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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512387/oncolytic-virus-based-immunotherapies-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
REVIEW
So Young Yoo, Narayanasamy Badrinath, Hyun Young Woo, Jeong Heo
Hepatocellular carcinoma is highly refractory cancer which is resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, carrying a dismal prognosis. Although many anticancer drugs have been developed for treating HCC, sorafenib is the only effective treatment, but it only prolongs survival duration for about 3 months. Recently, oncolytic virotherapy has shown promising results in treating HCCs and the effects can be more enhanced by adopting immune modulatory molecules. This review discusses the current status of treating HCC and the effective strategy of oncolytic virus-based immunotherapy for the treatment of HCCs...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506000/therapeutic-effects-of-oral-dimethyl-fumarate-on-stroke-induced-by-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-an-animal-experimental-study
#2
Anahid Safari, Mehdi Fazeli, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Nader Tanideh, Peyman Jafari, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi
BACKGROUND: Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has immune-modulatory and neuro-protective characteristics that can be used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effects of DMF on histological and functional recovery of rats after transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. METHODS: 22 Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 275-300 g were randomized into three groups by block randomization. In the sham group (n = 7), the neck was opened, but neither MCA was occluded, nor any drug was administered...
May 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497863/ctla-4-expressed-by-foxp3-treg-cells-prevents-inflammatory-tissue-attack-and-not-t-cell-priming-in-arthritis
#3
Katrin Klocke, Rikard Holmdahl, Kajsa Wing
Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4)-mediated regulation of already tolerized autoreactive T cells is critical for understanding autoimmune responses. While defects in CTLA-4 contribute to abnormal FOXP3(+) regulatory T cell (Treg) function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) its role in autoreactive T cells remains elusive. We studied immunity towards the dominant collagen type-II (CII) T cell epitope in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) both in the heterologous setting and in the autologous setting where CII is mutated at position E266D in mouse cartilage...
May 12, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450868/hepatitis-b-virus-immunopathology-model-systems-and-current-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Praneet Sandhu, Mohammad Haque, Tessa Humphries-Bickley, Swetha Ravi, Jianxun Song
Most people develop acute hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatitis that is controlled by both humoral and cellular immune responses following acute infection. However, a number of individuals in HBV-endemic areas fail to resolve the infection and consequently become chronic carriers. While a vaccine is available and new antiviral drugs are being developed, elimination of persistently infected cells is still a major issue. Standard treatment in HBV infection includes IFN-α, nucleoside, or nucleotide analogs, which has direct antiviral activity and immune modulatory capacities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448867/immuno-modulatory-and-cellular-antioxidant-activities-of-%C3%AE%C2%BA-selenocarrageenan-in-combination-with-epirubicin-in-h22-hepatoma-bearing-mice
#5
Na Ling, Xiaojun Zhou, Yubin Ji, Wenlan Li, Chenfeng Ji, Zheng Qi
BACKGROUND: Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high rate of tumor recurrence and metastasis, resulting in shortened survival time. The aim of this study is to evaluate the synergistic anti-tumor effects and underlying mechanism of κ-selenocarrageenan (KSC) in combination with the chemotherapy drug epirubicin (EPI) in H22 tumor-bearing mice. METHODS: Hepatocellular carcinoma H22 cells were implanted into mice. After the transplants were successfully established, the animals were divided into four groups: namely the control group, the KSC group, the EPI group and the KSC+EPI group...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399927/bk-viruria-and-viremia-in-children-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#6
Nirupama Gupta, Cuong Q Nguyen, Renee F Modica, Melissa E Elder, Eduardo H Garin
BACKGROUND: BK virus (BKV) is a ubiquitous polyoma virus that lies dormant in the genitourinary tract once acquired in early childhood. In states of cellular immunodeficiency, the virus can reactivate to cause hemorrhagic cystitis and nephritis. Children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have an increased risk of developing infectious complications secondary to their immunocompromised state from the administration of several immuno-modulatory drugs. Currently, there are no data regarding the prevalence of BK viruria or viremia in children with SLE...
