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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087520/atheroprotective-vaccination-with-mhc-ii-restricted-apob-peptides-induces-peritoneal-il-10-producing-cd4-t-cells
#1
Takayuki Kimura, Kevin Tse, Sara McArdle, Teresa Gerhardt, Jacqueline Miller, Zbigniew Mikulski, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
Although immunization with MHC class II-restricted ApoB peptides has been shown to be atheroprotective, the mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated CD4(+) T cell populations in immunized atherosclerotic mice. Peptides (16-mers) from mouse ApoB, the core protein of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), were screened for binding to I-A(b) by computer prediction and confirmed by radiolabeled peptide competition. Three new peptides, P101 (FGKQGFFPDSVNKALY, 5.5 nM IC50), P102 (TLYALSHAVNSYFDVD, 6.8 nM), and P103 (LYYKEDKTSLSASAAS, 95 nM) were tested in an atherosclerosis model (Apoe(-/-) mice on western diet)...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086872/dapagliflozin-decreases-small-dense-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-increases-high-density-lipoprotein-2-cholesterol-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-comparison-with-sitagliptin
#2
Toshiyuki Hayashi, Tomoyasu Fukui, Noriko Nakanishi, Saki Yamamoto, Masako Tomoyasu, Anna Osamura, Makoto Ohara, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yasuki Ito, Tsutomu Hirano
BACKGROUND: The sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been reported to increase both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C). This study aimed to determine how SGLT-2 inhibitors affect LDL and HDL-C subspecies. METHODS: This single center, open-label, randomized, prospective study included 80 patients with type 2 diabetes taking prescribed oral hypoglycemic agents. Patients were allocated to receive dapagliflozin (n = 40) or sitagliptin (n = 40) as add-on treatment...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078998/lipoprotein-a-management-pharmacological-and-apheretic-treatment
#3
Ruth Hanssen, Ioanna Gouni-Berthold
Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-like particle with an additional apolipoprotein, apolipoprotein (a), [apo(a)] attached to apolipoprotein B. Recent epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies have provided evidence that Lp(a) is causally related to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk association between Lp(a) concentrations and CVD is still controversial but seems to be continuous and without an obvious threshold Lp(a) level. Circulating concentrations of Lp(a) are genetically determined; desirable levels are amplt; 50 mg/dl...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078862/a-placebo-controlled-trial-of-a-proprietary-lipid-lowering-nutraceutical-supplement-in-the-management-of-dyslipidemia
#4
M Houston, R Rountree, J Lamb, S Phipps, S Meng, B Zhang
There is an ever growing emergence in the popularity of patient-driven care. As this health and wellness model grows, inquiries into diet, lifestyle, and supplemental approaches will continue to become a focal point for the healthcare consumer. Because of this, the aim of this study is to determine the tolerability, and overall effectiveness of a proprietary multi-ingredient lipid-lowering supplement in subjects with dyslipidemia. Forty participants were recruited for a single-center, double-blind randomized, placebocontrolled trial...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076836/the-metabolic-syndrome-and-10-year-cognitive-and-functional-decline-in-very-old-men-a-population-based-study
#5
Giovanni Viscogliosi, Chiara Donfrancesco, Luigi Palmieri, Simona Giampaoli
OBJECTIVES: To describe longitudinal relationships of metabolic syndrome (MetS) to cognitive decline and functional disability in a sample of older non-institutionalized men. METHODS: data from 1991 to 2000 of the Italian cohorts of the Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Elderly (FINE) study, were used. Global cognitive function and functional disability, defined as limitations in mobility, basic (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) were screened in 1991 and 2000...
