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Intralipid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722754/-31-p-nmr-evidence-for-peroxide-intermediates-in-lipid-emulsion-photooxidations-phosphine-substituent-effects-in-trapping
#1
Prabhu P Mohapatra, Callistus O Chiemezie, Arina Kligman, Michele M Kim, Theresa M Busch, Timothy C Zhu, Alexander Greer
Intralipid is a lipid emulsion used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for its light scattering and tissue-simulating properties. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not Intralipid undergoes photooxidation, we have carried out an Intralipid peroxide trapping study using a series of phosphines [2'-dicyclohexylphosphino-2,6-dimethoxy-1,1'-biphenyl-3-sulfonate, 3-(diphenylphosphino)benzenesulfonate, triphenylphosphine-3,3',3''-trisulfonate, and triphenylphosphine]. Our new findings are as follows: (i) An oxygen atom is transferred from Intralipid peroxide to the phosphine traps in the dark, after the photooxidation of Intralipid...
July 19, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700145/simultaneous-measurements-of-lymphatic-vessel-contraction-flow-and-valve-dynamics-in-multiple-lymphangions-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#2
Cedric Blatter, Eelco F J Meijer, Timothy P Padera, Benjamin J Vakoc
Lymphatic dysfunction is involved in many diseases including lymphedema, hypertension, autoimmune responses, graft rejection, atherosclerosis, microbial infections, cancer and cancer metastasis. Expanding our knowledge of lymphatic system function can lead to a better understanding of these disease processes and improve treatment options. Here, optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods were used to reveal intraluminal valve dynamics in 3D, and measure lymph flow and vessel contraction simultaneously in three neighboring lymphangions of the afferent collecting lymphatic vessels to the popliteal lymph node in mice...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663839/optoacoustic-response-of-gold-nanorods-in-soft-phantoms-using-high-power-diode-laser-assemblies-at-870-and-905-nm
#3
L Leggio, S Gawali, D Gallego, S Rodríguez, M Sánchez, G Carpintero, H Lamela
In the present paper we show the optoacoustic (OA) response of two solutions of gold nanorods dispersed in distilled water (0.8 mg/ml) and hosted in tissue-like phantoms by using small arrays of HPDLs at 870 and 905 nm as excitation sources. The HPDLs are coupled to a 7-to-1 optical fiber bundle with output diameter of 675 μm. Each solution of gold nanorods exhibits an absorption peak close to the operating wavelength, i.e. ~860 nm and ~900 nm, respectively, to optimize the generation of OA signals. The phantoms are made of agar, intralipid and hemoglobin to simulate a soft biological tissue with reduced properties of scattering...
March 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641075/postconditioning-with-intralipid-emulsion-protects-against-reperfusion-injury-in-postinfarct-remodeled-rat-hearts-by-activation-of-ros-akt-erk-signaling
#4
Michael Zaugg, Phing-How Lou, Eliana Lucchinetti, Manoj Gandhi, Alexander S Clanachan
The clinically used lipid emulsion Intralipid (ILE) reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in healthy rodent hearts. We tested whether ILE is cardioprotective in postinfarct remodeled hearts. Postinfarct remodeled and sham Sprague-Dawley rat hearts were perfused in working mode and subjected to ischemia (15 minutes) and reperfusion (30 minutes). Left ventricular (LV) work was measured in hearts that were untreated or that received ILE (1%) postconditioning administered at the onset of reperfusion, or the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (10 μM) alone or in combination with ILE...
June 1, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637826/indirect-regulation-of-endogenous-glucose-production-by-insulin-the-single-gateway-hypothesis-revisited
#5
Richard N Bergman, Malini S Iyer
On the basis of studies that investigated the intraportal versus systemic insulin infusion and transendothelial transport of insulin, we proposed the "single gateway hypothesis," which supposes an indirect regulation of hepatic glucose production by insulin; the rate-limiting transport of insulin across the adipose tissue capillaries is responsible for the slow suppression of free fatty acids (FFAs), which in turn is responsible for delayed suppression of hepatic endogenous glucose production (EGP) during insulin infusion...
July 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636207/specificity-of-and-influence-of-hemolysis-lipemia-and-icterus-on-serum-lipase-activity-as-measured-by-the-v-lip-p-slide
#6
Joerg M Steiner, Robynne Gomez, Jan S Suchodolski, Jonathan A Lidbury
BACKGROUND: Measurement of pancreatic lipase in serum is being used for the diagnosis of pancreatitis. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to measure serum lipase activity by the v-LIP-P slide and serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) concentration by Spec cPL in dogs with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) and in serum samples that were hemolyzed, lipemic, or icteric. METHODS: Serum samples from 50 dogs with EPI, 8 samples spiked with canine hemoglobin, Intralipid, or ditaurobilirubin, and 8 samples from dogs with severe hypertriglyceridemia were evaluated using v-LIP-P and Spec cPL assays...
