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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220271/anandamide-oxidative-metabolism-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-apoptosis
#1
M Almada, B M Fonseca, C Amaral, M Diniz-da-Costa, G Correia-da-Silva, N Teixeira
The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) has been recognized as a crucial player in human reproduction. Changes in the levels of anandamide (AEA), the main endocannabinoid (eCB), negatively affect reproductive events, such as implantation, decidualization and placentation. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a major enzyme expressed in the endometrium and its involvement in female reproductive system has evolved over the last few years. Currently, COX-2 oxidative metabolism is emerging as a key mediator of AEA-induced actions...
February 20, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192193/differential-expression-of-endocannabinoid-system-related-genes-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-following-expression-and-reinstatement-of-morphine-conditioned-place-preference-in-mice
#2
Wei Li, Cong-Li Zhang, Zheng-Guo Qiu
The endocannabinoid signaling plays a critical role in mediating rewarding effects to morphine. The relative stability for the expression and reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) suggests the involvement of differential neuroadaptations in learned associations between environmental cues and morphine. Changes in gene expression in hippocampus through the endogenous cannabinoid system (eCB) may accompany and mediate the development of such neuroadaptations to repeated morphine stimulation...
February 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188220/cannabinoids-activate-monoaminergic-signaling-to-modulate-key-c-elegans-behaviors
#3
Mitchell Oakes, Wen Jing Law, Tobias Clark, Bruce Bamber, Richard Komuniecki
Cannabis or marijuana, a popular recreational drug, alters sensory perception and exerts a range of potential medicinal benefits. The present study demonstrates that the endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) activate a canonical cannabinoid receptor in C. elegans and also modulate monoaminergic signaling at multiple levels. 2-AG or AEA inhibit nociception and feeding through a pathway requiring the cannabinoid-like receptor, NPR-19. 2-AG or AEA activate NPR-19 directly and cannabinoid-dependent inhibition can be rescued in npr-19 null animals by the expression of a human cannabinoid receptor, CB1, highlighting the orthology of the receptors...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164346/randomised-clinical-trial-the-analgesic-properties-of-dietary-supplementation-with-palmitoylethanolamide-and-polydatin-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
C Cremon, V Stanghellini, M R Barbaro, R F Cogliandro, L Bellacosa, J Santos, M Vicario, M Pigrau, C Alonso Cotoner, B Lobo, F Azpiroz, S Bruley des Varannes, M Neunlist, D DeFilippis, T Iuvone, S Petrosino, V Di Marzo, G Barbara
BACKGROUND: Intestinal immune activation is involved in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. While most dietary approaches in IBS involve food avoidance, there are fewer indications on food supplementation. Palmithoylethanolamide, structurally related to the endocannabinoid anandamide, and polydatin are dietary compounds which act synergistically to reduce mast cell activation. AIM: To assess the effect on mast cell count and the efficacy of palmithoylethanolamide/polydatin in patients with IBS...
February 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161439/lipid-signaling-and-fat-storage-in-the-dark-eyed-junco
#5
Jacqueline M Ho, Christine M Bergeon Burns, Nikki M Rendon, Kimberly A Rosvall, Heather B Bradshaw, Ellen D Ketterson, Gregory E Demas
Seasonal hyperphagia and fattening promote survivorship in migratory and wintering birds, but reduced adiposity may be more advantageous during the breeding season. Factors such as photoperiod, temperature, and food predictability are known environmental determinants of fat storage, but the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are less clear. Endocannabinoids and other lipid signaling molecules regulate multiple aspects of energy balance including appetite and lipid metabolism. However, these functions have been established primarily in mammals; thus the role of lipid signals in avian fat storage remains largely undefined...
