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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231996/molecular-mechanisms-of-tributyltin-induced-alterations-in-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-steroidogenesis-in-hamster-testis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-studies
#1
V Kanimozhi, K Palanivel, M A Akbarsha, B Kadalmani
Tributyltins (TBT) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants that disturb normal endocrine function including gonadal function in humans and marine organisms. TBT was administered through oral route to male Syrian hamsters at daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 ppm/kg for 65 days. Changes in testis morphology, immunohistochemistry of iNOS, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD, cholesterol transport receptor, nuclear receptors, and transcription factors were analyzed. TBT treatment affected each of these parameters to significant levels in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle treated control...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226138/effects-of-astaxanthin-on-reverse-cholesterol-transport-and-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#2
Tang-Bin Zou, Shan-Shan Zhu, Fei Luo, Wei-Qiao Li, Xue-Rong Sun, Hong-Fu Wu
High plasma level of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) has been consistently associated with a decreased risk of atherosclerosis (AS); thus, HDL-C is considered to be an antiatherogenic lipoprotein. The development of novel therapies to enhance the atheroprotective properties of HDL may have the possibility of further reducing the residual AS risk. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is believed to be a primary atheroprotective activity of HDL, which has been shown to promote the efflux of excess cholesterol from macrophage-derived foam cells via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and then transport it back to the liver for excretion into bile and eventually into the feces...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217477/activation-of-hepatic-nogo-b-receptor-expression-a-new-anti-liver-steatosis-mechanism-of-statins
#3
Wenwen Zhang, Xiaoxiao Yang, Yuanli Chen, Wenquan Hu, Lipei Liu, Xiaomeng Zhang, Mengyang Liu, Lei Sun, Ying Liu, Miao Yu, Xiaoju Li, Luyuan Li, Yan Zhu, Qing Robert Miao, Jihong Han, Yajun Duan
Deficiency of hepatic Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) expression activates liver X receptor α (LXRα) in an adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα)-dependent manner, thereby inducing severe hepatic lipid accumulation and hypertriglyceridemia. Statins have been demonstrated non-cholesterol lowering effects including anti-nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Herein, we investigated if the anti-NAFLD function of statins depends on activation of NgBR expression. In vivo, atorvastatin protected apoE deficient or NgBR floxed, but not hepatic NgBR deficient mice, against Western diet (WD)-increased triglyceride levels in liver and serum...
December 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216624/sildenafil-viagra%C3%A2-prevents-cox-1-txa2-pathway-mediated-vascular-hypercontractility-in-apoe-mice
#4
Marcos A S Leal, Ananda T Dias, Marcella L Porto, Bruna F Brun, Agata L Gava, Silvana S Meyrelles, José Gil-Longo, Manuel Campos-Toimil, Thiago M C Pereira, Elisardo C Vasquez
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mouse exhibits impaired vasodilation and enhanced vasoconstriction responsiveness. The objectives of this study were: a) to determine the relative contribution of cyclooxygenases (Cox-1 and Cox-2), thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) to enhancing vascular hyperresponsiveness in this model of atherosclerosis and b) to investigate the beneficial effects of the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil on this endothelial dysfunction...
December 7, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215900/apoe-e4-genotype-and-lifestyle-interaction-on-cognitive-performance-results-of-the-life-adult-study
#5
Francisca S Rodriguez, Matthias L Schroeter, Katrin Arélin, A Veronica Witte, Ronny Baber, Ralph Burkhardt, Christoph Engel, Markus Löffler, Joachim Thiery, Arno Villringer, Tobias Luck, Steffi G Riedel-Heller
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that the e4-allele of the APOE gene is associated with a higher risk of developing dementia. Our study investigated whether well-known associations between lifestyle factors and cognitive functioning may be stronger in individuals who carry the dementia risk variant of the APOE gene and whether this association is amplified with older age. METHOD: Data analysis comprised 7,526 participants (aged 40- to 79-years-old) from the population-based LIFE-Adult-study...
