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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430356/crispr-cas9-an-rna-guided-highly-precise-synthetic-tool-for-plant-genome-editing
#1
REVIEW
Yeliz Demirci, Baohong Zhang, Turgay Unver
CRISPR/Cas 9 is a newly developed and naturally occurred genome editing tool, which is originally used by bacteria for immune defence. In the past years, it has been quickly employed and modified to precisely edit genome sequences in both plants and animals. Compared with the well-developed zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas 9 has lots of advantages, including easier to design and implement, higher targeting efficiency, and less expensive. Thus, it is becoming one of the most powerful tools for knockout of an individual gene as well as insertion of one gene and/or control of gene transcription...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429184/interactive-effects-of-salicylic-acid-and-nitric-oxide-in-alleviating-zinc-toxicity-of-safflower-carthamus-tinctorius-l
#2
Shahram Namdjoyan, Hossein Kermanian, Ali Abolhasani Soorki, Sedigheh Modarres Tabatabaei, Nazli Elyasi
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible protective role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a donor of nitric oxide, and their combination on 21-day-old safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seedlings grown under zinc (Zn) stress. The results revealed that exposure to 500 µM ZnSO4.7H2O for 10 days markedly reduced the root and shoot dry weights in Zn-treated plants, while the application of SA, SNP and specially SA + SNP significantly increased the root and shoot dry weights in seedlings subjected to Zn stress...
April 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414527/advantages-and-limitations-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-methods-of-iron-and-zinc-bioavailability-evaluation-in-the-assessment-of-biofortification-program-effectiveness
#3
Desirrê Morais Dias, Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa, Marilia Regini Nutti, Elad Tako, Hércia Stampini Duarte Martino
Biofortification aims to improve the micronutrient concentration of staple food crops through the best practices of breeding and modern biotechnology. However, increased zinc and iron concentrations in food crops may not always translate into proportional increases in absorbed zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Therefore, assessing iron and zinc bioavailability in biofortified crops is imperative to evaluate the efficacy of breeding programs. This review aimed to investigate the advantages and limitations of in vitro and in vivo methods of iron and zinc bioavailability evaluation in the assessment of biofortification program effectiveness...
April 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411570/impacts-of-coal-fly-ash-on-plant-growth-and-accumulation-of-essential-nutrients-and-trace-elements-by-alfalfa-medicago-sativa-grown-in-a-loessial-soil
#4
Honghua He, Zhigang Dong, Qi Peng, Xia Wang, Chenbin Fan, Xingchang Zhang
Coal fly ash (CFA) is a problematic solid waste all over the world. One distinct beneficial reuse of CFA is its utilization in land application as a soil amendment. A pot experiment was carried out to assess the feasibility of using CFA to improve plant growth and increase the supply of plant-essential elements and selenium (Se) of a loessial soil for agricultural purpose. Plants of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were grown in a loessial soil amended with different rates (5%, 10%, 20% and 40%) of CFA for two years and subjected to four successive cuttings...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408914/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-candidate-genes-related-to-color-fading-of-red-bartlett-pyrus-communis-l
#5
Zhigang Wang, Hong Du, Rui Zhai, Linyan Song, Fengwang Ma, Lingfei Xu
The red color of fruit is an attractive plant trait for consumers. Plants with color-faded fruit have a lower commercial value, such as 'Red Bartlett' pears (Pyrus communis L.) that have dark-red fruit in the early stages of fruit development that subsequently fade to red-green at maturity. To identify the reason for color fading, we first analyzed the anthocyanin content of peel from 'Red Bartlett,' which displays the color fading phenomenon, and 'Starkrimson,' which has no color fading. Results showed that the anthocyanin content of 'Red Bartlett' peel decreased significantly late in fruit development, while in 'Starkrimson' there was no significant decrease...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407499/alleviation-of-heavy-metal-toxicity-and-phytostimulation-of-brassica-campestris-l-by-endophytic-mucor-sp-mhr-7
#6
Mahwish Zahoor, Muhammad Irshad, Hazir Rahman, Muhammad Qasim, Sahib Gul Afridi, Muhammad Qadir, Anwar Hussain
Heavy metal (HM) pollution is of great concern in countries like Pakistan where a huge proportion of human population is exposed to it. These toxic metals are making their way from water bodies to soil where it not only interferes with plant growth and development but also initiates serious health issues in human consuming the produce of such soils. Bioremediation is one of the most viable and efficient solution for the problem. Purpose of the current study was to isolate endophytic fungi from plants grown on HM contaminated soil and screen them for their ability to tolerate multiple HM including chromium (Cr(6+)), manganese (Mn(2+)), cobalt (Co(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+))...