February 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157650/urb597-reduces-biochemical-behavioral-and-morphological-alterations-in-two-neurotoxic-models-in-rats
#6
Marisol Maya-López, Hipolito A Ruiz-Contreras, María de Jesús Negrete-Ruíz, Julián Elías Martínez-Sánchez, Juan Benítez-Valenzuela, Ana Laura Colín-González, Juana Villeda-Hernández, Laura Sánchez-Chapul, Carmen Parra-Cid, Edgar Rangel-López, Abel Santamaría
BACKGROUND: URB597 is a compound largely linked to the inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an enzyme responsible for the metabolic degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). Despite this pharmacological property accounts for its modulatory profile demonstrated in some neurotoxic paradigms, the possible protective properties of this agent have been poorly investigated, and deserve exploration in different neurotoxic models. In this study, we explored the effects of URB597 on oxidative damage to lipids and other major endpoints of toxicity in two neurotoxic models in vivo in rats (the first one produced by the mitochondrial neurotoxin 3-nitropropionic acid [3-NP], and the other generated by the striatal injection of the pro-oxidant toxin 6-hydroxidopamine [6-OHDA]) in order to provide further supporting evidence of its modulatory profile...
January 31, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150397/severity-of-alcohol-dependence-is-associated-with-the-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-pro129thr-missense-variant
#7
Matthew E Sloan, Joshua L Gowin, Jia Yan, Melanie L Schwandt, Primavera A Spagnolo, Hui Sun, Colin A Hodgkinson, David Goldman, Vijay A Ramchandani
The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in reward and addiction. One of the two main endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme with a functional genetic polymorphism (FAAH Pro129Thr, rs324420). The Thr129 allele has been linked to problem drug and alcohol use, but the association has not been widely replicated and may be stronger for clinical measures of severity rather than categorical diagnosis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the Thr129 allele was associated with both alcohol dependence (AD) diagnosis and severity in a sample of 1434 European American and African American individuals, 952 of whom were diagnosed with lifetime AD...
February 1, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148494/upregulation-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-faah-in-the-dorsal-periaqueductal-gray-is-associated-with-neuropathic-pain-and-reduced-heart-rate-in-rats
#8
Caron Dean, Cecilia J Hillard, Jeanne L Seagard, Francis A Hopp, Quinn H Hogan
Nerve damage can induce a heightened pain response to noxious stimulation, which is termed hyperalgesia. Pain itself acts as a stressor, initiating autonomic and sensory effects through the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) to induce both sympathoexcitation and analgesia, which prior studies have shown to be affected by endocannabinoid signaling. The present study addressed the hypothesis that neuropathic pain disrupts autonomic and analgesic regulation by endocannabinoid signaling in the dPAG. Endocannabinoid contents, transcript levels of endocannabinoid signaling components, and catabolic enzyme activity were analyzed in the dPAG of rats at 21 days after painful nerve injury...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131783/antihyperalgesic-effect-of-cb1-receptor-activation-involves-the-modulation-of-p2x3-receptor-in-the-primary-afferent-neuron
#9
Maria Cláudia Gonçalves Oliveira-Fusaro, Cristiane Isabel Silva Zanoni, Gilson Gonçalves Dos Santos, Luis Paulo Manzo, Dionéia Araldi, Ivan José Magayewski Bonet, Cláudia Herrera Tambeli, Elayne Vieira Dias, Carlos Amilcar Parada
Cannabinoid system is a potential target for pain control. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) activation play a role in the analgesic effect of cannabinoids once it is expressed in primary afferent neurons. This study investigates whether the anti-hyperalgesic effect of CB1 receptor activation involves P2×3 receptor in primary afferent neurons. Mechanical hyperalgesia was evaluated by electronic von Frey test. Cannabinoid effect was evaluated using anandamide or ACEA, a non-selective or a selective CB1 receptor agonists, respectively; AM251, a CB1 receptor antagonist, and antisense ODN for CB1 receptor...