June 21, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629353/lipid-emulsion-mitigates-impaired-pulmonary-function-induced-by-limb-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-through-attenuation-of-local-cellular-injury-and-the-subsequent-systemic-inflammatory
#7
Fangfang Xia, Yun Xia, Sisi Chen, Lulu Chen, Weijuan Zhu, Yuanqing Chen, Thomas J Papadimos, Xuzhong Xu, Le Liu
BACKGROUND: Limb ischemia/reperfusion causes inflammation and elicits oxidative stress that may lead to local tissue damage and remote organ such as lung injury. This study investigates pulmonary function after limb ischemia/reperfusion and the protective effect of a lipid emulsion (Intralipid). METHODS: Twenty-four rats were divided into three groups: sham operation group (group S), ischemia/reperfusion group (group IR), and lipid emulsion treatment group (group LE)...
June 19, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619452/the-role-of-lecithin-degradation-on-the-ph-dependent-stability-of-halofantrine-encapsulated-fat-nano-emulsions
#8
Iman Haidar, Ian H Harding, Ian C Bowater, Daniel S Eldridge, William N Charman
We report on the successful incorporation of the antimalarial drug, halofantrine, into laboratory based soybean oil emulsions which were designed to mimic the commercially available parenteral fat emulsion, Intralipid(®). A high pH (minimum of pH 9, preferable pH of 11) was required for the drug laden emulsion to remain stable on storage and also to resist breaking under various stresses. Ageing of lecithin samples on storage was noted to result in degradation and a decrease in pH. We argue that this is the main reason for a similar decrease in pH for lecithin based emulsions and subsequent instability in drug laden emulsions...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606477/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-enriched-lipid-emulsion-improves-paneth-cell-function-via-the-il-22-stat3-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-total-parenteral-nutrition
#9
Jiwei Wang, Feng Tian, Huijun Zheng, Hao Tian, Peng Wang, Li Zhang, Xuejin Gao, Xinying Wang
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction or failure. Long-term TPN impairs gut barrier function and contributes to infections and poor clinical outcomes. However, the underlying mechanisms of TPN-related gut barrier damage have not been fully elucidated, and effective measures are still rare. Here, we compared the effects of a predominantly n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids emulsion (PUFAs; Intralipid) and a lipid emulsion containing n-3 PUFAs (Intralipid plus Omegaven) on antimicrobial peptides produced by Paneth cells...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591954/-the-effect-of-emulsified-sevofluran-on-muscular-relaxation-through-selective-blockage-of-peripheral-nerves
#10
Ling Ye, Xin-Xin Sun, Tao Zhu, Ping-Liang Yang
OBJECTIVES: To identify the site that emulsified sevoflurane influences in the nerve system. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly and equally divided into low concentration emulsified sevoflurane group [4 mL/(kg·h)], medium concentration [6 mL/(kg·h)]group, high concentration group[10 mL/(kg·h)]and intralipid control group. Emulsified sevoflurane was infused through arterial to selectively block peripheral nerves, neuro-muscular junctions and muscle fibers...
July 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555094/effects-of-fat-and-sugar-either-consumed-or-infused-toward-the-brain-on-hypothalamic-er-stress-markers
#11
Evita Belegri, Merel Rijnsburger, Leslie Eggels, Unga Unmehopa, Wiep Scheper, Anita Boelen, Susanne E la Fleur
Protein-folding stress at the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) occurs in the hypothalamus during diet-induced obesity (DIO) and is linked to metabolic disease development. ER stress is buffered by the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a controlled network of pathways inducing a set of genes that recovers ER function. However, it is unclear whether hypothalamic ER stress during DIO results from obesity related changes or from direct nutrient effects in the brain. We here investigated mRNA expression of UPR markers in the hypothalamus of rats that were exposed to a free choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet for 1 week and then overnight fed ad libitum, or fasted, or fat/sugar deprived (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537978/intralipid-restoration-of-myocardial-contractions-following-bupivacaine-induced-asystole-concentration-and-time-dependence-in-vitro
#12
Wyun Kon Park, Hyun Soo Kim, Soo Hwan Kim, Ja Rang Jung, Carl Lynch, Nar Hyun Min
BACKGROUND: The concentration- and time-response relationships of lipid emulsion (LE; Intralipid) on the recovery of myocardial contractility following bupivacaine (BPV)-induced asystole are poorly defined. METHODS: After achieving asystole by 500-μM BPV, varied concentrations of LE were applied to determine the recovery of stimulated contractile responses and contractions in the cardiac tissues of guinea pigs at a 1.2-Hz stimulation rate. These experiments were performed with LE in either a recirculating (2%-16%) or washout (nonrecirculating) condition (0...