January 3, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076599/applicability-of-the-spoken-knowledge-in-low-literacy-patients-with-diabetes-in-brazilian-elderly
#6
Jonas Gordilho Souza, Daniel Apolinario, José Marcelo Farfel, Omar Jaluul, Regina Miksian Magaldi, Alexandre Leopold Busse, Flávia Campora, Wilson Jacob-Filho
Objective: To translate, adapt and evaluate the properties of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes, which is a questionnaire that evaluate diabetes knowledge. Methods: A cross-sectional study with type 2 diabetes patients aged ≥60 years, seen at a public healthcare organization in the city of Sao Paulo (SP). After the development of the Portuguese version, we evaluated the psychometrics properties and the association with sociodemographic and clinical variables...
October 2016: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070240/newer-perspectives-of-coronary-artery-disease-in-young
#7
REVIEW
Amitesh Aggarwal, Saurabh Srivastava, M Velmurugan
Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurring in less than 45 years of age is termed as young CAD. Recent studies show a prevalence of 1.2% of CAD cases in this age group. Ethnic wise south Asians especially Indians are more vulnerable to have CAD in young age group with a prevalence of 5% to 10%. Conventional risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and family history seems to be as important as in older CAD subjects. But the prevalence of these risk factors seems to vary in younger subjects...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067100/effects-of-a-single-bout-of-strenuous-exercise-on-platelet-activation-in-female-apoe-ldlr-mice
#8
K Przyborowski, H Kassassir, M Wojewoda, K Kmiecik, B Sitek, K Siewiera, A Zakrzewska, A M Rudolf, R Kostogrys, C Watala, J A Zoladz, S Chlopicki
Strenuous physical exercise leads to platelet activation that is normally counterbalanced by the production of endothelium-derived anti-platelet mediators, including prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO). However, in the case of endothelial dysfunction, e.g. in atherosclerosis, there exists an increased risk for intravascular thrombosis during exercise that might be due to an impairment in endothelial anti-platelet mechanisms. In the present work, we evaluated platelet activation at rest and following a single bout of strenuous treadmill exercise in female ApoE/LDLR(-)(/-) mice with early (3-month-old) and advanced (7-month-old) atherosclerosis compared to female age-matched WT mice...
January 9, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063932/crystal-structure-of-deep-vent-dna-polymerase
#9
Yasushi Hikida, Michiko Kimoto, Ichiro Hirao, Shigeyuki Yokoyama
DNA polymerases are useful tools in various biochemical experiments. We have focused on the DNA polymerases involved in DNA replication including the unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and 2-nitro-4-propynylpyrrole (Px). Many reports have described the different combinations between unnatural base pairs and DNA polymerases. As an example, for the replication of the Ds-Px pair, Deep Vent DNA polymerase exhibits high efficiency and fidelity, but Taq DNA polymerase shows much lower efficiency and fidelity...
January 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063515/the-benefits-of-%C3%AF-3-supplementation-depend-on-adiponectin-basal-level-and-adiponectin-increase-after-the-supplementation-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Milena Maria de Araújo Lima Barbosa, Alexandra Lorenzzi Trinanes Raposo de Melo, Nágila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze whether ω-3 supplementation improves cardiometabolic profile in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors and to determine the effect of adiponectin levels on these changes. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-mo clinical trial, we randomized 80 individuals of both sexes (mean age 52 y) with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (excess weight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or smoking) into two groups: ω-3 (supplemented with 3 g/d of fish oil containing 37% eicosapentaenoic acid and 23% docosahexaenoic acid) and placebo (3 g/d of sunflower oil containing 65% linoleic acid)...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062540/adiponectin-association-with-t-cadherin-protects-against-neointima-proliferation-and-atherosclerosis
#11
Yuya Fujishima, Norikazu Maeda, Keisuke Matsuda, Shigeki Masuda, Takuya Mori, Shiro Fukuda, Ryohei Sekimoto, Masaya Yamaoka, Yoshinari Obata, Shunbun Kita, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Tohru Funahashi, Barbara Ranscht, Iichiro Shimomura
Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein abundant in the circulation, is thought to be protective against atherosclerosis. However, it is not fully understood how the association of adiponectin with vascular cells and its antiatherogenic effect are connected. In this study, T-cadherin was essential for accumulation of adiponectin in the neointima and atherosclerotic plaque lesions, and the adiponectin-T-cadherin association protected against vascular injury. In the apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice, adiponectin, and T-cadherin colocalized on endothelial cells and synthetic smooth muscle cells in the aortic intima...
