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Wasim Khasawneh, Salar Bani Hani
Medication errors remain among the major problems seen in hospitals. Such errors can relate to the prescription, dispensation, or administration of drugs. Human factors account for most of these mistakes, but other factors such as infusion pump programming defects should always be considered. Worldwide, medication errors have been reported to affect 2-30% of patients, depending on the institution. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) infusion is frequently used as part of total parenteral nutrition in patients of all ages with feeding and gastrointestinal issues...
March 19, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
Marcel T Bernucci, Conrad W Merkle, Vivek J Srinivasan
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has recently emerged for imaging vasculature in clinical ophthalmology. Yet, OCTA images contain artifacts that remain challenging to interpret. To help explain these artifacts, we perform contrast-enhanced OCTA with a custom-designed wide-field ophthalmoscope in rats in vivo . We choose an intravascular contrast agent (Intralipid) with particles that are more isotropically scattering and more symmetrically shaped than red blood cells (RBCs). Then, by examining how OCTA artifacts change after contrast agent injection, we attribute OCTA artifacts to RBC-specific properties...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Jean-Claude Lavoie, Ibrahim Mohamed, Anne-Monique Nuyt, Wesam Elremaly, Thérèse Rouleau
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. In animals, PN leads to alveolar loss following stimulation of apoptosis by oxidative stress (oxidized redox potential). Peroxides and aldehydes generated in PN can induce hypo-alveolarization. The implication of peroxides, which is reduced by light protection, is demonstrated. The implication of aldehydes from omega-6 fatty acids oxidation is expected. The hypothesis is that composition and light exposure of PN influences bronchopulmonary dysplasia development...
March 13, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Marihan Lansing, Yves Sauvé, Ioannis Dimopoulos, Catherine J Field, Miyoung Suh, Pamela Wizzard, Susan Goruk, David Lim, Mitsuru Muto, Paul Wales, Justine Turner
BACKGROUND: A dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) is critical for neonatal retinal development. Both are absent/minimal in parenteral nutrition (PN) using soy-oil emulsions ([SO] Intralipid®) traditionally used for neonatal intestinal failure. In contrast, fish-oil emulsions ([FO] Omegaven®) are enriched in DHA/AA. The aim of this study was to compare retinal function and fatty acid content in neonatal piglets fed PN with SO or FO. METHODS: Two-5-day-old piglets were randomly allocated to SO (n = 4) or FO (n = 4), provided at equivalent doses (5g/kg/d)...
March 13, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Paige V Bauer, Frank A Duca, T M Zaved Waise, Helen J Dranse, Brittany A Rasmussen, Akshita Puri, Mozhgan Rasti, Catherine A O'Brien, Tony K T Lam
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)-dependent upper small intestinal lipid metabolism activates pre-absorptive pathways to regulate metabolic homeostasis, but whether changes in the upper small intestinal microbiota alter specific fatty acid-dependent pathways to impact glucose homeostasis remains unknown. We here first find that upper small intestinal infusion of Intralipid, oleic acid, or linoleic acid pre-absorptively increases glucose tolerance and lowers glucose production in rodents. High-fat feeding impairs pre-absorptive fatty acid sensing and reduces upper small intestinal Lactobacillus gasseri levels and ACSL3 expression...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Hong Yu, Qi Li, Chan Chen, Tao Li, Ji-Yue Xiong, Zhen Qin, Ming Luo, Zhao-Xia Tan, Ting Liu, Hui Yu, Xiao-Rong Yin, Hai Yu, Rong-Hua Zhou
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intralipid postconditioning (ILPC) on myocardial damage in patients undergoing valve replacement surgery with concomitant radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Randomized patient and assessor-blind controlled trial conducted in adult patients undergoing valve replacement surgery with concomitant RFA. Sixty-nine patients were randomly assigned to ILPC group (n = 34) or control group (n = 35): ILPC group received an intravenous infusion of 20% intralipid (2 mL/kg) just 10 minutes before aortic cross-unclamping, and control group received an equivalent volume of normal saline...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sarah N Gartner, Fraser Aidney, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Kiriana Isgrove, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability...