December 7, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215758/plin5-deficiency-promotes-atherosclerosis-progression-through-accelerating-inflammation-apoptosis-and-oxidative-stress
#6
Peng-Li Zhou, Min Li, Xin-Wei Han, Yong-Hua Bi, Wen-Guang Zhang, Zheng-Yang Wu, Gang Wu
Excessive plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels promote the progression of several prevalent cardiovascular risk factors, including atherosclerosis, which is a leading death cause. Perilipin 5 (Plin5), an important perilipin protein, is abundant in tissues with very active lipid catabolism, and is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress. Although, in?ammation and oxidative stress play a critical role in atherosclerosis development, the underlying mechanisms are complex and not completely understood...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212317/targeted-measurements-of-o-and-n-glycopeptides-show-that-proteins-in-hdl-particles-are-enriched-with-specific-glycosylation-compared-to-plasma
#7
Muchena J Kailemia, Wanghui Wei, Khoa Nguyen, Elizabeth Beals, Lisa Sawrey-Kubicek, Christopher Rhodes, Chenghao Zhu, Romina Sacchi, Angela M Zivkovic, Carlito B Lebrilla
High density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are believed to be protective due to their inverse correlation with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. However, recent studies show that in some conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, HDL particles can become dysfunctional. Great attention has been directed toward HDL particle composition because the relative abundances of HDL constituents determine HDL's functional properties. A key factor to consider when studying the structure and composition of plasma particles is the protein glycosylation...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212314/rapid-changes-in-serum-lipid-profiles-during-combination-therapy-with-daclatasvir-and-asunaprevir-in-patients-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1b
#8
Takeshi Chida, Kazuhito Kawata, Kazuyoshi Ohta, Erika Matsunaga, Jun Ito, Shin Shimoyama, Satoru Yamazaki, Hidenao Noritake, Tetsuro Suzuki, Takafumi Suda, Yoshimasa Kobayashi
Background/Aims: Changes in lipid profiles in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during direct-acting antiviral therapy have been reported in recent years. However, the clinical aspects of disturbed lipid metabolism in chronic HCV infection have not been fully elucidated. Methods: Dynamic changes in serum total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein levels in patients infected with HCV genotype 1b were examined during combination therapy with daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV)...
December 8, 2017: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207695/association-of-glycated-haemoglobin-and-serum-apolipoproteins-with-diabetic-retinopathy-an-indian-overview
#9
Bhasker Mukherjee, Sandeep Shankar, Rehan Ahmed, Kanchan Singh, Kapil Bhatia
Introduction: India is presently facing an epidemic of diabetes mellitus and the risks of chronic complications from the disease are associated with the duration of the disease as well as the degree of hyperglycaemia. Diabetic retinopathy is a known microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is the most common cause of blindness in the western countries.Apolipoproteins are the protein component of lipoproteins. Apart from acting as structural proteins, they also act as cofactors to various enzymes...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202182/capped-rna-primer-binding-to-influenza-polymerase-and-implications-for-the-mechanism-of-cap-binding-inhibitors
#10
Alexander Pflug, Stephanie Gaudon, Patricia Resa-Infante, Mathilde Lethier, Stefan Reich, Wiebke M Schulze, Stephen Cusack
Influenza polymerase uses short capped primers snatched from nascent Pol II transcripts to initiate transcription of viral mRNAs. Here we describe crystal structures of influenza A and B polymerase bound to a capped primer in a configuration consistent with transcription initiation ('priming state') and show by functional assays that conserved residues from both the PB2 midlink and cap-binding domains are important for positioning the capped RNA. In particular, mutation of PB2 Arg264, which interacts with the triphosphate linkage in the cap, significantly and specifically decreases cap-dependent transcription...