January 6, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057518/structural-and-molecular-determinants-affecting-the-interaction-of-retinol-with-human-crbp1
#12
Ilaria Menozzi, Francesca Vallese, Eugenia Polverini, Claudia Folli, Rodolfo Berni, Giuseppe Zanotti
Four cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) types (CRBP1,2,3,4) are encoded in the human genome. Here, we report on X-ray analyses of human apo- and holo-CRBP1, showing nearly identical structures, at variance with the results of a recent study on the same proteins containing a His-Tag, which appears to be responsible for a destabilizing effect on the apoprotein. The analysis of crystallographic B-factors for our structures indicates that the putative portal region, in particular α-helix-II, along with Arg58 and the E-F loop, is the most flexible part of both apo- and holoprotein, consistent with its role in ligand uptake and release...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054967/expression-purification-and-biophysical-characterization-of-a-secreted-anthrax-decoy-fusion-protein-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#13
Kalimuthu Karuppanan, Sifti Duhra-Gill, Muchena J Kailemia, My L Phu, Carlito B Lebrilla, Abhaya M Dandekar, Raymond L Rodriguez, Somen Nandi, Karen A McDonald
Anthrax toxin receptor-mediated drug development for blocking anthrax toxin action has received much attention in recent decades. In this study, we produced a secreted anthrax decoy fusion protein comprised of a portion of the human capillary morphogenesis gene-2 (CMG2) protein fused via a linker to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain of human immunoglobulin G1 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using a transient expression system. Using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter and co-expression with the p19 gene silencing suppressor, we were able to achieve a high level of recombinant CMG2-Fc-Apo (rCMG2-Fc-Apo) protein accumulation...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040783/polygenic-control-of-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-a-balb-cj-x-sm-j-intercross-and-a-combined-cross-involving-multiple-mouse-strains
#14
Andrew T Grainger, Michael B Jones, Mei-Hua Chen, Weibin Shi
Atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries is a major cause of ischemic stroke, which accounts for 85% of all stroke cases. Genetic factors contributing to carotid atherosclerosis remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify chromosomal regions harboring genes contributing to carotid atherosclerosis in mice. 228 female F2 mice were generated from an intercross between BALB/cJ (BALB) and SM/J (SM) apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice and fed 12 weeks of western diet. Atherosclerotic lesion sizes in the left carotid artery were quantified...
December 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038380/the-p2y2-nucleotide-receptor-is-an-inhibitor-of-vascular-calcification
#15
Shaomin Qian, Jenna N Regan, Maxwell T Shelton, April Hoggatt, Khalid S Mohammad, Paul B Herring, Cheikh I Seye
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mutations in the 5'-nucleotidase ecto (NT5E) gene that encodes CD73, a nucleotidase that converts AMP to adenosine, are linked to arterial calcification. However, the role of purinergic receptor signaling in the pathology of intimal calcification is not well understood. In this study, we examined whether extracellular nucleotides acting via P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R) modulate arterial intimal calcification, a condition highly correlated with cardiovascular morbidity. METHODS: Apolipoprotein E, P2Y2R double knockout mice (ApoE(-/-)P2Y2R(-/-)) were used to determine the effect of P2Y2R deficiency on vascular calcification in vivo...