April 11, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381242/the-150-most-important-questions-in-cancer-research-and-clinical-oncology-series-questions-15-24-edited-by-chinese-journal-of-cancer
#7
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
To accelerate our endeavors to overcome cancer, Chinese Journal of Cancer has launched a program of publishing 150 most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology. In this article, 10 more questions are presented as follows. Question 15: Can tumor-induced erythrogenesis provide qualified red blood cells for carrying oxygen to distant organs? Question 16: Can we overcome tumor resistance to platinum-containing antineoplastic drugs by activating the sensitivity factors in the tumor? Question 17: How can a cancer cell stay dormant for years? Question 18: Why do cancer cells use distinct transcriptomic and proteomic programs to reach the same metastatic phenotype? Question 19: Why do some cancers regress spontaneously? Question 20: What are the regulatory mechanisms occurring in donor cells that determine selective sorting of biological content into vesicles and their biological consequences in recipient cells? Are the genetic transfer and exchange of biological messages between cells transient? Is the phenotypic manipulation of recipient cells temporary or prolonged and persistent? If extracellular vesicles possess immune-modulatory potential, how could they be exploited for immune interventions and cancer immunotherapy? Presumably the cargo of extracellular vesicles reflects the cells of their origin and can be used for cancer diagnosis, how could the uniform/stringent capture criteria be met universally for applying EVs in point-of-care diagnostics for cancer patients? Question 21: Can we use self-sampling technologies to monitor the tumor genetic alterations for more precise targeted therapy? Can we cure a heterogeneous tumor by sequentially targeting the driver molecules? Question 22: Can we postpone the onset of non-infection-related cancers? Question 23: How many types of cells can jointly form the tumor vasculature to provide blood supply for tumor progression? Question 24: How tumor cells transmit their epigenetic features to daughter cells and maintain the malignant phenotype?...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337940/genome-wide-analysis-of-lps-induced-inflammatory-response-in-the-rat-ventral-hippocampus-modulatory-activity-of-the-antidepressant-agomelatine
#8
Andrea Carlo Rossetti, Maria Serena Paladini, Giorgio Racagni, Marco Andrea Riva, Annamaria Cattaneo, Raffaella Molteni
OBJECTIVES: Several studies reported that antidepressant drugs have immune-regulatory effects by acting on specific inflammatory mediators. However, considering the highly complex nature of the inflammatory response, we have adopted an unbiased genome-wide strategy to investigate the immune-regulatory activity of the antidepressant agomelatine in modulating the response to an acute inflammatory challenge. METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to identify genes modulated in the ventral hippocampus of adult rats chronically treated with agomelatine (40 mg/kg, os) before being challenged with a single injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 250 μg/kg, i...
March 24, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319043/glucocorticoid-receptors-finding-the-middle-ground
#9
Sofie J Desmet, Karolien De Bosscher
Glucocorticoids (GCs; referred to clinically as corticosteroids) are steroid hormones with potent anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory profiles. Depending on the context, these hormones can also mediate pro-inflammatory activities, thereby serving as primers of the immune system. Their target receptor, the GC receptor (GR), is a multi-tasking transcription factor, changing its role and function depending on cellular and organismal needs. To get a clearer idea of how to improve the safety profile of GCs, recent studies have investigated the complex mechanisms underlying GR functions...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260909/update-on-targeted-therapies-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nivolumab-in-context
#10
REVIEW
Alexander D Le, Saeed K Alzghari, Gary W Jean, Ninh M La-Beck
While the initial treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) usually relies on surgical resection followed by systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, recent advances in understanding of NSCLC biology and immunology have spurred the development of numerous targeted therapies. In particular, a class of immune modulatory drugs targeting the immune checkpoint pathways has demonstrated remarkable durable remissions in a select minority of advanced NSCLC patients, potentially heralding the elusive "cancer cure"...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244020/air-travel-circadian-rhythms-hormones-and-autoimmunity
#11
REVIEW
J Torres-Ruiz, A Sulli, M Cutolo, Y Shoenfeld
Biological rhythms are fundamental for homeostasis and have recently been involved in the regulatory processes of various organs and systems. Circadian cycle proteins and hormones have a direct effect on the inflammatory response and have shown pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of autoimmune diseases. The cells of the immune system have their own circadian rhythm, and the light-dark cycle directly influences the inflammatory response. On the other hand, patients with autoimmune diseases characteristically have sleep disorders and fatigue, and in certain disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a frank periodicity in the signs and symptoms is recognized...
February 27, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192240/effects-of-curcumin-on-hdl-functionality
#12
REVIEW
Shiva Ganjali, Christopher N Blesso, Maciej Banach, Matteo Pirro, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol, is a yellow pigment of the Curcuma longa (turmeric) plant. Curcumin has many pharmacologic effects including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, it has been found that curcumin affects lipid metabolism, and subsequently, may alleviate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent negative risk predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, numerous clinical and genetic studies have yielded disappointing results about the therapeutic benefit of raising plasma HDL-C levels...
