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Cell cycle

M Mezzelani, S Gorbi, D Fattorini, G d'Errico, M Benedetti, M Milan, L Bargelloni, F Regoli
The aim of the present investigation was to provide new insights on accumulation and possible adverse effects of various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed to an environmentally realistic concentration (0.5μg/L) of individual compounds, Acetaminophen (AMP), Diclofenac (DIC), Ibuprofen (IBU), Ketoprofen (KET) or Nimesulide (NIM). The measurement of drugs in mussel tissues was integrated with both functional alterations at cellular level and transcriptomic responses...
October 11, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Anna Hojka-Osinska, Lucyna Budzko, Agnieszka Zmienko, Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Patrick Maillard, Agata Budkowska, Marek Figlerowicz, Paulina Jackowiak
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of chronic liver diseases. Unfortunately, the mechanisms of HCV infection-induced liver injury and host-virus interactions are still not well recognized. To better understand these processes we determined the changes in the host gene expression that occur during HCV infection of Huh-7.5 cells. As a result, we identified genes that may contribute to the immune and metabolic cellular responses to infection. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that HCV induced an increased expression of genes involved in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling, adipocytokine signaling, cell cycle and nitrogen metabolism...
October 25, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Agata Swiatkowska, Paulina Zydowicz, Joanna Sroka, Jerzy Ciesiołka
The p53 tumour suppressor protein is one of the major factors responsible for cell cycle regulation and protection against cancer development. This is why it is often referred to as "the guardian of the genome". On the other hand, mutations in the p53 gene are connected with more than 50% of tumours of various types. The thirty-six years of extensive research on the p53 gene and its protein products have shown how sophisticated the p53-based cell system control is. An additional level of complexity of the p53 research is connected with at least twelve p53 isoforms which have been identified in the cell...
October 25, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Christine Gross, Veit Wiesmann, Sebastian Millen, Martina Kalmer, Thomas Wittenberg, Jan Gettemans, Andrea K Thoma-Kress
The delta-retrovirus Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) preferentially infects CD4+ T-cells via cell-to-cell transmission. Viruses are transmitted by polarized budding and by transfer of viral biofilms at the virological synapse (VS). Formation of the VS requires the viral Tax protein and polarization of the host cytoskeleton, however, molecular mechanisms of HTLV-1 cell-to-cell transmission remain incompletely understood. Recently, we could show Tax-dependent upregulation of the actin-bundling protein Fascin (FSCN-1) in HTLV-1-infected T-cells...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Dai Horiuchi, Roman Camarda, Alicia Y Zhou, Christina Yau, Olga Momcilovic, Sanjeev Balakrishnan, Alexandra N Corella, Henok Eyob, Kai Kessenbrock, Devon A Lawson, Lindsey A Marsh, Brittany N Anderton, Julia Rohrberg, Ratika Kunder, Alexey V Bazarov, Paul Yaswen, Michael T McManus, Hope S Rugo, Zena Werb, Andrei Goga
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), in which cells lack expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR) and the ERBB2 (also known as HER2) receptor, is the breast cancer subtype with the poorest outcome. No targeted therapy is available against this subtype of cancer owing to a lack of validated molecular targets. We previously reported that signaling involving MYC-an essential, pleiotropic transcription factor that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes-is disproportionally higher in triple-negative (TN) tumors than in receptor-positive (RP) tumors...
October 24, 2016: Nature Medicine
M Vouri, D R Croucher, S P Kennedy, Q An, G J Pilkington, S Hafizi
Acquired resistance to conventional and targeted therapies is becoming a major hindrance in cancer management. It is increasingly clear that cancer cells are able to evolve and rewire canonical signalling pathways to their advantage, thus evading cell death and promoting cell invasion. The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) has been shown to modulate acquired resistance to EGFR-targeted therapies in both breast and lung cancers. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly infiltrative and invasive form of brain tumour with little response to therapy...
October 24, 2016: Oncogenesis
Angela Sorice, Francesco Siano, Francesca Capone, Eliana Guerriero, Gianluca Picariello, Alfredo Budillon, Gennaro Ciliberto, Marina Paolucci, Susan Costantini, Maria Grazia Volpe
In this study, a hydroalcoholic chestnut shell extract was characterized and tested on six different human cell lines. Gallic, ellagic, and syringic acids were the most abundant non-condensed compounds in the chestnut extract, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Tannins were mainly represented by condensed monomeric units of epigallocatechin and catechin/epicatechin. After 48 h of treatment, only the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells reached an inhibition corresponding to IC50 with an increase of apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization...
