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hiv 2016

Louisa Gilbert, Tina Jiwatram-Negron, Danil Nikitin, Olga Rychkova, Tara McCrimmon, Irena Ermolaeva, Nadejda Sharonova, Aibek Mukambetov, Timothy Hunt
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV) are serious public health threats among women who use drugs or engage in binge drinking in Kyrgyzstan. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary effects of a two-session IPV and GBV screening, brief intervention and referral to treatment model (WINGS) with HIV counselling and testing for women who use drugs or engage in binge drinking in Kyrgyzstan, using a pre/post-design...
October 22, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Sonia Menon, Aibibula Wusiman, Marie Claude Boily, Mbabazi Kariisa, Hillary Mabeya, Stanley Luchters, Frode Forland, Rodolfo Rossi, Steven Callens, Davy Vanden Broeck
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the HIV positive population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Kenya. This may be different from genotypes found in abnormal cytology. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18, and the nonavalent vaccine targeting 90% of all ICC cases, such HPV genotype distribution data are indispensable for predicting the impact of vaccination and HPV screening on prevention...
2016: PloS One
Mahar Fatima, Bharat Prajapati, Kanza Saleem, Rina Kumari, Chitra Mohindar Singh Singal, Pankaj Seth
Astroglia are indispensable component of the tripartite synapse ensheathing innumerous soma and synapses. Its proximity to neurons aids the regulation of neuronal functions, health and survival through dynamic neuroglia crosstalk. Susceptibility of astrocyte to HIV-1 infection and subsequent latency culminates in compromised neuronal health. The viral protein HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) is neurotoxic. HIV-1 Tat is detected in brain of AIDS patients even in cases where viral load is non-detectable due to successful HAART therapy...
October 20, 2016: Glia
Fiona H McKay, Christina Cheng, Annemarie Wright, Jane Shill, Hugh Stephens, Mary Uccellini
INTRODUCTION: Increasing smartphones access has allowed for increasing development and use of smart phone applications (apps). Mobile health interventions have previously relied on voice or text-based short message services (SMS), however, the increasing availability and ease of use of apps has allowed for significant growth of smartphone apps that can be used for health behaviour change. This review considers the current body of knowledge relating to the evaluation of apps for health behaviour change...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Sybil Hosek, Connie Celum, Craig M Wilson, Bill Kapogiannis, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents and young adults aged <25 are a key population in the HIV epidemic, with very high HIV incidence rates in many geographic settings and a large number who have limited access to prevention services. Thus, any biomedical HIV prevention approach should prepare licensure and implementation strategies for young populations. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the first antiretroviral-based prevention intervention with proven efficacy across many settings and populations, and regulatory and policy approvals at global and national levels are occurring rapidly...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Stephen A Migueles, Mark Connors
CD8(+) T cells that recognize peptides presented by MHC class II molecules have been observed in a macaque SIV vaccine model. A new study by Ranasinghe et al. (2016) shows that virus-specific class-II-restricted CD8(+) T cells can be found in some HIV-infected patients.
October 18, 2016: Immunity
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Huilian Wang, Xi Lu, Xudong Yang, Nan Xu
BACKGROUND: To date, a definite conclusion about efficiency and safety of tenofovir alafenamide for patients with HIV-1 is not available. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of TAF versus TDF in antiretroviral regimens for patients with HIV-1. METHODS: PUBMED, MEDLINE, and EMBASE database were searched in March 2016, with no language restriction, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RESULTS: Six RCTs (n = 5888) met entry criteria...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Daniel Sauter, Frank Kirchhoff
IFITMs inhibit various enveloped viral pathogens in vitro, but their relevance in vivo has remained unclear. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Foster et al. (2016) show that IFITMs constitute a barrier to HIV-1 transmission and that escape from adaptive immune responses increases viral sensitivity to IFITM restriction.
October 12, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Kevin Khamarko, Mi-Suk Kang Dufour, Sara Bodach, Janet J Myers
OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which the AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs) are increasing the number and racial/ethnic diversity of HIV medical providers, in accordance with the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). METHODS: We used administrative data from funding year 2012-2013 to describe AETC trainee characteristics, including the types of medical providers trained, compared with national estimates of available US medical providers to estimate the proportion of providers trained for every 1000 available providers by professional group and race/ethnicity...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
R M Dorman, L M Yee, S H Sutton
In our perinatal HIV cohort, we have observed difficulty swallowing pills as a frequent and significant barrier to adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. We refer to this problem as pill aversion and define it as difficulty swallowing pills with no persistent medical or structural cause as well as the anxiety and physical symptoms associated with pill swallowing. By applying cognitive behavioral theory to behavioral patterns within our pregnant HIV-infected population, we seek to better understand the development and reinforcement of pill aversion behavior...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Delelegn Tsegaye, Leul Deribe, Shambel Wodajo
Objectives: Adherence of HIV positive pregnant and lactating mothers to ART is a central component in PMTCT. Thus, the aim of this study was to measure the level of adherence and identify factors associated with adherence to option B+ PMTCT among pregnant and lactating mothers in selected government health facilities of South Wollo Zone, Amhara region, North East Ethiopia. Methods: An institution based cross sectional quantitative study design was employed from March 1 to April 14, 2016 using standard structured data collection instrument...