December 15, 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034013/crystal-structure-of-staphylococcus-aureus-zn-glyoxalase-i-new-subfamily-of-glyoxalase-i-family
#16
Yuri N Chirgadze, Eugenia A Boshkova, Kevin P Battaile, Vitor G Mendes, Robert Lam, Tiffany S Y Chan, Vladimir Romanov, Emil F Pai, Nickolay Y Chirgadze
The crystal structures of protein SA0856 from Staphylococcus aureus in its apo-form and in complex with a Zn(2+)-ion have been presented. The 152 amino acid protein consists of two similar domains with α+β topology. In both crystalline state and in solution, the protein forms a dimer with monomers related by a two-fold pseudo-symmetry rotation axis. A sequence homology search identified the protein as a member of the structural family Glyoxalase I. We have shown the enzyme possesses glyoxalase I activity in the presence of Zn(2+), Mg(2+), Ni(2+) and Co(2+), in this order of preference...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028493/mutation-detection-in-chinese-patients-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia
#17
Ran Du, Liang-Liang Fan, Min-Jie Lin, Zhi-Jian He, Hao Huang, Ya-Qin Chen, Jing-Jing Li, Kun Xia, Shui-Ping Zhao, Rong Xiang
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the first molecularly and clinically characterized genetic disease of lipid metabolism. It is an autosomal dominant disorder with significantly elevated levels of total cholesterol and low density of lipoprotein cholesterol in serum, which would lead to extensive xanthomas and premature coronary heart disease. Mutations in low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 and Apo lipoprotein B-100 (APOB) have been identified to be the underlying cause of this disease...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028143/abca1-apoe-hdl-pathway-mediates-gw3965-induced-neurorestoration-after-stroke
#18
Xu Cui, Michael Chopp, Zhenggang Zhang, Rongwen Li, Alex Zacharek, Julie Landschoot-Ward, Poornima Venkat, Jieli Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is a major reverse cholesterol transporter and plays critical role in the formation of brain high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the most abundant apolipoprotein and transports cholesterol into cells in brain. ABCA1 and ApoE are upregulated by liver-X receptors. Activation of liver-X receptors has neurorestorative benefit for stroke. The current study investigates whether ABCA1/ApoE/HDL pathway mediates GW3965, a synthetic dual liver-X receptor agonist, induced neurorestoration after stroke...
December 27, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025282/memory-resilience-to-alzheimer-s-genetic-risk-sex-effects-in-predictor-profiles
#19
Kirstie L McDermott, G Peggy McFall, Shea J Andrews, Kaarin J Anstey, Roger A Dixon
OBJECTIVES: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 and Clusterin (CLU) C alleles are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and episodic memory (EM) decline. Memory resilience occurs when genetically at-risk adults perform at high and sustained levels. We investigated whether (a) memory resilience to AD genetic risk is predicted by biological and other risk markers and (b) the prediction profiles vary by sex and AD risk variant. METHOD: Using a longitudinal sample of nondemented adults (n = 642, aged 53-95) we focused on memory resilience (over 9 years) to 2 AD risk variants (APOE, CLU)...
December 26, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019668/monosialyl-ganglioside-gm3-decreases-apolipoprotein-b-100-secretion-in-liver-cells
#20
Hyunju Choi, Un-Ho Jin, Sung-Koo Kang, Fukushi Abekura, Jun-Young Park, Kyung-Min Kwon, Seok-Jong Suh, Seung-Hak Cho, Ki-Tae Ha, Young-Coon Lee, Tae-Wook Chung, Cheorl-Ho Kim
Some sialic acid-containing glycolipids are known to regulate development of atherosclerosis with accumulated plasma apolipoprotein B-100 (Apo-B)-containing lipoproteins, because Apo-B as an atherogenic apolipoprotein is assembled mainly in VLDL and LDL. Previously, we have elucidated that disialyl GD3 promotes the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) gene expression and secretion of triglyceride (TG)-assembled ApoB, claiming the GD3 role in ApoB lipoprotein secretion in liver cells. In the synthetic pathway of gangliosides, GD3 is synthesized by addition of a sialic acid residue to GM3...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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