emergence of antibiotic resistance and new antibiotic development has drawn attention to old antibiotics whose spectrum of coverage frequently comprises highly resistant bacteria. However, these antibiotics have frequently not undergone the structured process of antibiotic development of modern antibiotics, from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies establishing safe and effective dosing, establishment of susceptibility breakpoints, to clinical trials establishing clinical safety and effectiveness...
May 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088889/-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#15
REVIEW
Bálint Velkey, Eszter Vitális, Zsuzsanna Vitális
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III...
January 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074531/antibiotic-use-during-infectious-episodes-in-the-first-6-months-of-anticancer-treatment-a-swedish-cohort-study-of-children-aged-7-16-years
#16
M Af Sandeberg, E Johansson, L Wettergren, O Björk, O Hertting, A Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing cancer therapy are at risk for infectious complications that require hospitalization and antimicrobial therapy. Host factors such as age and underlying disease may predict the risk of severe infections in these children. To describe the increased morbidity due to infections in children with cancer, we characterized the antibiotic use during the infectious complications in a national cohort of children 7-16 years of age with cancer. PROCEDURE: Data on infectious complications were prospectively collected from the medical records of all newly diagnosed children with cancer, aged 7-16 years, in Sweden between 2004 and 2006...
July 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898208/-design-and-implementation-of-an-outpatient-parenteral-antimicrobial-therapy-program-in-primary-care-the-experience-at-a-second-level-hospital
#17
M Ruiz-Campuzano, E García-Vázquez, J J Hernández-Roca, J Gómez-Gómez, M Canteras-Jordana, E Mené-Fenor, A Hernández-Torres, A Peláez-Ballesta
OBJECTIVE: Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) programs are a good assistance option in a wide variety of infectious diseases. Our aim was to design and implement an OPAT program in the area of influence of a second-level hospital, with no Home Hospitalization Service available, being necessary close collaboration between hospitalization and Primary Care teams, describe our cohort, analyse the antimicrobial treatment indicated and evaluate the prognostic and risk factors associated with readmission and mortality...
February 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803895/reduced-susceptibility-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactams-in-vibrio-cholerae-isolated-in-bangladesh
#18
Daniela Ceccarelli, Munirul Alam, Anwar Huq, Rita R Colwell
β-lactams are antibiotic molecules able to inhibit cell wall biosynthesis. Among other mechanisms, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is mostly associated with production of β-lactamase enzymes able to bind and hydrolyze the β-lactam ring. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases extend this ability also to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, as well as to carbapenems and monobactams. Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of epidemic cholera and a public health burden for developing countries like Bangladesh...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602189/antibiotic-consumption-during-a-4-year-period-in-a-community-hospital-with-an-antimicrobial-stewardship-program
#19
Humberto Guanche Garcell, Ariadna Villanueva Arias, Eliezer Alemán Fernandez, Yaquelín Batista Guerrero, Ramon N Alfonso Serrano
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the trend of antibiotic consumption in patients admitted to a community hospital in Qatar with an antimicrobial stewardship program. METHODS: This observational study was carried out in a 75-bed facility in Western Qatar over a 4-year period (2012-2015). The monitoring of antimicrobial consumption from inpatient wards was performed from the pharmacy records and presented as defined daily dose (DDD) divided by the patient days and expressed as 100 bed-days (DBD)...
September 2016: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504284/molecular-characterisation-of-nfsa-gene-in-nitrofurantoin-resistant-uropathogens
#20
Dhivyalakshmi Shanmugam, Shamsadh Begum Esak, Anbumani Narayanaswamy
INTRODUCTION: Majority of Urinary Tract Infections (UTI's) are lower UTI's which constitute the real burden in the primary care setting and are usually treated empirically. Nitrofurantoin is an underused antimicrobial for empiric therapy for community-acquired and nosocomial lower UTIs. Nitrofurantoin has a wide spectrum of action against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterococci, which are the frequent causes of nosocomial lower UTIs and also against multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms including extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producers, Amp-C producers and Carbapenamase producers...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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