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Justine M Turner, Yves Sauvé, Miyoung Suh, Paul W Wales, Pamela Wizzard, Susan Goruk, Catherine J Field
BACKGROUND: Preterm neonates and those with intestinal failure require prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) during a critical time of early central nervous system maturation. Conventional lipid emulsions fed to preterm neonates lack n-3 (ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs; >20 carbon chain in length). Recently, fish oil lipid emulsions have been developed that provide both n-6 (ω-6) and n-3 LC-PUFAs, precursors of very long-chain PUFAs (VLC-PUFAs; >24 carbon chain in length)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Wan Qin, Meredith A Roberts, Xiaoli Qi, Charles E Murry, Ying Zheng, Ruikang K Wang
In this study, we propose a novel implementation of optical coherence tomography-based angiography combined with ex vivo perfusion of fixed hearts to visualize coronary microvascular structure and function. The extracorporeal perfusion of Intralipid solution allows depth-resolved angiographic imaging, control of perfusion pressure, and high-resolution optical microangiography. The imaging technique offers new opportunities for microcirculation research in the heart, which has been challenging due to motion artifacts and the lack of independent control of pressure and flow...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jeffrey Huang, Huan Gao
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Neuraxial anesthesia has been widely used in China. Recently, Chinese anesthesiologists have applied nerve stimulator and ultrasound guidance for peripheral nerve blocks. Nationwide surveys about regional anesthesia practices in China are lacking. We surveyed Chinese anesthesiologists about regional anesthesia techniques, preference, drug selections, complications, and treatments. DESIGN: A survey was sent to all anesthesiologist members by WeChat...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Dina M R Dakhly, Yomna A Bayoumi, Mohamed Sharkawy, Sherine H Gad Allah, Mohamed A Hassan, Hisham M Gouda, Ahmed T Hashem, Dina L Hatem, Mona F Ahmed, Waleed El-Khayat
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of intralipid supplementation in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and elevated natural killer cell activity undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. METHODS: Between February 10, 2013, and April 30, 2015, a double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted at a center in Egypt. Women with unexplained secondary infertility, RSA, and elevated levels of natural killer cells (>12%) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive intralipid (2mL diluted at 20% in 250mL saline) or saline (250mL) infusion on the day of oocyte retrieval using random numbers and sealed envelopes...
August 30, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Sophie Gosselin, Lotte C G Hoegberg, Robert S Hoffman, Andis Graudins, Christine M Stork, Simon H L Thomas, Samuel J Stellpflug, Bryan D Hayes, Michael Levine, Martin Morris, Andrea Nesbitt-Miller, Alexis F Turgeon, Benoit Bailey, Diane P Calello, Ryan Chuang, Theodore C Bania, Bruno Mégarbane, Ashish Bhalla, Valéry Lavergne
BACKGROUND: Although intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) was first used to treat life-threatening local anesthetic (LA) toxicity, its use has expanded to include both non-local anesthetic (non-LA) poisoning and less severe manifestations of toxicity. A collaborative workgroup appraised the literature and provides evidence-based recommendations for the use of ILE in poisoning. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, data were summarized in four publications: LA and non-LA poisoning efficacy, adverse effects, and analytical interferences...
September 8, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Camille Munck, Serge Mordon, Nacim Betrouni
BACKGROUND: Complete and homogeneous illumination of the pleural cavity is essential to the success of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for mesothelioma, but remains a challenge. Knowing the repartition and propagation of light around the light applicator could be the first step towards optimizing dosimetry. Here we propose a characterization method of the illumination profile of a specific light device. METHODS: The light wand, made of a cylindrical diffuser located inside an endotracheal tube, was fixed in a tank filled with dilute 0...
September 1, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Kirk L Cumpston, Ravindra Gopaul, Brandon Wills
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Therapeutics
Teng-Qian Sun, Qing Ye, Shi-Ke Liu, Xiao-Wan Wang, Jin Wang, Zhi-Chao Deng, Jian-Chun Mei, Wen-Yuan Zhou, Chun-Ping Zhang, Jian-Guo Tian
We present the application of scanning focused refractive index microscopy in the complex refractive index measurement of turbid media. An extra standard scattering layer is placed in front of the detector to perform scattering transformation on the reflected light. The principle of the scattering transformation is elaborated theoretically. The influence of the sample scattering is deeply and effectively suppressed experimentally. As a proof of the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method, we demonstrate experimental data of 20% and 30% Intralipid solutions that are commonly used as phantom media for light propagation studies...
