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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319043/glucocorticoid-receptors-finding-the-middle-ground
#1
Sofie J Desmet, Karolien De Bosscher
Glucocorticoids (GCs; referred to clinically as corticosteroids) are steroid hormones with potent anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory profiles. Depending on the context, these hormones can also mediate pro-inflammatory activities, thereby serving as primers of the immune system. Their target receptor, the GC receptor (GR), is a multi-tasking transcription factor, changing its role and function depending on cellular and organismal needs. To get a clearer idea of how to improve the safety profile of GCs, recent studies have investigated the complex mechanisms underlying GR functions...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260909/update-on-targeted-therapies-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nivolumab-in-context
#2
REVIEW
Alexander D Le, Saeed K Alzghari, Gary W Jean, Ninh M La-Beck
While the initial treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) usually relies on surgical resection followed by systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, recent advances in understanding of NSCLC biology and immunology have spurred the development of numerous targeted therapies. In particular, a class of immune modulatory drugs targeting the immune checkpoint pathways has demonstrated remarkable durable remissions in a select minority of advanced NSCLC patients, potentially heralding the elusive "cancer cure"...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244020/air-travel-circadian-rhythms-hormones-and-autoimmunity
#3
REVIEW
J Torres-Ruiz, A Sulli, M Cutolo, Y Shoenfeld
Biological rhythms are fundamental for homeostasis and have recently been involved in the regulatory processes of various organs and systems. Circadian cycle proteins and hormones have a direct effect on the inflammatory response and have shown pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of autoimmune diseases. The cells of the immune system have their own circadian rhythm, and the light-dark cycle directly influences the inflammatory response. On the other hand, patients with autoimmune diseases characteristically have sleep disorders and fatigue, and in certain disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a frank periodicity in the signs and symptoms is recognized...
February 27, 2017: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192240/effects-of-curcumin-on-hdl-functionality
#4
REVIEW
Shiva Ganjali, Christopher N Blesso, Maciej Banach, Matteo Pirro, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Curcumin, a bioactive polyphenol, is a yellow pigment of the Curcuma longa (turmeric) plant. Curcumin has many pharmacologic effects including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently, it has been found that curcumin affects lipid metabolism, and subsequently, may alleviate hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is an independent negative risk predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, numerous clinical and genetic studies have yielded disappointing results about the therapeutic benefit of raising plasma HDL-C levels...
February 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182964/dietary-flavonoids-and-modulation-of-natural-killer-cells-implications-in-malignant-and-viral-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Markus Burkard, Christian Leischner, Ulrich M Lauer, Christian Busch, Sascha Venturelli, Jan Frank
Flavonoids are a large group of secondary plant metabolites present in the diet with numerous potentially health-beneficial biological activities. In addition to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol-lowering, and many other biological functions reported in the literature, flavonoids appear to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and stimulate immune function. Although the immunomodulatory potential of flavonoids has been intensively investigated, only little is known about their impact on natural killer (NK) cells...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103249/the-green-tea-catechin-epigallocatechin-gallate-ameliorates-graft-versus-host-disease
#6
Sabine Westphal, Aleixandria McGeary, Sandra Rudloff, Andrea Wilke, Olaf Penack
Allogeneic hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a standard treatment for leukemia and other hematologic malignancies. The major complication of allo-HSCT is graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD), a progressive inflammatory illness characterized by donor immune cells attacking the organs of the recipient. Current GVHD prevention and treatment strategies use immune suppressive drugs and/or anti-T cell reagents these can lead to increased risk of infections and tumor relapse. Recent research demonstrated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component found in green tea leaves at a level of 25-35% at dry weight, may be useful in the inhibition of GVHD due to its immune modulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-angiogenic capacities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100001/transplantation-tolerance-don-t-forget-about-the-b-cells
#7
REVIEW
A S Chong, S H Khiew
Establishing a state of transplantation tolerance that leads to indefinite graft survival without the need for lifelong immunosuppression has been achieved successfully in limited numbers of transplant recipients in the clinic. These successes led to studies aimed at identifying potential biomarkers that diagnose allograft tolerance and identify the patients most amenable to drug minimization, and implicated an enriched B cell signature of tolerance. The emergence of a specialized subset of regulatory B cell (Bregs ), that possess immune-modulatory function in inflammation and autoimmune disease, raised the possibility that Bregs play critical roles in the promotion of transplantation tolerance and that Bregs are the underlying explanation for the B cell signature of tolerance...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045749/histologic-assessment-of-lichenoid-dermatitis-observed-in-patients-with-advanced-malignancies-on-antiprogramed-cell-death-1-anti-pd-1-therapy-with-or-without-ipilimumab
#8
Shaun Chou, Shelley Ji Eun Hwang, Giuliana Carlos, Deepal Wakade, Pablo Fernandez-Penas
Lichenoid drug reaction is a common adverse reaction in patients taking immune-modulatory agents such as antiprogramed cell death (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 agents. The authors describe the clinical and histologic features of lichenoid drug reaction in 20 biopsies from 15 patients on anti-PD-1 agents and 9 biopsies from 7 patients on anti-PD-1 plus ipilimumab therapy. Clinically, all except 2 patients presented with discrete, violaceous exanthematous papules to plaques. The lichenoid inflammation in the majority (18 of 29 biopsies) was florid although histology was quite heterogeneous...