April 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402308/phyto-dewatering-of-sewage-sludge-using-panicum-repens-l
#7
A S El-Gendy, H I El-Kassas, T M A Razek, H Abdel-Latif
Experiments in the field environment have been conducted to study the growth of Panicum repens L., an aquatic plant, in the sewage sludge matrix. The experiments were also carried out to investigate the ability of this plant to dewater sewage sludge to increase the capacity of conventional drying beds. In addition, the ability of Panicum repens L. to reduce the sludge contents of certain elements (copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Sodium (Na), lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn)) was also investigated. All experiments were carried out in batch reactors...
April 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399194/interactions-between-plant-hormones-and-heavy-metals-responses
#8
Lauro Bücker-Neto, Ana Luiza Sobral Paiva, Ronei Dorneles Machado, Rafael Augusto Arenhart, Marcia Margis-Pinheiro
Heavy metals are natural non-biodegradable constituents of the Earth's crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of cadmium, arsenic, lead, mercury and zinc, amongst others, have increasingly contaminated soil and water resources, leading to significant yield losses in plants. These issues have become an important concern of scientific interest. Understanding the molecular and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal stress is critical in order to maximize their productivity...
April 10, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397121/effect-of-biochar-on-alleviation-of-cadmium-toxicity-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-grown-on-cd-contaminated-saline-soil
#9
Tahir Abbas, Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Adrees, Muhammad Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Farooq Qayyum, Yong Sik Ok, Ghulam Murtaza
Soil degradation by salinity and accumulation of trace elements such as cadmium (Cd) in the soils are expected to become one of the most critical issues hindering sustainable production and feeding the increasing population. Biochar (BC) has been known to protect the plants against soil salinity and heavy metal stress. A soil culture study was performed to evaluate the effect of BC on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, biomass, and reducing Cd and sodium (Na) uptake grown in Cd-contaminated saline soil under ambient conditions...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392403/matrix-metalloproteinases-outside-vertebrates
#10
Laura Marino-Puertas, Theodoros Goulas, F Xavier Gomis-Rüth
The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia...
April 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392119/the-leaching-kinetics-of-cadmium-from-hazardous-cu-cd-zinc-plant-residues
#11
Meng Li, Shili Zheng, Biao Liu, Hao Du, David Bruce Dreisinger, Leili Tafaghodi, Yi Zhang
A large amount of Cu-Cd zinc plant residues (CZPR) are produced from the hydrometallurgical zinc plant operations. Since these residues contain substantial amount of heavy metals including Cd, Zn and Cu, therefore, they are considered as hazardous wastes. In order to realize decontamination treatment and efficient extraction of the valuable metals from the CZPR, a comprehensive recovery process using sulfuric acid as the leaching reagent and air as the oxidizing reagent has been proposed. The effect of temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, particle size, solid/liquid ratio and stirring speed on the cadmium extraction efficiency was investigated...
April 6, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390704/development-of-electrostatic-based-bioavailability-models-for-interpreting-and-predicting-differential-phytotoxicity-and-uptake-of-metal-mixtures-across-different-soils
#12
Hao Qiu, Erkai He
Metals are ubiquitous and normally co-occur as mixtures in soil, but there remains much to do regarding the development of appropriate models which incorporate mixture interactions and bioavailability to estimate their phytotoxicity and phytoaccumulation. Here, we developed a probability-based electrostatic toxicity model (ETM) and a Langmuir-type electrostatic uptake model (EUM) to predict and normalize toxicity and uptake of zinc-copper mixtures in Hordeum vulgare L. in different soils. For model development, the electrical potential (ψ0) and metal ion activities ({M(2+)}0) at the cell-membrane surface was computed based on plant physiological properties and soil solution chemistry...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389893/toxicity-of-herbal-extracts-used-in-ethno-veterinary-medicine-and-green-encapsulated-zno-nanoparticles-against-aedes-aegypti-and-microbial-pathogens
#13
Balan Banumathi, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Ramachandran Ishwarya, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Giovanni Benelli
Dengue and chikungunya are arboviral diseases mainly vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Presently, there is no treatment for these viral diseases and their prevention is still based on vector control measures. Nanopesticides fabricated using herbal extracts as reducing and capping agents currently represent an excellent platform for pest control. In this scenario, the present study assessed the acute toxicity of seven plants employed in ethno-veterinary medicine of southern India, as well as the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles, on third-instar larvae of A...
April 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387036/antioxidant-activity-polyphenolic-contents-and-essential-oil-composition-of-pimpinella-anisum-l-as-affected-by-zinc-fertilizer
#14
Vahid Tavallali, Sadegh Rahmati, Atefeh Bahmanzadegan
BACKGROUND: Antioxidant activity and essential oil content may considerably vary with respect to the environmental conditions, especially nutrient availability. Among the micronutrients, zinc is needed by plants in small amounts, but yet crucial to plant development. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc fertilization on the antioxidant activity, polyphenolic contents and essential oil composition of Pimpinella anisum fruit. RESULTS: Foliar application of Zn fertilizer considerably increased the number of detected essential oil components up to forty five...