August 15, 2016: Optics Letters
Lindsey A Schier, Alan Craig Spector
Several recent studies have shown that postoral sugar sensing rapidly stimulates ingestion. Here we explored the specificity with which early phase postoral sugar sensing influenced ingestive motivation. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to associate the consumption of 0.3M sucrose with injections of LiCl (3.0 mEq/kg IP, conditioned taste aversion) or given equivalent exposures to the stimuli, but in an unpaired fashion (UNPAIRED). Then, all rats were given two brief access tests to assess appetitive and consummatory responses to the taste properties of sucrose (0...
August 10, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Motohiro Banno, Ami Nagashima, Hiroharu Yui
The development of a stimulated Raman scattering photoacoustic (SRS-PA) spectrometer is presented. In the apparatus, a molecular vibrational mode is excited by the SRS process. The vibrational excitation energy is converted to heat by vibrational relaxation. The volumes around the excited molecules including the surrounding solvent molecules expand by heating, resulting in the generation of an ultrasonic wave. The ultrasonic wave can be used as a molecular-selective signal. Because the ultrasonic wave is scarcely scattered by media, SRS-PA is expected to be applied for obtaining molecular-selective signals from deeply buried samples...
October 21, 2016: Analyst
Celeste M Lavallee, Jayden A R MacPherson, Mi Zhou, Yanhua Gao, Pamela R Wizzard, Paul W Wales, Justine M Turner, Benjamin P Willing
BACKGROUND: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a cause of intestinal microbial dysbiosis and impaired gut barrier function. This may contribute to life-threatening parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and sepsis in infants. We compared the effects of a lipid emulsion containing long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; SMOFlipid) and a predominantly ω-6 PUFA emulsion (Intralipid) on microbial composition and host response at the mucosal surface. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neonatal piglets were provided isocaloric, isonitrogenous TPN for 14 days versus sow-fed (SF) controls...
August 5, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Karin E Reuter-Rice, Bradley M Peterson
Amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, is commonly prescribed for the treatment of hypertension. Ingestion of an overdose leads to severe hypotension; if the hypotension is not treated, death may be imminent. Conventional and unconventional interventions were used to treat an adolescent who ingested a life-threatening dose of amlodipine. Severe hypotension resistant to conventional treatment with intralipids and hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia therapy led to the use of plasmapheresis and a pneumatic antishock garment as lifesaving measures...
August 2016: Critical Care Nurse
Gregory Guthrie, Madhulika Kulkarni, Hester Vlaardingerbroek, Barbara Stoll, Kenneth Ng, Camilia Martin, John Belmont, Darryl Hadsell, William Heird, Christopher B Newgard, Oluyinka Olutoye, Johannes van Goudoever, Charlotte Lauridsen, Xingxuan He, Edward H Schuchman, Douglas Burrin
We aimed to characterize the lipidomic, metabolomic, and transcriptomic profiles in preterm piglets administered enteral (ENT) formula or three parenteral lipid emulsions [parenteral nutrition (PN)], Intralipid (IL), Omegaven (OV), or SMOFlipid (SL), for 14 days. Piglets in all parenteral lipid groups showed differential organ growth versus ENT piglets; whole body growth rate was lowest in IL piglets, yet there were no differences in either energy expenditure or (13)C-palmitate oxidation. Plasma homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance demonstrated insulin resistance in IL, but not OV or SL, compared with ENT...