January 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983587/role-of-redox-signaling-and-inflammation-in-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-to-training
#9
REVIEW
Maria Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Jose Viña, Li Li Ji
The inflammatory response to exercise-induced muscle damage has been extensively described. Exercise has important modulatory effects on immune function. These effects are mediated by diverse factors including pro-inflammatory cytokines, classical stress hormones, and hemodynamic effects leading to cell redistribution. As has been reported regarding oxidative stress, inflammation can have both detrimental and beneficial effects in skeletal muscle. In this review we will address the role of inflammation on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle...
December 13, 2016: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856654/adverse-events-of-glucocorticoids-during-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-lessons-from-cohort-and-registry-studies
#10
REVIEW
Johannes W J Bijlsma, Frank Buttgereit
Glucocorticoids have now been used for >65 years in the treatment of RA. There is good evidence for their disease-modifying effect, especially in early RA. When used in a dosage of 7.5-10 mg/day, most adverse effects can be handled quite well, although monitoring for and awareness of infections are important. Adverse events may have been overreported, due to bias by indication, but pose an important drawback in the use of these very effective anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory drugs. Daily dosages >7...
December 2016: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854251/nociceptive-trp-channels-sensory-detectors-and-transducers-in-multiple-pain-pathologies
#11
REVIEW
Aaron D Mickle, Andrew J Shepherd, Durga P Mohapatra
Specialized receptors belonging to the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ligand-gated ion channels constitute the critical detectors and transducers of pain-causing stimuli. Nociceptive TRP channels are predominantly expressed by distinct subsets of sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system. Several of these TRP channels are also expressed in neurons of the central nervous system, and in non-neuronal cells that communicate with sensory nerves. Nociceptive TRPs are activated by specific physico-chemical stimuli to provide the excitatory trigger in neurons...
November 14, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804992/an-anti-infective-synthetic-peptide-with-dual-antimicrobial-and-immunomodulatory-activities
#12
O N Silva, C de la Fuente-Núñez, E F Haney, I C M Fensterseifer, S M Ribeiro, W F Porto, P Brown, C Faria-Junior, T M B Rezende, S E Moreno, T K Lu, R E W Hancock, O L Franco
Antibiotic-resistant infections are predicted to kill 10 million people per year by 2050, costing the global economy $100 trillion. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative technologies. We have engineered a synthetic peptide called clavanin-MO, derived from a marine tunicate antimicrobial peptide, which exhibits potent antimicrobial and immunomodulatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. The peptide effectively killed a panel of representative bacterial strains, including multidrug-resistant hospital isolates...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802969/ibrutinib-efficacy-and-tolerability-in-patients-with-relapsed-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-following-allogeneic-hct
#13
Christine E Ryan, Bita Sahaf, Aaron C Logan, Susan O'Brien, John C Byrd, Peter Hillmen, Jennifer R Brown, Martin J S Dyer, Anthony R Mato, Michael J Keating, Samantha Jaglowski, Fong Clow, Andrew R Rezvani, Lori Styles, Steven E Coutre, David B Miklos
Ibrutinib, a potent and irreversible small-molecule inhibitor of both Bruton's tyrosine kinase and interleukin-2 inducible kinase (ITK), has been used to treat relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with prolongation of progression-free and overall survival. Here, we present 27 patients with relapsed CLL following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) who subsequently received ibrutinib salvage therapy. Sixteen of these patients were part of multi-institutional clinical trials and achieved an overall response rate of 87...
