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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768036/greater-reductions-in-fat-preferences-in-calhm1-than-cd36-knockout-mice
#1
Anthony Sclafani, Karen Ackroff
Several studies indicate an important role of gustation in intake and preference for dietary fat. The present study compared fat preference deficits produced by deletion of CD36, a putative fatty acid taste receptor, and CALHM1, an ion channel responsible for release of the ATP neurotransmitter used by taste cells. Naïve CD36 knockout (KO) mice displayed reduced preferences for soybean oil emulsions (Intralipid) at low concentrations (0.1-1%) compared to wildtype (WT) mice in 24 h/day two-bottle tests. CALHM1 KO mice displayed even greater Intralipid preference deficits compared to WT and CD36 KO mice...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730982/phytosterol-determination-in-lipid-emulsions-for-parenteral-nutrition
#2
Josep M Llop Talaverón, Ana Novak, Josep M Suñé Negre, María Badia Tahull, Elisabet Leiva Badosa, Josep R Ticó Grau
OBJECTIVE: The presence of phytosterols in vegetal lipid emulsions has been  associated with alterations of liver function tests. Determination of phytosterols  content, currently undeclared, would allow the development of strategies to  prevent or treat these alterations. METHOD: 3-4 non-consecutive batches of 6 lipid emulsions from different providers (Clinoleic, Intralipid, Lipofundina, Lipoplus, Omegaven and Smoflipid) were analyzed. Differences in total phytosterol assay between providers and batches were statistically studied by a one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric approximation and post hoc Scheffé test (p < 0...
May 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684336/pka-creb-bdnf-signaling-pathway-mediates-propofol-induced-long-term-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-hippocampus-of-rats
#3
Yu Zhong, Jing Chen, Li Li, Yi Qin, Yi Wei, Shining Pan, Yage Jiang, Jialin Chen, Yubo Xie
Studies have found that propofol can induce widespread neuroapoptosis in developing brains, which leads to cause long-term learning and memory abnormalities. However, the specific cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying propofol-induced neuroapoptosis remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in propofol-induced long-term learning and memory impairment during brain development. Seven-day-old rats were randomly assigned to control, intralipid and three treatment groups (n = 5)...
April 20, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621970/the-interplay-of-bdnf-trkb-with-nmda-receptor-in-propofol-induced-cognition-dysfunction-mechanism-for-the-effects-of-propofol-on-cognitive-function
#4
Junfei Zhou, Fang Wang, Jun Zhang, Jianfeng Li, Li Ma, Tieli Dong, Zhigang Zhuang
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to verify whether propofol impaired learning and memory through the interplay of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) signaling pathway. METHODS: 120 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into eight groups. Experimental drugs including saline, intralipid, propofol, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF), K252a and MK-801...
April 5, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620570/free-fatty-acid-receptor-g-protein-coupled-receptor-40-mediates-lipid-emulsion-induced-cardioprotection
#5
Soban Umar, Jingyuan Li, Kyle Hannabass, Mylene Vaillancourt, Christine M Cunningham, Shayan Moazeni, Aman Mahajan, Mansoureh Eghbali
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that intralipid (lipid emulsion) protects the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury and bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity. However, the precise underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we explored the hypothesis that free fatty acid receptor-1 or G-protein-coupled receptor 40 is expressed in the heart and that cardioprotective effects of lipid emulsion are mediated through G-protein-coupled receptor 40 in two animal models of ischemia/reperfusion injury and bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity...
May 10, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618229/effects-of-soybean-lipid-infusion-on-triglyceride-and-unbound-free-fatty-acid-levels-in-preterm-infants
#6
Thomas Hegyi, Alan Kleinfeld, Andrew Huber, Barry Weinberger, Naureen Memon, Weichung Joe Shih, Mary Carayannopoulos, William Oh
OBJECTIVE: To determine the plasma triglyceride (TG) and unbound free fatty acid (FFAu) levels in infants treated with increasing dosages of soybean lipid, intralipid (IL), infusion. STUDY DESIGN: TG and FFAu levels were measured in 78 preterm infants (BW 500-2000 g; GA 23-34 weeks) using the fluorescent probe ADIFAB2 and enzymatic method. RESULTS: The infants' BW was 1266.2 ± 440.7 g and GA 28.8 ± 3.1 weeks. TG levels were 77.4 ± 50 mg/dL, 140...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556886/intravenous-lipid-emulsion-overdose-in-infancy-a-case-report-and-overview-of-opportunities-challenges-and-prevention
#7
REVIEW
Wasim Khasawneh, Salar Bani Hani
Medication errors remain among the major problems seen in hospitals. Such errors can relate to the prescription, dispensation, or administration of drugs. Human factors account for most of these mistakes, but other factors such as infusion pump programming defects should always be considered. Worldwide, medication errors have been reported to affect 2-30% of patients, depending on the institution. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) infusion is frequently used as part of total parenteral nutrition in patients of all ages with feeding and gastrointestinal issues...