November 30, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199201/effects-of-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitor-sitagliptin-on-glycemic-control-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-gloria-trial
#11
Daisaku Masuda, Takuya Kobayashi, Masami Sairyou, Hiroyuki Hanada, Tohru Ohama, Masahiro Koseki, Makoto Nishida, Norikazu Maeda, Shinji Kihara, Tatsuya Minami, Koji Yanagi, Yasushi Sakata, Shizuya Yamashita
AIM: The morbidity of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) deteriorates in combination with dyslipidemia. The accumulation of remnant lipoproteins in patients with fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is highly atherogenic. The current study investigated whether the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin ameliorates dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. METHODS: We enrolled 38 patients with type 2 DM (20 males and 18 females, 65...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197606/elevated-plasma-levels-of-ldl-cholesterol-promote-dissecting-thoracic-aortic-aneurysms-in-angiotensin-ii-induced-mice
#12
Hiroki Tanaka, Yasunori Iida, Takayuki Iwaki, Yuko Suzuki, Hideto Sano, Chiharu Miyajima, Nobuhiro Zaima, Takeshi Sasaki, Ayato Sumioka, Shogo Hakamata, Hideyuki Shimizu, Kazuo Umemura, Tetsumei Urano
BACKGROUND: Plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol is implicated in aortic aneurysm (AA) and dissection (AD); however, its role in the pathogenesis of AA and AD, a disease with a high mortality rate, is unknown. The existing animal models such as apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice cannot reproduce all the conditions of AA/AD, including elevated LDL-cholesterol levels and spontaneous atheroma formation; therefore, a more reliable in vivo model is required. Here, we analyzed angiotensin II-induced mice with combined deficiency of the LDL receptor and the catalytic component of the apolipoprotein B-edisome complex (Ldlr-/-/Apobec1-/-) to understand AA formation and AD occurrence in relation to plasma lipid composition...
November 29, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189302/sex-differences-in-neuropsychological-test-performance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-the-influence-of-the-apoe-genotype
#13
Maria Tensil, Johannes B Hessler, Maria Gutsmiedl, Lina Riedl, Timo Grimmer, Janine Diehl-Schmid
BACKGROUND: Only few studies exist reporting sex differences in the Alzheimer disease (AD) patients regarding cognitive profile, brain damage, and risk factors. The present study investigated the influence of sex in combination with the Alzheimer risk allele, ε4-allele of apolipoprotein E, on cognitive performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the effect of sex and ApoE genotype on a range of neuropsychological markers from the German version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry in Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Battery in a monocentric study of 399 AD patients...
November 17, 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188876/association-of-cortical-%C3%AE-amyloid-with-erythrocyte-membrane-monounsaturated-and-saturated-fatty-acids-in-older-adults-at-risk-of-dementia
#14
C Hooper, P De Souto Barreto, P Payoux, A S Salabert, S Guyonnet, S Andrieu, S Sourdet, J Delrieu, B Vellas
OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationships between erythrocyte membrane monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and cortical β-amyloid (Aβ) load in older adults reporting subjective memory complaints. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study using data from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT); a randomised controlled trial. SETTING: French community dwellers aged 70 or over reporting subjective memory complaints, but free from a diagnosis of clinical dementia...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186695/amyloid-accumulation-drives-proteome-wide-alterations-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology
#15
Jeffrey N Savas, Yi-Zhi Wang, Laura A DeNardo, Salvador Martinez-Bartolome, Daniel B McClatchy, Timothy J Hark, Natalie F Shanks, Kira A Cozzolino, Mathieu Lavallée-Adam, Samuel N Smukowski, Sung Kyu Park, Jeffery W Kelly, Edward H Koo, Terunaga Nakagawa, Eliezer Masliah, Anirvan Ghosh, John R Yates
Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides impair multiple cellular pathways and play a causative role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, but how the brain proteome is remodeled by this process is unknown. To identify protein networks associated with AD-like pathology, we performed global quantitative proteomic analysis in three mouse models at young and old ages. Our analysis revealed a robust increase in Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) levels in nearly all brain regions with increased Aβ levels. Taken together with prior findings on ApoE driving Aβ accumulation, this analysis points to a pathological dysregulation of the ApoE-Aβ axis...