January 25, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128290/membrane-mediated-action-of-the-endocannabinoid-anandamide-on-membrane-proteins-implications-for-understanding-the-receptor-independent-mechanism
#10
Djalma Medeiros, Laíz da Costa Silva-Gonçalves, Annielle Mendes Brito da Silva, Marcia Perez Dos Santos Cabrera, Manoel Arcisio-Miranda
Endocannabinoids are amphiphilic molecules that play crucial neurophysiological functions acting as lipid messengers. Antagonists and knockdown of the classical CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors do not completely abolish many endocannabinoid activities, supporting the idea of a mechanism independent of receptors whose mode of action remains unclear. Here we combine gramicidin A (gA) single channel recordings and membrane capacitance measurements to investigate the lipid bilayer-modifying activity of endocannabinoids...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104279/effect-of-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-on-mptp-induced-dopaminergic-neuronal-damage
#11
J M Viveros-Paredes, R E Gonzalez-Castañeda, A Escalante-Castañeda, A R Tejeda-Martínez, F Castañeda-Achutiguí, M E Flores-Soto
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by balance problems, muscle rigidity, and slow movement due to low dopamine levels and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate the nigrostriatal pathway through endogenous ligands such as anandamide (AEA), which is hydrolysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The purpose of this study was to increase AEA levels using FAAH inhibitor URB597 to evaluate the modulatory effect of AEA on dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
January 16, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103941/involvement-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-physiological-response-to-transient-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-and-reperfusion
#12
Marina Quartu, Laura Poddighe, Tiziana Melis, Maria Pina Serra, Marianna Boi, Sara Lisai, Gianfranca Carta, Elisabetta Murru, Laura Muredda, Maria Collu, Sebastiano Banni
BACKGROUND: The transient global cerebral hypoperfusion/reperfusion achieved by induction of Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion followed by Reperfusion (BCCAO/R) may trigger a physiological response in an attempt to preserve tissue and function integrity. There are several candidate molecules among which the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and/or peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) may play a role in modulating oxidative stress and inflammation. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether the ECS, the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PPAR-alpha are involved during BCCAO/R in rat brain, and to identify possible markers of the ongoing BCCAO/R-induced challenge in plasma...
January 19, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092019/urb597-and-the-cannabinoid-win55-212-2-reduce-behavioral-and-neurochemical-deficits-induced-by-mptp-in-mice-possible-role-of-redox-modulation-and-nmda-receptors
#13
Angel Escamilla-Ramírez, Esperanza García, Guadalupe Palencia-Hernández, Ana Laura Colín-González, Sonia Galván-Arzate, Isaac Túnez, Julio Sotelo, Abel Santamaría
Several physiological events in the brain are regulated by the endocannabinoid system (ECS). While synthetic cannabinoid receptor (CBr) agonists such as WIN55,212-2 act directly on CBr, agents like URB597, a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, induce a more "physiological" activation of CBr by increasing the endogenous levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). Herein, we compared the pre- and post-treatment efficacy of URB597 and WIN55,212-2 on different endpoints evaluated in the toxic model produced by the mitochondrial toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice...
January 14, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079617/manipulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-colitis-a-comprehensive-review
#14
Kristina L Leinwand, Mark E Gerich, Edward J Hoffenberg, Colm B Collins
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong disease of the gastrointestinal tract whose annual incidence and prevalence is on the rise. Current immunosuppressive therapies available for treatment of IBD offer limited benefits and lose effectiveness, exposing a significant need for the development of novel therapies. In the clinical setting, cannabis has been shown to provide patients with IBD symptomatic relief, although the underlying mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory effects remain unclear...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065729/n-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing-acid-amidase-and-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibition-differentially-affect-n-acylethanolamine-levels-and-macrophage-activation
#15
Mireille Alhouayek, Pauline Bottemanne, Alexandros Makriyannis, Giulio G Muccioli
N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) such as N-palmitoylethanolamine and anandamide are endogenous bioactive lipids having numerous functions, including the control of inflammation. Their levels and therefore actions can be controlled by modulating the activity of two hydrolytic enzymes, N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). As macrophages are key to inflammatory processes, we used lipopolysaccharide-activated J774 macrophages, as well as primary mouse alveolar macrophages, to study the effect of FAAH and NAAA inhibition, using PF-3845 and AM9053 respectively, on macrophage activation and NAE levels measured by HPLC-MS...
