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large for gestational age

Przemyslaw Rys, Agnieszka H Ludwig-Słomczyńska, Katarzyna Cyganek, Maciej T Malecki
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown an advantage of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) over multiple daily injections (MDI) in the general type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) population. RCT data on T1DM management in pregnancy remain limited. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of both RCTs and non-RCTs evaluating CSII versus MDI in T1DM-complicated pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic databases were searched for studies comparing CSII with MDI in T1DM-complicated pregnancy...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Emily A McCourt, Gui-Shuang Ying, Anne M Lynch, Alan G Palestine, Brandie D Wagner, Erica Wymore, Lauren A Tomlinson, Gil Binenbaum
Importance: The Colorado Retinopathy of Prematurity (CO-ROP) model uses birth weight, gestational age, and weight gain at the first month of life (WG-28) to predict risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In previous validation studies, the model performed very well, predicting virtually all cases of severe ROP and potentially reducing the number of infants who need ROP examinations, warranting validation in a larger, more diverse population. Objective: To validate the performance of the CO-ROP model in a large multicenter cohort...
March 15, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Michael W Pankhurst, Rebecca L Kelley, Rachel L Sanders, Savana R Woodcock, Dorothy E Oorschot, Nicola J Batchelor
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an ovarian regulator that affects folliculogenesis. AMH inhibits the developmental activation of the dormant primordial follicles and the oocyte within. In more mature follicles, AMH reduces granulosa cell sensitivity to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). We examined the effects of AMH overexpression on the stages of ovarian folliculogenesis, and the development of embryos, with a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human AMH in central nervous system neurons under the control of the mouse Thy1...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Rajesh Kumari, Venus Dalal, Garima Kachhawa, Ipshita Sahoo, Rajesh Khadgawat, Reeta Mahey, Vidushi Kulshrestha, Perumal Vanamail, J B Sharma, Neerja Bhatla, Alka Kriplani
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a carbohydrate intolerance first diagnosed in pregnancy and may be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the maternal and perinatal outcome in GDM during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective analysis of women diagnosed with GDM who got antenatal care and delivered in our hospital in previous 5 years...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Cairina E Frank, Kathy N Speechley, Jennifer J Macnab, M Karen Campbell
Objectives: To investigate if an association exists between being born large for gestational age (LGA) and verbal ability or externalizing behaviour problems at ages 4-5 years. Method: A secondary analysis was conducted using the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, including singleton births in 2004-2005 followed till 4-5 years ( n = 1685). LGA was defined as a birth weight > 90th percentile. Outcomes included poor verbal ability (scoring < 15th percentile on the Revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test) and externalizing behaviour problems (scoring > 90th percentile on externalizing behaviour scales)...
2018: International Journal of Pediatrics
Sheree L Boulet, Jennifer F Kawwass, Sara Crawford, Michael J Davies, Dmitry M Kissin
We used 2006-2015 US National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System data to compare preterm birth and fetal growth for livebo n singletons (24-42 week gestation) following donor versus autologous oocyte in vitro fertilization (IVF). Using binary and multinomial logistic regressi n, we computed adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between use of donor oocytes and preterm delivery, small-f r-gestational-age (SGA), and large-for-gestational age (LGA), stratified by fresh and thawed embryo status and accounting for maternal characteristics and year of birth...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
L Carey, C Desouza, A Moorcroft, A Elgalib
The aim of this study was to describe the obstetrical and virological outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women who delivered at a district general hospital in south London in the period from 2008 to 2014. Our review identified 137 pregnancies; most (60%, 63/105) of them were unplanned. The commonest mode of delivery was spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) (42%, 48/114) followed by emergency Caesarean section (32%, 36/114). Gestational age at delivery was ≥37 weeks in most (84%, 91/106) of the cases. Maternal HIV VL at or closest to delivery was undetectable (<40 copies/mL), <400 copies/mL and >1000 copies/mL in 73% (94/129), 90% (116/129) and 6% (8/129) of the pregnancies, respectively...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Habiba Kapaya, Richard Jacques, Dilly Anumba
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of gender, time of the day and gestational age on fetal heart rate (FHR) parameters between appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetuses using a portable fetal ECG monitor employed in the home setting. METHODS: We analysed and compared the antenatal FHR data collected in the home setting on 61 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies from 24 weeks gestation. Of the 61 women, 31 had SGA fetuses (estimated fetal weight below the tenth gestational centile) and 30 were pregnant with AGA fetuses...
2018: PloS One
Rachel T McGrath, Sarah J Glastras, Emma S Scott, Samantha L Hocking, Gregory R Fulcher
Metformin is increasingly being used a therapeutic option for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to compare the maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes of women with GDM treated with metformin (with or without supplemental insulin) with those receiving other management approaches. A retrospective, case-control study was carried out and 83 women taking metformin were matched 1:1 with women receiving insulin or diet and lifestyle modification alone. Women managed with diet and lifestyle modification had a significantly lower fasting plasma glucose ( p < 0...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
G Conte, S Milani, G Palumbo, G Talenti, S Boito, M Rustico, F Triulzi, A Righini, G Izzo, C Doneda, A Zolin, C Parazzini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evaluation of biometry is a fundamental step in prenatal brain MR imaging. While different studies have reported reference centiles for MR imaging biometric data of fetuses in the late second and third trimesters of gestation, no one has reported them in fetuses in the early second trimester. We report centiles of normal MR imaging linear biometric data of a large cohort of fetal brains within 24 weeks of gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the data bases of 2 referral centers of fetal medicine, accounting for 3850 examinations, we retrospectively collected 169 prenatal brain MR imaging examinations of singleton pregnancies, between 20 and 24 weeks of gestational age, with normal brain anatomy at MR imaging and normal postnatal neurologic development...