November 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183623/role-of-angiopoietin-like-3-angptl3-in-regulating-plasma-level-of-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol
#16
Yu-Xin Xu, Valeska Redon, Haojie Yu, William Querbes, James Pirruccello, Abigail Liebow, Amy Deik, Kevin Trindade, Xiao Wang, Kiran Musunuru, Clary B Clish, Chad Cowan, Kevin Fizgerald, Daniel Rader, Sekar Kathiresan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) has emerged as a key regulator of lipoprotein metabolism in humans. Homozygous loss of ANGPTL3 function causes familial combined hypolipidemia characterized by low plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). While known effects of ANGPTL3 in inhibiting lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase contribute to the low TG and HDL-C, respectively, the basis of low LDL-C remains unclear...
September 21, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181489/the-alzheimer-s-prevention-initiative-generation-program-evaluating-cnp520-efficacy-in-the-prevention-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
C Lopez Lopez, A Caputo, F Liu, M E Riviere, M-L Rouzade-Dominguez, R G Thomas, J B Langbaum, R Lenz, E M Reiman, A Graf, P N Tariot
Alzheimer's disease pathology begins decades before the onset of clinical symptoms. This provides an opportunity for interventional clinical trials to potentially delay or prevent the onset of cognitive impairment or dementia. CNP520 (a beta-site-amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme inhibitor) is in clinical development for the treatment of preclinical Alzheimer's disease under the Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative Generation Program. The Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative is a public-private partnership intended to accelerate the evaluation of Alzheimer's disease prevention therapies...
2017: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178324/effect-of-lsr-polymorphism-on-blood-lipid-levels-and-age-specific-epistatic-interaction-with-the-apoe-common-polymorphism
#18
T Xie, M G Stathopoulou, S Akbar, T Oster, G Siest, F T Yen, S Visvikis-Siest
The lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is an apolipoprotein (Apo) B and ApoE receptor that participates in the removal of TG-rich lipoproteins during the postprandial phase. LSR gene is located upstream of APOE, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since the APOE common polymorphism significantly affects the variability of lipid metabolism, this study aimed to determine the potential impact of a functional SNP rs916147 in LSR gene on lipid traits in healthy subjects and to investigate potential epistatic interaction between LSR and APOE...
November 27, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177679/polygenic-hazard-score-an-enrichment-marker-for-alzheimer-s-associated-amyloid-and-tau-deposition
#19
Chin Hong Tan, Chun Chieh Fan, Elizabeth C Mormino, Leo P Sugrue, Iris J Broce, Christopher P Hess, William P Dillon, Luke W Bonham, Jennifer S Yokoyama, Celeste M Karch, James B Brewer, Gil D Rabinovici, Bruce L Miller, Gerard D Schellenberg, Karolina Kauppi, Howard A Feldman, Dominic Holland, Linda K McEvoy, Bradley T Hyman, David A Bennett, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Rahul S Desikan
There is an urgent need for identifying nondemented individuals at the highest risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Here, we evaluated whether a recently validated polygenic hazard score (PHS) can be integrated with known in vivo cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or positron emission tomography (PET) biomarkers of amyloid, and CSF tau pathology to prospectively predict cognitive and clinical decline in 347 cognitive normal (CN; baseline age range = 59.7-90.1, 98.85% white) and 599 mild cognitively impaired (MCI; baseline age range = 54...
November 24, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177105/investigating-molecular-connections-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-with-associated-pathological-conditions-in-west-virginia-for-biomarker-analysis
#20
Dana L Sharma, Hari Vishal Lakhani, Rebecca L Klug, Brian Snoad, Rawan El-Hamdani, Joseph I Shapiro, Komal Sodhi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a disease characterized by a steatosis of the liver that may progress to more serious pathological conditions including: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and cirrhosis. As the prevalence of NAFLD has increased worldwide in recent years, pathophysiology and risk factors associated with disease progression of NAFLD are at the focus of many studies. NAFLD is related to and shares common serum biomarkers with cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and metabolic syndrome (MetS)...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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