March 19, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541501/investigation-of-artifacts-in-retinal-and-choroidal-oct-angiography-with-a-contrast-agent
#8
Marcel T Bernucci, Conrad W Merkle, Vivek J Srinivasan
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) has recently emerged for imaging vasculature in clinical ophthalmology. Yet, OCTA images contain artifacts that remain challenging to interpret. To help explain these artifacts, we perform contrast-enhanced OCTA with a custom-designed wide-field ophthalmoscope in rats in vivo . We choose an intravascular contrast agent (Intralipid) with particles that are more isotropically scattering and more symmetrically shaped than red blood cells (RBCs). Then, by examining how OCTA artifacts change after contrast agent injection, we attribute OCTA artifacts to RBC-specific properties...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534293/impact-of-smoflipid-on-pulmonary-alveolar-development-in-newborn-guinea-pigs
#9
Jean-Claude Lavoie, Ibrahim Mohamed, Anne-Monique Nuyt, Wesam Elremaly, Thérèse Rouleau
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. In animals, PN leads to alveolar loss following stimulation of apoptosis by oxidative stress (oxidized redox potential). Peroxides and aldehydes generated in PN can induce hypo-alveolarization. The implication of peroxides, which is reduced by light protection, is demonstrated. The implication of aldehydes from omega-6 fatty acids oxidation is expected. The hypothesis is that composition and light exposure of PN influences bronchopulmonary dysplasia development...
March 13, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534288/parenteral-lipid-dose-restriction-with-soy-oil-not-fish-oil-preserves-retinal-function-in-neonatal-piglets
#10
Marihan Lansing, Yves Sauvé, Ioannis Dimopoulos, Catherine J Field, Miyoung Suh, Pamela Wizzard, Susan Goruk, David Lim, Mitsuru Muto, Paul Wales, Justine Turner
BACKGROUND: A dietary supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) is critical for neonatal retinal development. Both are absent/minimal in parenteral nutrition (PN) using soy-oil emulsions ([SO] Intralipid®) traditionally used for neonatal intestinal failure. In contrast, fish-oil emulsions ([FO] Omegaven®) are enriched in DHA/AA. The aim of this study was to compare retinal function and fatty acid content in neonatal piglets fed PN with SO or FO. METHODS: Two-5-day-old piglets were randomly allocated to SO (n = 4) or FO (n = 4), provided at equivalent doses (5g/kg/d)...
March 13, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514066/lactobacillus-gasseri-in-the-upper-small-intestine-impacts-an-acsl3-dependent-fatty-acid-sensing-pathway-regulating-whole-body-glucose-homeostasis
#11
Paige V Bauer, Frank A Duca, T M Zaved Waise, Helen J Dranse, Brittany A Rasmussen, Akshita Puri, Mozhgan Rasti, Catherine A O'Brien, Tony K T Lam
Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL)-dependent upper small intestinal lipid metabolism activates pre-absorptive pathways to regulate metabolic homeostasis, but whether changes in the upper small intestinal microbiota alter specific fatty acid-dependent pathways to impact glucose homeostasis remains unknown. We here first find that upper small intestinal infusion of Intralipid, oleic acid, or linoleic acid pre-absorptively increases glucose tolerance and lowers glucose production in rodents. High-fat feeding impairs pre-absorptive fatty acid sensing and reduces upper small intestinal Lactobacillus gasseri levels and ACSL3 expression...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505549/effect-of-intralipid-on-myocardial-injury-during-valve-replacement-surgery-with-concomitant-radiofrequency-ablation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hong Yu, Qi Li, Chan Chen, Tao Li, Ji-Yue Xiong, Zhen Qin, Ming Luo, Zhao-Xia Tan, Ting Liu, Hui Yu, Xiao-Rong Yin, Hai Yu, Rong-Hua Zhou
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intralipid postconditioning (ILPC) on myocardial damage in patients undergoing valve replacement surgery with concomitant radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Randomized patient and assessor-blind controlled trial conducted in adult patients undergoing valve replacement surgery with concomitant RFA. Sixty-nine patients were randomly assigned to ILPC group (n = 34) or control group (n = 35): ILPC group received an intravenous infusion of 20% intralipid (2 mL/kg) just 10 minutes before aortic cross-unclamping, and control group received an equivalent volume of normal saline...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471071/intragastric-preloads-of-l-tryptophan-reduce-ingestive-behavior-via-oxytocinergic-neural-mechanisms-in-male-mice
#13
Sarah N Gartner, Fraser Aidney, Anica Klockars, Colin Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Kiriana Isgrove, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability...