October 21, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kaiyu Qian, Gang Wang, Rui Cao, Tao Liu, Guofeng Qian, Xinyuan Guan, Zhongqiang Guo, Yu Xiao, Xinghuan Wang
Capsaicin (CAP), a highly selective agonist for transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), has been widely reported to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-inflammation and anticancer activities. Currently, several therapeutic approaches for bladder cancer (BCa) are available, but accompanied by unfavorable outcomes. Previous studies reported a potential clinical effect of CAP to prevent BCa tumorigenesis. However, its underlying molecular mechanism still remains unknown. Our transcriptome analysis suggested a close link among calcium signaling pathway, cell cycle regulation, ROS metabolism and FOXO signaling pathway in BCa...
October 21, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Elena Lenci, Riccardo Innocenti, Alessio Biagioni, Gloria Menchi, Francesca Bianchini, Andrea Trabocchi
The application of a cell-based growth inhibition on a library of skeletally different glycomimetics allowed for the selection of a hexahydro-2H-furo[3,2-b][1,4]oxazine compound as candidate inhibitors of MDA-MB-231 cell growth. Subsequent synthesis of analogue compounds and preliminary biological studies validated the selection of a valuable hit compound with a novel polyhydroxylated structure for the modulation of the breast carcinoma cell cycle mechanism.
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Minji Yang, GilJae Lee, Jiyeon Si, Sung-Joon Lee, Hyun Ju You, GwangPyo Ko
Phytochemicals provide environmentally friendly and relatively inexpensive natural products, which could potentially benefit public health by controlling human norovirus (HuNoV) infection. In this study, 18 different phytochemicals were evaluated for antiviral effects against norovirus using murine norovirus (MNV) as a model for norovirus biology. Among these phytochemicals, curcumin (CCM) was the most potent anti-noroviral phytochemical, followed by resveratrol (RVT). In a cell culture infection model, exposure to CCM or RVT for 3 days reduced infectivity of norovirus by 91% and 80%, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marcus von Nordheim, Michel Boinay, Remo Leisi, Christoph Kempf, Carlos Ros
Cutthroat trout virus (CTV) is a non-pathogenic fish virus belonging to the Hepeviridae family, and it is distantly related to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Here, we report the development of an efficient cell culture system where CTV can consistently replicate to titers never observed before with a hepevirus. By using the rainbow trout gill (RTGill-W1) cell line, CTV reaches 10(10) geq/mL intracellularly and 10⁸ geq/mL extracellularly within 5-6 days in culture. We additionally established a qPCR system to investigate CTV infectivity, and developed a specific antibody directed against the viral capsid protein encoded by ORF2...
October 20, 2016: Viruses
Vera L Tunitskaya, Olesja V Eliseeva, Vladimir T Valuev-Elliston, Daria A Tyurina, Natalia F Zakirova, Olga A Khomich, Martins Kalis, Oleg E Latyshev, Elizaveta S Starodubova, Olga N Ivanova, Sergey N Kochetkov, Maria G Isaguliants, Alexander V Ivanov
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a viroid-like blood-borne human pathogen that accompanies hepatitis B virus infection in 5% patients. HDV has been studied for four decades; however, the knowledge on its life-cycle and pathogenesis is still sparse. The studies are hampered by the absence of the commercially-available HDV-specific antibodies. Here, we describe a set of reproducible methods for the expression in E. coli of His-tagged small antigen of HDV (S-HDAg), its purification, and production of polyclonal anti-S-HDAg antibodies in rabbits...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Vjekoslav Tomaić
Approximately 200 human papillomaviruses (HPVs) infect human epithelial cells, of which the alpha and beta types have been the most extensively studied. Alpha HPV types mainly infect mucosal epithelia and a small group of these causes over 600,000 cancers per year worldwide at various anatomical sites, especially anogenital and head-and-neck cancers. Of these the most important is cervical cancer, which is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women in many parts of the world. Beta HPV types infect cutaneous epithelia and may contribute towards the initiation of non-melanoma skin cancers...