January 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065722/peripheral-endocannabinoid-signaling-controls-hyperphagia-in-western-diet-induced-obesity
#16
Donovan A Argueta, Nicholas V DiPatrizio
The endocannabinoid system in the brain and periphery plays a major role in controlling food intake and energy balance. We reported that tasting dietary fats was met with increased levels of the endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, in the rat upper small intestine, and pharmacological inhibition of this local signaling event dose-dependently blocked sham feeding of fats. We now investigated the contribution of peripheral endocannabinoid signaling in hyperphagia associated with chronic consumption of a western-style diet in mice ([WD] i...
March 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046144/endocannabinoids-concentrations-in-plasma-associated-with-feed-efficiency-and-carcass-composition-of-beef-steers
#17
V M Artegoitia, A P Foote, R M Lewis, D A King, S D Shackelford, T L Wheeler, H C Freetly
Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are a class of endogenous lipid mediators that activate cannabinoids receptors and may be involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to quantify AEA and 2-AG in plasma and identify possible associations with production traits and carcass composition in finishing beef steers. Individual DMI and BW gain were measured on 140 Angus-sired steers for 105 d on a finishing ration. Blood samples were collected on d 84 of the experiment, which was 40 d before slaughter...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017680/circulating-levels-of-endocannabinoids-respond-acutely-to-voluntary-exercise-are-altered-in-mice-selectively-bred-for-high-voluntary-wheel-running-and-differ-between-the-sexes
#18
Zoe Thompson, Donovan Argueta, Theodore Garland, Nicholas DiPatrizio
The endocannabinoid system serves many physiological roles, including in the regulation of energy balance, food reward, and voluntary locomotion. Signaling at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor has been specifically implicated in motivation for rodent voluntary exercise on wheels. We studied four replicate lines of high runner (HR) mice that have been selectively bred for 81 generations based on average number of wheel revolutions on days five and six of a six-day period of wheel access. Four additional replicate lines are bred without regard to wheel running, and serve as controls (C) for random genetic effects that may cause divergence among lines...
March 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999147/quantitative-profiling-of-endocannabinoids-and-related-n-acylethanolamines-in-human-csf-using-nano-lc-ms-ms
#19
Vasudev Kantae, Shinji Ogino, Marek Noga, Amy C Harms, Robin M van Dongen, Gerrit L J Onderwater, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Gisela M Terwindt, Mario van der Stelt, Michel D Ferrari, Thomas Hankemeier
Endocannabinoids, a class of lipid messengers, have emerged as crucial regulators of synaptic communication in the central nervous system (CNS). Dysregulation of these compounds has been implicated in many brain disorders. Although some studies have identified and quantified a limited number of target compounds, a method that provides comprehensive quantitative information on endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) in CSF is currently lacking as measurements are challenging due to low concentrations under normal physiological conditions...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997038/inflammation-of-peripheral-tissues-and-injury-to-peripheral-nerves-induce-diferring-effects-in-the-expression-of-the-calcium-sensitive-anandamide-synthesising-enzyme-and-related-molecules-in-rat-primary-sensory-neurons
#20
João Sousa-Valente, Angelika Varga, Jose Vicente Torres Perez, Agnes Jenes, John Wahba, Ken Mackie, Benjamin Cravatt, Natsuo Ueda, Kazuhito Tsuboi, Peter Santha, Gabor Jancso, Hiren Tailor, António Avelino, Istvan Nagy
Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induces the synthesis of N-arachydonoylethanolamine (anandamide) in a sub-population of primary sensory neurons. N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) is the only known enzyme, which synthesises anandamide in a Ca(2+) -dependent manner. NAPE-PLD mRNA, as well as anandamide's main targets, the excitatory transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1) and the inhibitory cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and the main anandamide-hydrolysing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are all expressed by sub-populations of nociceptive primary sensory neurons...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
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