July 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506190/comparison-of-blood-glucose-monitoring-systems-for-use-in-insulin-clamp-studies-during-either-intralipid-or-glycerol-co-infusions
#13
Jonathan Q Purnell, Julie Martin, Melanie Gillingham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464418/measurement-of-optical-properties-of-pig-esophagus-by-using-a-modified-spectrometer-set-up
#14
Martin Hohmann, B Lengenfelder, R Kanawade, F Klämpfl, A Douplik, H Albrecht
Optical properties (μa , μs and g) of certain human tissue types such as skin and blood have been very well investigated. However until today, for internal body organs such as the esophagus they are not well characterized. For ex-vivo measurements "Inverse Adding Doubling" (IAD) and Inverse Monte-Carlo-Simulation (IMCS) are state of the art. Both methods need the measurement of the collimated transmission. Current methods lack a proper way of measuring the collimated transmission. Hence, this measurement of the g-factor has a systematic error...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460894/intravenous-administration-of-oxytocin-in-rats-acutely-decreases-deprivation-induced-chow-intake-but-it-fails-to-affect-consumption-of-palatable-solutions
#15
Anica Klockars, Chloe Brunton, Lu Li, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Despite its limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, peripherally administered oxytocin (OT) acutely decreases food intake, most likely via the brainstem and hypothalamic mechanisms. Studies performed to date have focused mainly on the effects of subcutaneous or intraperitoneal OT on the consumption of only solid calorie-dense diets (either standard or high-fat), whereas it is unknown whether, similarly to central OT, peripherally administered peptide reduces intake of calorie-dilute and non-caloric palatable solutions...
April 28, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433363/the-molecular-impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-hepatic-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-signaling
#16
George J Ventro, Yingkui Yang, Min Chen, Carroll M Harmon
PURPOSE: Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) develops in a subset of children receiving parenteral nutrition for intestinal failure. Omegaven™ is an omega-3 fatty acid (Ω3FA) lipid emulsion high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) that can lessen PNALD. Inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, TGF-β) are elevated in PNALD and can decrease paraoxonase 1 protein expression (PON1). We sought to determine the effect of Omegaven™, EPA, and DHA on inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, and TGF-β via ERK1/2 and p-Smad2/3 signaling pathways as well as the changes in intracellular PON1 protein expression as a potential mechanism explaining the protective effects of Omegaven™ and Ω3FA...
June 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429598/preliminary-clinical-validation-of-a-differential-correction-method-for-improving-measurement-accuracy-in-noninvasive-measurement-of-blood-glucose-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#17
Guang Han, Xuyao Yu, Dandan Xia, Rong Liu, Jin Liu, Kexin Xu
One of the main challenges in the noninvasive sensing of blood glucose by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is the background variations from light source drift, sweating, and temperature change at the human-machine interface. In this paper, a differential correction method based on the spectra from the floating-reference position and measuring position is proposed to eliminate these spectral variations from background interferences. Its effectiveness was validated by in vitro and in vivo experiments in which the diffuse reflectance of intralipid solutions and human skin was collected at the source distances of 0...
January 1, 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426148/three-dimensional-finite-element-based-deformable-image-registration-for-evaluation-of-pleural-cavity-irradiation-during-photodynamic-therapy
#18
Rozhin Penjweini, Michele M Kim, Timothy C Zhu
PURPOSE: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used after surgical resection to treat the microscopic disease for malignant pleural mesothelioma and to increase survival rates. As accurate light delivery is imperative to PDT efficacy, the deformation of the pleural volume during the surgery is studied on its impact on the delivered light fluence. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element-based (3D FEM) deformable image registration is proposed to directly match the volume of lung to the volume of pleural cavity obtained during PDT to have accurate representation of the light fluence accumulated in the lung, heart and liver (organs-at-risk) during treatment...
July 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416843/-influences-of-repeated-propofol-anesthesia-on-hippocampal-apoptosis-and-long-term-learning-and-memory-abilities-of-neonatal-rats
#19
Y J Wang, X Y Guo, J Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influences of repeated propofol anesthesia on the hippocampal apoptosis and the long-term learning and memory abilities of neonatal rats. METHODS: In the study, 45 male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 days, were randomly divided into 3 group (n=15 each): control group (C group) that received intralipid 7.5 mL/kg intraperitioneal (IP) once a day×7 days; group propofol 1 (P1) that received propofol 75 mg/kg IP once a day×7 days; group propofol 2 (P2) that received intralipid 7...
April 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394447/mu-opioid-receptor-signaling-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-increases-responsiveness-of-satiety-modulated-lateral-hypothalamus-neurons
#20
Shashank Tandon, Kristen A Keefe, Sharif A Taha
Opioid signaling in the nucleus accumbens shell (sNAcc) has been implicated in hedonic feeding and binge eating behavior. The sNAcc projects to the lateral hypothalamus (LH), and this pathway has been suggested to modulate palatability-driven feeding behavior. In this study, we investigated the effects of sNAcc mu opioid receptor (MOR) stimulation on firing rates of LH neurons in previously sated rats. Neural firing in the LH was recorded while food-deprived rats performed an operant task to obtain sweetened Intralipid (a 4% fat emulsion containing 5% sucrose) before and after bilateral sNAcc infusion of either a MOR agonist [D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) or a saline control solution...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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