June 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470321/long-term-exposure-of-children-to-a-mixed-lipid-emulsion-is-less-hepatotoxic-than-soybean-based-lipid-emulsion
#14
Carol K L Lam, Peter C Church, Beth Haliburton, Kathryn Chambers, Inez Martincevic, Laura Vresk, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Robert Bandsma, Yaron Avitzur, Paul C Wales, Marialena Mouzaki
Lipid emulsions have been associated with liver injury. Newer mixed emulsions (ML), such as SMOFlipid (Fresenius Kabi, Germany), are thought to be more hepatoprotective than soybean-based emulsions (SL), such as Intralipid (Baxter). Pediatric studies comparing long-term use between the 2 are limited. This study compares the severity of hepatic injury between a prospective cohort of hospitalized children on ML (n = 20) and a historical age- and diagnosis-matched cohort of hospitalized children on SL (n = 20)...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469884/principal-frequency-component-analysis-based-on-modulate-chopper-technique-used-in-diffuse-reflectance-spectroscopy-measurement
#15
Shaoxiu Song, Gang Li, Xingwei Hou, Shengzhao Zhang, Yue Yu, Ling Lin
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is significantly affected from the interference of the ambient light and dark current of the instrument. Optical choppers, together with lock-in/synchronous amplification, can overcome these interferences. However, in spectral measurement, the sampling rate of the spectrometer is different from the Δ-pulse sampling, which is not high enough because of the integration time. In addition, the energy distribution is not perfectly concentrated as expected in modulate chopper technology...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456604/death-from-kratom-toxicity-and-the-possible-role-of-intralipid
#16
Geeta Aggarwal, Edward Robertson, James McKinlay, Edward Walter
We present the case of a 26-year-old man who was brought into our emergency department in cardiorespiratory arrest, having taken Kratom 24 h previously. Despite multi-organ support, he deteriorated and died from cardiorespiratory failure and hypoxic brain damage 12 h later. Lipid emulsion was given, with significant temporary improvement in the cardiorespiratory failure. Kratom is derived from Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical deciduous and evergreen tree in the coffee family, and is native to Southeast Asia, and its leaves are used as a legal high in some parts of the world...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456602/review-of-management-in-cardiotoxic-overdose-and-efficacy-of-delayed-intralipid-use
#17
Edward Walter, James McKinlay, Jade Corbett, Justin Kirk-Bayley
We present the case of a 51-year-old woman admitted to our intensive care unit following an intentional overdose of a calcium channel antagonist and a beta blocker. The resultant hypotension was reversed with glucagon, noradrenaline, calcium and high-dose insulin. Despite these interventions, she remained vasoplegic and received a delayed, standard dose of intralipid. Subsequently, the vasoplegia resolved rapidly, and the vasopressor was stopped. Here, we review the management of overdose of calcium channel and beta-adrenergic receptor blockers, concentrating on the pharmacology of lipid emulsion therapy...
February 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445923/inpatient-outcomes-of-preterm-infants-receiving-%C3%AF-3-enriched-lipid-emulsion-smoflipid-an-observational-study
#18
Nalin Choudhary, Kenneth Tan, Atul Malhotra
Neonatal units have started to switch from using conventional soy-based to alternate lipid emulsions, like SMOFlipid. SMOFlipid has been associated with an improvement in biochemical parameters and delays progression of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). This retrospective epoch study aimed to compare clinically relevant neonatal outcomes in preterm infants (< 32 weeks), receiving SMOFlipid versus Intralipid. We compared clinical outcomes in two epochs-epoch 1 (Intralipid, October 2013-June 2015) versus epoch 2 (SMOFlipid, July 2015-March 2017)...
May 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438631/plasma-endocannabinoid-levels-in-lean-overweight-and-obese-humans-relationships-with-intestinal-permeability-markers-inflammation-and-incretin-secretion
#19
Tanya J Little, Nada Cvijanovic, Nicholas V DiPatrizio, Donovan A Argueta, Christopher K Rayner, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Richard L Young
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417372/adipose-tissue-but-not-skeletal-muscle-sirtuin-1-expression-is-decreased-in-obesity-and-related-to-insulin-sensitivity
#20
Magdalena Stefanowicz, Agnieszka Nikołajuk, Natalia Matulewicz, Monika Karczewska-Kupczewska
PURPOSE: Sirtuin 1 may regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. We aimed to assess adipose tissue and skeletal muscle sirtuin 1 expression in relation to insulin sensitivity, the expression of proinflammatory and metabolic genes, and to study the regulation of sirtuin 1 expression by hyperinsulinemia and circulating free fatty acids elevation. METHODS: We examined 60 normal-weight, 42 overweight and 15 obese young subjects. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique was applied throughout to measure insulin sensitivity...
May 2018: Endocrine
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