December 22, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802061/the-importance-of-correctly-timing-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Elham Beyranvand Nejad, Marij J P Welters, Ramon Arens, Sjoerd H van der Burg
The treatment options for cancer-surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy-are now supplemented with immunotherapy. Previously underappreciated but now gaining strong interest are the immune modulatory properties of the three conventional modalities. Moreover, there is a better understanding of the needs and potential of the different immune therapeutic platforms. Key to improved treatment will be the combinations of modalities that complete each other's shortcomings. Area covered: Tumor-specific T-cells are required for optimal immunotherapy...
January 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797796/glycine-receptor-antibody-associated-epilepsy-in-a-boy-aged-4%C3%A2-years
#15
Chinwe Ude, Gautam Ambegaonkar
Our patient was a previously normal boy who presented to his local hospital with an explosive onset of prolonged seizures and encephalopathy. He was treated for a presumed central nervous system infection and initial neuroimaging was normal. Despite treatment with antibiotics and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), he remained encephalopathic and became ataxic over the next 48 hours, not related to medication. The seizures also proved resistant to treatment despite polytherapy with AEDs, and he required immune-modulatory treatment, intravenous methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin, in addition to the AEDs to achieve seizure control...
October 19, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743705/emerging-role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-during-tuberculosis-the-fifth-element-in-cell-mediated-immunity
#16
Arshad Khan, Robert L Hunter, Chinnaswamy Jagannath
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic cells that occur in almost all human tissues and can be cultured and expanded to large numbers in vitro. They secrete growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines and express Toll-like receptors on their surface, although multiple cell biological mechanisms remain unclear. MSCs are multi-potent and can differentiate into many cell types including adipocytes, neuronal cells and osteoclasts. Despite gaps in cell biology, because of their immunomodulatory and regenerative capacity, several hundred clinical trials have used MSCs for therapy of cancer, autoimmune diseases and control of inflammation during organ transplantation...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727158/repurposing-treatments-to-enhance-innate-immunity-can-statins-improve-neutrophil-functions-and-clinical-outcomes-in-copd
#17
REVIEW
Georgia M Walton, James A Stockley, Diane Griffiths, Charandeep S Sadhra, Thomas Purvis, Elizabeth Sapey
Drug classes used in the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have not changed for many years, and none to date have shown disease-modifying activity. Statins are used to help reduce cardiovascular risk, which is high in many patients with COPD. Their use has been associated with improvements in some respiratory manifestations of disease and reduction in all-cause mortality, with greatest reductions seen in patients with the highest inflammatory burden. The mechanism for these effects is poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721837/medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-new-insights-into-molecular-mechanisms-and-cellular-therapeutic-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Lombard, Virginie Neirinckx, Bernard Rogister, Yves Gilon, Sabine Wislet
In recent years, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) became an arising disease due to the important antiresorptive drug prescriptions to treat oncologic and osteoporotic patients, as well as the use of new antiangiogenic drugs such as VEGF antagonist. So far, MRONJ physiopathogenesis still remains unclear. Aiming to better understand MRONJ physiopathology, the first objective of this review would be to highlight major molecular mechanisms that are known to be involved in bone formation and remodeling...
2016: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679506/quantifying-the-therapeutic-requirements-and-potential-for-combination-therapy-to-prevent-bacterial-coinfection-during-influenza
#19
Amber M Smith
Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) exacerbate influenza-associated disease and mortality. Antimicrobial agents can reduce the severity of SBIs, but many have limited efficacy or cause adverse effects. Thus, new treatment strategies are needed. Kinetic models describing the infection process can help determine optimal therapeutic targets, the time scale on which a drug will be most effective, and how infection dynamics will change under therapy. To understand how different therapies perturb the dynamics of influenza infection and bacterial coinfection and to quantify the benefit of increasing a drug's efficacy or targeting a different infection process, I analyzed data from mice treated with an antiviral, an antibiotic, or an immune modulatory agent with kinetic models...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659220/pharmacological-modulation-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#20
Antonio Gambardella, Angelo Labate, Pierangelo Cifelli, Gabriele Ruffolo, Laura Mumoli, Eleonora Aronica, Eleonora Palma
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis (Hs), possibly caused by a primary brain injury that occurs a long time before the appearance of neurological symptoms. MTLE-Hs is, however, a heterogeneous condition that evolves with time, involving both environmental and genetic components. Recent experimental studies emphasize that drugs or drug combinations that target modulation and circuitry reorganization of the epileptogenic networks favorably modify the complex molecular and cellular alterations underlying MTLE...
September 19, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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