May 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182964/dietary-flavonoids-and-modulation-of-natural-killer-cells-implications-in-malignant-and-viral-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Markus Burkard, Christian Leischner, Ulrich M Lauer, Christian Busch, Sascha Venturelli, Jan Frank
Flavonoids are a large group of secondary plant metabolites present in the diet with numerous potentially health-beneficial biological activities. In addition to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, and many other biological functions reported in the literature, flavonoids appear to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and stimulate immune function. Although the immunomodulatory potential of flavonoids has been intensively investigated, only little is known about their impact on natural killer (NK) cells...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103249/the-green-tea-catechin-epigallocatechin-gallate-ameliorates-graft-versus-host-disease
#14
Sabine Westphal, Aleixandria McGeary, Sandra Rudloff, Andrea Wilke, Olaf Penack
Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a standard treatment for leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The major complication of allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a progressive inflammatory illness characterized by donor immune cells attacking the organs of the recipient. Current GVHD prevention and treatment strategies use immune suppressive drugs and/or anti-T cell reagents these can lead to increased risk of infections and tumor relapse. Recent research demonstrated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component found in green tea leaves at a level of 25-35% at dry weight, may be useful in the inhibition of GVHD due to its immune modulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic capacities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100001/transplantation-tolerance-don-t-forget-about-the-b-cells
#15
REVIEW
A S Chong, S H Khiew
Establishing a state of transplantation tolerance that leads to indefinite graft survival without the need for lifelong immunosuppression has been achieved successfully in limited numbers of transplant recipients in the clinic. These successes led to studies aimed at identifying potential biomarkers that diagnose allograft tolerance and identify the patients most amenable to drug minimization, and implicated an enriched B cell signature of tolerance. The emergence of a specialized subset of regulatory B cell (Bregs ), that possess immune-modulatory function in inflammation and autoimmune disease, raised the possibility that Bregs play critical roles in the promotion of transplantation tolerance and that Bregs are the underlying explanation for the B cell signature of tolerance...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045749/histologic-assessment-of-lichenoid-dermatitis-observed-in-patients-with-advanced-malignancies-on-antiprogramed-cell-death-1-anti-pd-1-therapy-with-or-without-ipilimumab
#16
Shaun Chou, Shelley Ji Eun Hwang, Giuliana Carlos, Deepal Wakade, Pablo Fernandez-Penas
Lichenoid drug reaction is a common adverse reaction in patients taking immune-modulatory agents such as antiprogramed cell death (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 agents. The authors describe the clinical and histologic features of lichenoid drug reaction in 20 biopsies from 15 patients on anti-PD-1 agents and 9 biopsies from 7 patients on anti-PD-1 plus ipilimumab therapy. Clinically, all except 2 patients presented with discrete, violaceous exanthematous papules to plaques. The lichenoid inflammation in the majority (18 of 29 biopsies) was florid although histology was quite heterogeneous...
January 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983587/role-of-redox-signaling-and-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-training
#17
REVIEW
Maria Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Jose Viña, Li Li Ji
The inflammatory response to exercise-induced muscle damage has been extensively described. Exercise has important modulatory effects on immune function. These effects are mediated by diverse factors including pro-inflammatory cytokines, classical stress hormones, and hemodynamic effects leading to cell redistribution. As has been reported regarding oxidative stress, inflammation can have both detrimental and beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. In this review we will address the role of inflammation on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle...
December 13, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856654/adverse-events-of-glucocorticoids-during-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-lessons-from-cohort-and-registry-studies
#18
REVIEW
Johannes W J Bijlsma, Frank Buttgereit
Glucocorticoids have now been used for >65 years in the treatment of RA. There is good evidence for their disease-modifying effect, especially in early RA. When used in a dosage of 7.5-10 mg/day, most adverse effects can be handled quite well, although monitoring for and awareness of infections are important. Adverse events may have been overreported, due to bias by indication, but pose an important drawback in the use of these very effective anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory drugs. Daily dosages >7...
December 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854251/nociceptive-trp-channels-sensory-detectors-and-transducers-in-multiple-pain-pathologies
#19
REVIEW
Aaron D Mickle, Andrew J Shepherd, Durga P Mohapatra
Specialized receptors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ligand-gated ion channels constitute the critical detectors and transducers of pain-causing stimuli. Nociceptive TRP channels are predominantly expressed by distinct subsets of sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Several of these TRP channels are also expressed in neurons of the central nervous system, and in non-neuronal cells that communicate with sensory nerves. Nociceptive TRPs are activated by specific physico-chemical stimuli to provide the excitatory trigger in neurons...
November 14, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804992/an-anti-infective-synthetic-peptide-with-dual-antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-activities
#20
O N Silva, C de la Fuente-Núñez, E F Haney, I C M Fensterseifer, S M Ribeiro, W F Porto, P Brown, C Faria-Junior, T M B Rezende, S E Moreno, T K Lu, R E W Hancock, O L Franco
Antibiotic-resistant infections are predicted to kill 10 million people per year by 2050, costing the global economy $100 trillion. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative technologies. We have engineered a synthetic peptide called clavanin-MO, derived from a marine tunicate antimicrobial peptide, which exhibits potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. The peptide effectively killed a panel of representative bacterial strains, including multidrug-resistant hospital isolates...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
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