April 7, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386301/new-traits-in-crops-produced-by-genome-editing-techniques-based-on-deletions
#15
REVIEW
C C M van de Wiel, J G Schaart, L A P Lotz, M J M Smulders
One of the most promising New Plant Breeding Techniques is genome editing (also called gene editing) with the help of a programmable site-directed nuclease (SDN). In this review, we focus on SDN-1, which is the generation of small deletions or insertions (indels) at a precisely defined location in the genome with zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), TALENs, or CRISPR-Cas9. The programmable nuclease is used to induce a double-strand break in the DNA, while the repair is left to the plant cell itself, and mistakes are introduced, while the cell is repairing the double-strand break using the relatively error-prone NHEJ pathway...
2017: Plant Biotechnology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382867/an-integrated-computational-approach-for-plant-based-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-non-receptor-type-1-inhibitors
#16
Shabana Bibi, Katsumi Sakata
BACKGROUND: Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 1 is a therapeutic target for the type 2 diabetes mellitus. According to the International Diabetes Federation 2015 report, one out of 11 adults suffer from diabetes mellitus globally. OBJECTIVE: Current anti-diabetic drugs can cause life-threatening side-effects. The present study proposes a pipeline for the development of effective and plant-derived anti-diabetic drugs that may be safer and better tolerated...
April 6, 2017: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381964/biological-control-of-bacterial-fruit-blotch-of-watermelon-pathogen-acidovorax-citrulli-with-rhizosphere-associated-bacteria
#17
Mahesh Adhikari, Dil Raj Yadav, Sang Woo Kim, Young Hyun Um, Hyun Seung Kim, Seong Chan Lee, Jeong Young Song, Hong Gi Kim, Youn Su Lee
Bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), which is caused by Acidovorax citrulli, is a serious threat to watermelon growers around the world. The present study was conducted to screen effective rhizobacterial isolates against 35 different A. citrulli isolates and determine their efficacy on BFB and growth parameters of watermelon. Two rhizobacterial isolates viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa (SN-22), Sinomonas atrocyanea (NSB-27) showed high inhibitory activity in the preliminary screening and were further evaluated for their effect on BFB and growth parameters of three different watermelon varieties under greenhouse conditions...
April 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380570/microscale-investigations-of-soil-heterogeneity-impacts-on-zinc-retention-and-uptake-in-zinc-contaminated-soils
#18
Carla E Rosenfeld, Rufus L Chaney, Ryan V Tappero, Carmen E Martínez
Metal contaminants in soils can persist for millennia, causing lasting negative impacts on local ecosystems. Long-term contaminant bioavailability is related to soil pH and to the strength and stability of solid-phase associations. We combined physical density separation with synchrotron-based microspectroscopy to reduce solid-phase complexity and to study Zn speciation in field-contaminated soils. We also investigated Zn uptake in two Zn-hyperaccumulating ecotypes of (Ganges and Prayon). Soils were either moderately contaminated (500-800 mg Zn kg via contaminated biosolids application) or grossly enriched (26,000 mg Zn kg via geogenic enrichment)...
March 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369480/pca22-acts-as-a-suppressor-of-atrzf1-to-mediate-proline-accumulation-in-response-to-abiotic-stress-in-arabidopsis
#19
Ah-Reum Kim, Ji-Hee Min, Kyeong-Hwan Lee, Cheol Soo Kim
Proline metabolism is important for environmental responses, plant growth, and development. However, its precise roles in plant abiotic stress tolerance are not well understood. Mutants are valuable for the identification of new genes and for elucidating their roles in physiological mechanisms. We applied a suppressor mutation approach to identify novel genes involved in the regulation of proline metabolism in Arabidopsis. Using the atrzf1 (Arabidopsis thaliana ring zinc finger 1) mutant as a parental line for activation tagging mutagenesis, we selected several mutants with suppressed induction of proline accumulation under dehydration conditions...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369468/patterns-of-stress-response-and-tolerance-based-on-transcriptome-profiling-of-rice-crown-tissue-under-zinc-deficiency
#20
Amrit K Nanda, Vincent Pujol, Matthias Wissuwa
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient disorder in rice and leads to delayed development and decreased yield. Several studies have investigated how rice plants respond to Zn deficiency and examined the differences between Zn-efficient (ZE) and Zn-inefficient (ZI) genotypes. ZE genotypes reallocate more Zn to roots and are better at maintaining crown root development than ZI genotypes in response to Zn deficiency. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling these differences...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
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