February 19, 2018: Appetite
Carol K L Lam, Peter C Church, Beth Haliburton, Kathryn Chambers, Inez Martincevic, Laura Vresk, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Robert Bandsma, Yaron Avitzur, Paul C Wales, Marialena Mouzaki
Lipid emulsions have been associated with liver injury. Newer mixed emulsions (ML), such as SMOFlipid (Fresenius Kabi, Germany), are thought to be more hepatoprotective than soybean-based emulsions (SL), such as Intralipid (Baxter). Pediatric studies comparing long-term use between the 2 are limited. This study compares the severity of hepatic injury between a prospective cohort of hospitalized children on ML (n = 20) and a historical age- and diagnosis-matched cohort of hospitalized children on SL (n = 20)...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Shaoxiu Song, Gang Li, Xingwei Hou, Shengzhao Zhang, Yue Yu, Ling Lin
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is significantly affected from the interference of the ambient light and dark current of the instrument. Optical choppers, together with lock-in/synchronous amplification, can overcome these interferences. However, in spectral measurement, the sampling rate of the spectrometer is different from the Δ-pulse sampling, which is not high enough because of the integration time. In addition, the energy distribution is not perfectly concentrated as expected in modulate chopper technology...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Geeta Aggarwal, Edward Robertson, James McKinlay, Edward Walter
We present the case of a 26-year-old man who was brought into our emergency department in cardiorespiratory arrest, having taken Kratom 24 h previously. Despite multi-organ support, he deteriorated and died from cardiorespiratory failure and hypoxic brain damage 12 h later. Lipid emulsion was given, with significant temporary improvement in the cardiorespiratory failure. Kratom is derived from Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical deciduous and evergreen tree in the coffee family, and is native to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used as a legal high in some parts of the world...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Edward Walter, James McKinlay, Jade Corbett, Justin Kirk-Bayley
We present the case of a 51-year-old woman admitted to our intensive care unit following an intentional overdose of a calcium channel antagonist and a beta blocker. The resultant hypotension was reversed with glucagon, noradrenaline, calcium and high-dose insulin. Despite these interventions, she remained vasoplegic and received a delayed, standard dose of intralipid. Subsequently, the vasoplegia resolved rapidly, and the vasopressor was stopped. Here, we review the management of overdose of calcium channel and beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, concentrating on the pharmacology of lipid emulsion therapy...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Nalin Choudhary, Kenneth Tan, Atul Malhotra
Neonatal units have started to switch from using conventional soy-based to alternate lipid emulsions, like SMOFlipid. SMOFlipid has been associated with an improvement in biochemical parameters and delays progression of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). This retrospective epoch study aimed to compare clinically relevant neonatal outcomes in preterm infants (< 32 weeks), receiving SMOFlipid versus Intralipid. We compared clinical outcomes in two epochs-epoch 1 (Intralipid, October 2013-June 2015) versus epoch 2 (SMOFlipid, July 2015-March 2017)...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Tanya J Little, Nada Cvijanovic, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Donovan A Argueta, Christopher K Rayner, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Richard L Young
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Magdalena Stefanowicz, Agnieszka Nikołajuk, Natalia Matulewicz, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska
PURPOSE: Sirtuin 1 may regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. We aimed to assess adipose tissue and skeletal muscle sirtuin 1 expression in relation to insulin sensitivity, the expression of proinflammatory and metabolic genes, and to study the regulation of sirtuin 1 expression by hyperinsulinemia and circulating free fatty acids elevation. METHODS: We examined 60 normal-weight, 42 overweight and 15 obese young subjects. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique was applied throughout to measure insulin sensitivity...
February 7, 2018: Endocrine
Fabrizio Martelli, Tiziano Binzoni
An heuristic model for ballistic photon detection in continuous-wave measurements of collimated transmittance through a slab is presented. The model is based on the small angle approximation and the diffusion equation and covers all the ranges of optical thicknesses of the slab from the ballistic to the diffusive regime. The performances of the model have been studied by means of comparisons with the results of gold standard Monte Carlo simulations for a wide range of optical thicknesses and two types of scattering functions...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Yada Treesukosol, Timothy H Moran
The orosensory characteristics of a diet play a role in its acceptance and rejection. The current study was designed to investigate the gustatory components that contribute to the intake of a palatable, high-energy diet (HE; 45% calories from fat, 17% calories from sucrose). Here, rats were conditioned to avoid HE diet by pairings with i.p. injections of LiCl to induce visceral malaise. Subsequently, the degree of generalization was tested to an array of taste compounds using a brief-access lick procedure (10-s trials, 30-min sessions)...
February 1, 2018: Chemical Senses
Cansu Arslan Turan, Tuba Cimilli Ozturk, Ebru Unal Akoglu, Rohat Ak, Kemal Aygun, Ali Sahiner, Engin Sumer, Adnan Somay, Ozge Ecmel Onur
Although the mechanism of action is not well known, intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. It is thought that, ILE probably separates the lipophilic drugs from target tissue by creating a lipid-rich compartment in the plasma. The second theory is that ILE provides energy to myocardium with high-dose free fatty acids activating the voltage-gated calcium channels in the myocytes. In this study, effects of ILE treatment on digoxin overdose were searched in an animal model in terms of cardiac side effects and survival...
February 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Toxicology
Christoph Binder, Nicholas Longford, Chris Gale, Neena Modi, Sabita Uthaya
BACKGROUND: The optimal nutritional regimen for preterm infants, including those that develop necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective here was to evaluate body composition at term in infants following NEC, in comparison with healthy infants. The primary outcome measure was non-adipose tissue mass (non-ATM). METHODS: We compared body composition assessed by magnetic resonance imaging at term in infants born <31 weeks of gestational age that participated in NEON, a trial comparing incremental versus immediate delivery of parenteral amino acids on non-ATM, and SMOF versus intralipid on intrahepatocellular lipid content...
January 23, 2018: Neonatology
Joshua J H Hunsaker, Sonia L La'ulu, Sara P Wyness, Jonathan R Genzen
BACKGROUND: The present studies were conducted to characterize lipemic interference across three FDA-cleared ceruloplasmin (CERU) assays and to evaluate procedures designed to remove lipemic interference. METHODS: CERU assays on the Abbott ARCHITECT ci8200, Beckman AU5800, and Roche cobas Integra 400 Plus were evaluated. Precision, linearity with dilution, lipemic interference, and three methods for removing lipemia were assessed on each platform: ultracentrifugation (UC), lipemia-clearing reagent LipoClear (LC), and 1:5 dilution (DIL)...
January 29, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Benfu Wang, Kun Lv, Huifeng Liu, Yin Su, Hong Wang, Sicong Wang, Suhao Bao, Wen-Hua Zhou, Qing-Quan Lian
Propofol as an agonist of GABAA receptor has a rewarding and discriminative stimulus effect. However, which subtype of the GABAA receptor is involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of propofol is still not clear. We observed the effects of an agonist or an antagonist of the subtype-selective GABAA receptor on discriminative stimulus effects of propofol. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate 10 mg/kg (intraperitoneal) propofol from intralipid under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food reinforcement...
January 24, 2018: Neuroreport
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