March 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Alexander Schmidt, Ernst G Schukat-Talamazzini, Janine Zöllkau, Adelina Pytlik, Sophia Leibl, Kathrin Kumm, Franziska Bode, Isabelle Kynass, Otto W Witte, Ekkehard Schleussner, Uwe Schneider, Dirk Hoyer
Adverse prenatal environmental influences to the developing fetus are associated with mental and cardiovascular disease in later life. Universal developmental characteristics such as self-organization, pattern formation, and adaptation in the growing information processing system have not yet been sufficiently analyzed with respect to description of normal fetal development and identification of developmental disturbances. Fetal heart rate patterns are the only non-invasive order parameter of the developing autonomic brain available with respect to the developing complex organ system...
March 5, 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Deedee R Kommers, Sophie E M Truijens, S Guid Oei, Sidarto Bambang Oetomo, Victor J M Pop
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between antenatal mother-infant bonding scores and maternal reports of infant crying behaviour. BACKGROUND: Crying is normal behaviour and it is important for parent-infant bonding. Even though bonding starts antenatally, the relation between antenatal bonding scores and infant crying behaviour has never been studied. METHOD: A secondary analysis was performed on data that were gathered in a large prospective study within our region...
November 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Nichole Fairbrother, Dana S Thordarson, Kathrin Stoll
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the newly developed Childbirth Fear Questionnaire (CFQ) and demographic and reproductive variables. BACKGROUND: The CFQ was developed in an effort to improve measurement and understanding of women's childbirth fears. To our knowledge the CFQ is the only multidimensional measure of childbirth fears in which (a) multiple domains of childbirth fear are assessed and (b) individual subscales have been psychometrically developed...
February 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Maheswari Ekambaram, Matilde Irigoyen, Johelin DeFreitas, Sharina Rajbhandari, Jessica Lynn Geaney, Leonard Edward Braitman
BACKGROUND: In adolescents, there is limited evidence on the independent and additive effect of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on infant birth weight. Data also show that this effect may vary by race. We sought to examine the impact of maternal prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on birth weight and risk of large for gestational age (LGA) in term newborns of minority adolescent mothers. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 411 singleton live term infants born to mothers ≤ 18 years...
March 7, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Katherine Leavey, Samantha L Wilson, Shannon A Bainbridge, Wendy P Robinson, Brian J Cox
Background: Preeclampsia (PE) is a heterogeneous, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, with no robust biomarkers or effective treatments. We hypothesized that this heterogeneity is due to the existence of multiple subtypes of PE and, in support of this hypothesis, we recently identified five clusters of placentas within a large gene expression microarray dataset ( N  = 330), of which four (clusters 1, 2, 3, and 5) contained a substantial number of PE samples. However, while transcriptional analysis of placentas can subtype patients, we propose that the addition of epigenetic information could discern gene regulatory mechanisms behind the distinct PE pathologies, as well as identify clinically useful potential biomarkers...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Chittaranjan Andrade
The use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications during pregnancy has increased in recent years. An earlier article in this column examined whether psychostimulant medications, used to treated ADHD and related disorders, increase the risk of major congenital malformations in pregnancies with first trimester exposure to these drugs. This article examines whether amphetamines, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine exposure during early and late pregnancy are associated with other adverse gestational outcomes...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Siree Kaempfen, Roland P Neumann, Kerstin Jost, Sven M Schulzke
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease of preterm neonates. The use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents (beta-blockers), which modulate the vasoproliferative retinal process, may reduce the progression of ROP or even reverse established ROP. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of beta-blockers on short-term structural outcomes, long-term functional outcomes, and the need for additional treatment, when used either as prophylaxis in preterm infants without ROP, stage 1 ROP (zone I), or stage 2 ROP (zone II) without plus disease or as treatment in preterm infants with at least prethreshold ROP...
March 2, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Curt A Sandman, Megan M Curran, Elysia Poggi Davis, Laura M Glynn, Kevin Head, Tallie Z Baram
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to assess associations among early-life exposure to adversity, the development and maturation of neurons and brain circuits, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Specifically, they examined whether fetal exposure to placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a molecule conveying maternal signals to the fetus, predicts brain growth and neuropsychiatric outcomes in school-age children. METHOD: In a large, well-characterized prospective cohort, concentrations of placental CRH (pCRH) in maternal plasma were determined during five intervals during gestation...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Barbara Torlinska, Sarah C Bath, Aisha Janjua, Kristien Boelaert, Shiao-Yng Chan
Severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with pregnancy/neonatal loss, and adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the impact of mild-to-moderate iodine insufficiency, though prevalent in pregnancy, is not well-documented. We assessed whether mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy was associated with pregnancy/infant loss, or with other adverse pregnancy outcomes. We used samples and data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), from 3140 singleton pregnancies and from a further 42 women with pregnancy/infant loss...
March 1, 2018: Nutrients
Kristin Van Heertum, Rachel Weinerman
In vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo cryopreservation have become increasingly common in recent years. As utilization increases, it is important to understand the clinical effects these technologies have on offspring, as well as the mechanisms behind these effects. Many epidemiologic studies have observed that pregnancies following IVF are more likely to be affected by obstetric complications such as pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, and small for gestational age neonates compared with naturally conceived pregnancies...
March 1, 2018: Birth Defects Research
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