October 19, 2016: Cancers
Whasun Lim, Hyocheol Bae, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Eph and ephrin regulate diverse biological events such as proliferation, adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis through cell-to-cell interactions. However, little is known of their functional role and mechanisms of action in uterine endometrial cells. In the present study, we demonstrated the effects of the Eph and ephrin on interactions between blastocysts and endometrial luminal epithelial (pLE) cells in the pig that is regarded as an excellent biomedical animal model for research on the peri-implantation period of pregnancy...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Takashi Dejima, Kenjiro Imada, Ario Takeuchi, Masaki Shiota, Jeffrey Leong, Tabitha Tombe, Kevin Tam, Ladan Fazli, Seiji Naito, Martin E Gleave, Christopher J Ong
BACKGROUND: LIM and SH3 domain protein 1 (LASP1) has been implicated in several human malignancies and has been shown to predict PSA recurrence in prostate cancer. However, the anti-tumor effect of LASP1 knockdown and the association between LASP1 and the androgen receptor (AR) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to clarify the significance of LASP1 as a target for prostate cancer, and to test the effect of silencing LASP1 in vivo using antisense oligonucleotides (ASO). METHODS: A tissue microarray (TMA) was performed to characterize the differences in LASP1 expression in prostate cancer treated after hormone deprivation therapy...
October 24, 2016: Prostate
K B Skowron, S P Pitroda, J P Namm, O Balogun, M A Beckett, M L Zenner, O Fayanju, X Huang, C Fernandez, W Zheng, G Qiao, R Chin, S J Kron, N N Khodarev, M C Posner, G D Steinberg, R R Weichselbaum
Strategies to identify tumors at highest risk for treatment failure are currently under investigation for patients with bladder cancer. We demonstrate that flow cytometric detection of poorly differentiated basal tumor cells (BTCs), as defined by the co-expression of CD90, CD44 and CD49f, directly from patients with early stage tumors (T1-T2 and N0) and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) engraftment in locally advanced tumors (T3-T4 or N+) predict poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of bladder tumor cells isolated from PDXs indicates unique patterns of gene expression during bladder tumor cell differentiation...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anita Schlierf, Eva Altmann, Jean Quancard, Anne B Jefferson, René Assenberg, Martin Renatus, Matthew Jones, Ulrich Hassiepen, Michael Schaefer, Michael Kiffe, Andreas Weiss, Christian Wiesmann, Richard Sedrani, Jörg Eder, Bruno Martoglio
The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a central component of the activation and remodelling cycle of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs), the largest enzyme family of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in humans. CRLs are implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and aberrant CRL activity is frequently associated with cancer. Remodelling of CRLs is initiated by CSN-catalysed cleavage of the ubiquitin-like activator NEDD8 from CRLs. Here we describe CSN5i-3, a potent, selective and orally available inhibitor of CSN5, the proteolytic subunit of CSN...
October 24, 2016: Nature Communications
Shengnan Guo, Yuanyuan Wang, Yu Gao, Yinxu Zhang, Mingzi Chen, Minghao Xu, Lu Hu, Yu Jing, Fangyu Jing, Chen Li, Qingjun Wang, Zhitu Zhu
BACKGROUND High mobility group-box 3 (HMGB3) has been shown to affect tumor initiation and progression. This research aimed to investigate the role of HMGB3 in gastric cancer (GC) cell proliferation, migration, invasion, chemoresistance, and its potential molecular mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS GC MGC803 and BGC823 cells were transfected with siRNA targeting the HMGB3 gene. The expressions of HMGB3 protein in MGC803 and BGC823 cells after transfection were detected by Western blot assays. We detected cell proliferation and cell cycle by MTT and flow cytometry assay...
October 24, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Yongzhou Wang, Jiyi Xia, Xiaoping Tang, Li Tang, Xiguang Mao, Yujiao Zhang, Xiaolan Yu
Objective To investigate the effects of baicalein and U0126 treatment on the apoptosis of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and the potential mechanism. Methods HeLa cells were subjected to (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 300) μmol/L baicalein or (1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30) μmol/L U0126 treatment for 24 hours. The optimal concentrations of baicalein and U0126 for HeLa inhibition was determined by a cell counting Kit-8 assay. HeLa cells were then treated with these inhibitory concentrations for 24 hours separately or in combination...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
Yayun Jiang, Ting Wang, Jinshu Wang, Jing Xia, Liyao Gou, Mengyao Liu, Yan Zhang
Objective To investigate the effect of overexpressed inhibitor of β-catenin and T cell factor (ICAT) on the proliferation and migration of human cervical cancer Caski cells. Methods Caski cells were transfected with ICAT recombinant adenovirus (AdICAT). The levels of ICAT mRNA and protein were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Effect of ICAT overexpression on proliferation, cell cycle and migration in Caski cells was respectively evaluated by MTT assay, flow cytometry and Transwell(TM) migration assays...
November 2016: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
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