September 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Norman E Miller, Waldemar L Olszewski, Irina P Miller, Mahmud N Nanjee
Cholesterol esterification in high density lipoproteins (HDLs) by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) promotes unesterified cholesterol (UC) transfer from red cell membranes to plasma in vitro. However, it does not explain the transfer of UC from most peripheral cells to interstitial fluid in vivo, as HDLs in afferent peripheral lymph are enriched in UC. Having already reported that the endogenous cholesterol esterification rate (ECER) in lymph is only 5% of that in plasma, we have now explored the underlying mechanism...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Yvan Touitou, Benoit Mauvieux, Alain Reinberg, Garance Dispersyn
The circadian time structure of an organism can be desynchronized in a large number of instances, including the intake of specific drugs. We have previously found that propofol, which is a general anesthetic, induces a desynchronization of the circadian time structure in rats, with a 60-80 min significant phase advance of body temperature circadian rhythm. We thus deemed it worthwhile to examine whether this phase shift of body temperature was related to a modification of the circadian period Tau. Propofol was administered at three different Zeitgeber Times (ZTs): ZT6 (middle of the rest period), ZT10 (2 h prior to the beginning of activity period), ZT16 (4 h after the beginning of the activity period), with ZT0 being the beginning of the rest period (light onset) and ZT12 being the beginning of the activity period (light offset)...
2016: Chronobiology International
Thomas J Allen, Paul C Beard
The use of visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) as an alternative to Q-switched lasers conventionally used as photoacoustic excitation sources has been explored. In common with laser diodes, LEDs offer the advantages of compact size, low cost and high efficiency. However, laser diodes suitable for pulsed photoacoustic generation are typically available only at wavelengths greater than 750nm. By contrast, LEDs are readily available at visible wavelengths below 650nm where haemoglobin absorption is significantly higher, offering the prospect of increased SNR for superficial vascular imaging applications...
April 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Hirokazu Sato, Linda S Zhang, Kristina Martinez, Eugene B Chang, Qing Yang, Fei Wang, Philip N Howles, Ryota Hokari, Soichiro Miura, Patrick Tso
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects intestinal permeability and mucosal mast cell (MMCs) responses. Activation of MMCs has been associated with absorption of dietary fat. We investigated whether the gut microbiota contributes to the fat-induced activation of MMCs in rats, and how antibiotics might affect this process. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given streptomycin and penicillin for 4 days (n=6-8), to reduce the abundance of their gut flora, or normal drinking water (controls, n=6-8)...
July 16, 2016: Gastroenterology
Zhenhua Yang, Tianyang Ren, De Lu, Haiyan Guo, Wanqiu Li, Chenglong Huang, Haibing He, Dongchun Liu, Xing Tang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to ascertain the potential toxicity of perilla seed oil-based lipid emulsion (POLE) caused by phytosterols and confirm the efficacy of the technique for removing phytosterols from perilla seed oil, and evaluate the safety of a low phytosterol POLE in a long-term tolerance study in dogs. METHODS: A comparison between a soybean oil lipid emulsion (Intralipid group A) and POLE with high (group B) versus low (group C) levels of phytosterols was made with regard to their effects on the general condition, hematological and biochemical parameters, urinalysis and histopathological changes in nine dogs receiving daily infusions for four weeks at dosage levels of 6, 6, 9 g fat /kg...
October 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Pauline Dureau, Beny Charbit, Nathalie Nicolas, Dan Benhamou, Jean-Xavier Mazoit
BACKGROUND: Rapid intravenous administration of lipid emulsion has become the standard treatment of severe local anesthetic systemic toxicity. This experiment in volunteers aimed at determining the effect of Intralipid® administration on the time to neurologic symptoms. METHODS: Ropivacaine or levobupivacaine was infused intravenously in 16 volunteers (8 mg/min up to 120 mg) with 120 ml Intralipid® 20% (Fresenius, Paris France) or placebo infused at T + 2 min)...
September 2016: Anesthesiology
Sofía Sánchez-Iglesias, Alexander Unruh-Pinheiro, Cristina Guillín-Amarelle, Blanca González-Méndez, Alejandro Ruiz-Riquelme, Blanca Leticia Rodríguez-Cañete, Silvia Rodríguez-García, Encarnación Guillén-Navarro, Rosario Domingo-Jiménez, David Araújo-Vilar
OBJECTIVE: PELD (Progressive Encephalopathy with or without Lipodystrophy or Celia's Encephalopathy) is a fatal and rare neurodegenerative syndrome associated with the BSCL2 mutation c.985C>T, that results in an aberrant transcript without the exon 7 (Celia seipin). The aim of this study was to evaluate both the process of cellular senescence and the effect of unsaturated fatty acids on preadipocytes from a homozygous c.985C>T patient. Also, the role of aberrant seipin isoform on adipogenesis was studied in adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells...
2016: PloS One
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