October 13, 2016: Epidemiology and Health
David E Vance, Leah H Rubin, Victor Valcour, Drenna Waldrop-Valverde, Pauline M Maki
HIV-infected women may be particularly vulnerable to certain types of neurocognitive impairments which may be exacerbated by aging and other predictors. Within the context of cognitive reserve, this article examines issues surrounding women as they age with HIV. For this, a review of 12 recent studies (2013-2016) using data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), the largest cohort study comparing HIV-infected and demographically matched uninfected women, is presented that specifically examines neurocognition...
October 12, 2016: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Giuseppina Musumeci, Giacomo Magnani, Isabella Bon, Serena Longo, Alessia Bertoldi, Anna Maria Degli Antoni, Maria Rita Rossi, Alessandro Ruggeri, Vittorio Sambri, Simona Semprini, Laura Sighinolfi, Maria Alessandra Ursitti, Alessandro Zerbini, Vincenzo Colangeli, Leonardo Calza, Alba Carola Finarelli, Erika Massimiliani, Maria Carla Re
It is crucial to establish the timing of infection and distinguish between early and long-lasting HIV-1 infections not only for partner notification and epidemiological surveillance, but also to offer early drug treatment and contain the spread of infection. This study analyzed serum and/or plasma samples with a first positive HIV antibody/antigen result coming from different Medical Centers in the Emilia Romagna Region, North East Italy, using the avidity assay, Western Blotting, RNA viral load, CD4 cell counts and genotyping assay...
September 13, 2016: New Microbiologica
Sara de la Fuente, Carmen de Mendoza
Despite the fact that HIV infection can still not be eradicated from carriers, tremendous advances in antiretroviral therapy have led to achieving sustained suppression of HIV replication in most treated individuals. This translates into huge benefits for both patients and their sexual partners. This message was emphasized during the last IAS Conference, held in Durban, South Africa, at the end of July 2016. In parallel with this major AIDS event, two major publications were released: the updated recommendations on HIV therapy and the PARTNER study...
July 2016: AIDS Reviews
L Gui, X H He, P Liu, J L Yang, Y Qin, S Y Zhou, S Yang, C G Zhang, Y K Shi
Objective: To evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of HIV-negtive plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL). Methods: Nine patients with HIV-negtive PBL were diagnosed and treated between January 2006 and January 2016. The clinical and follow-up data were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The median age was 56 years (range 30-77 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 2∶1. Nobody had underlying diseases associated with immunosuppression. Primary extra nodal diseases were observed in 7 cases and only 1 patient had oral involvement...
September 14, 2016: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Son Tung Ngo, Huynh Minh Hung, Minh Tho Nguyen
The fast pulling ligand (FPL) out of binding cavity using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations was demonstrated to be a rapid, accurate and low CPU demand method for the determination of the relative binding affinities of a large number of HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitors. In this approach, the ligand is pulled out of the binding cavity of the protein using external harmonic forces, and the work of pulling force corresponds to the relative binding affinity of HIV-1 PR inhibitor. The correlation coefficient between the pulling work and the experimental binding free energy of R=-0...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Noella Maria Delia Pereira, Ira Shah, Shilpa Kulkarni
Opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia (OMA) syndrome typically presents with chaotic eye movements and myoclonus with some patients exhibiting ataxia and behavioural disturbances. The pathogenesis may be inflammatory with an infectious or paraneoplastic trigger. We present a 13-year-old HIV-infected girl who was initially started on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in March 2013 with a CD4 count of 79 cells/cumm. Initially, the patient did not comply with treatment, resulting in a CD4+ count of 77 cells/mm(3) in November 2015 and prompting a new HAART scheme comprising lamivudine, tenofovir and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir...
October 2016: Oxford Medical Case Reports
Joseph Perazzo, Stephen Haas, Allison Webel, Joachim Voss
People frequently use the internet to obtain information, including information about health, but we lack understanding of how people living with HIV (PLHIV) use the internet in their care and treatment decisions. In this secondary analysis, interviews with 23 individuals who initiated HIV care at an urban, Midwestern medical center and mentioned internet use were analyzed using qualitative content analysis to explore how they used the internet during the process of initiating HIV care. HIV care had been initiated by this sample from less than one month to three years post-diagnosis...
September 30, 2016: Research in Nursing & Health
L M Yee, A R Goldberger, P M Garcia, E S Miller
OBJECTIVE: To characterize pregnant patients' knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding antenatal HIV testing for themselves and their sexual partners. STUDY DESIGN: Observational, mixed methods study of HIV-negative pregnant women from a university-based urban clinic. Participants completed an anonymous survey about HIV testing for themselves and their partners. Descriptive statistics, bivariable analyses, multivariable logistic regression and qualitative thematic analysis were utilized...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
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