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hiv 2016

Chia-Wen Li, Chia-Jui Yang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Mao-Song Tsai, Shih-Ping Lin, Te-Yu Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Yi-Chien Lee, Yu-Shan Huang, Chun-Eng Liu, Yuan-Ti Lee, Hung-Jen Tang, Ning-Chi Wang, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Wen-Chien Ko, Chien-Ching Hung
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to describe the evolution of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients included in two cohorts in Taiwan. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the information on demographic and clinical characteristics of 4,025 and 3,856 HIV-positive Taiwanese, who were aged 18 years or older at designated hospitals around Taiwan in 2004-2007, when an outbreak of HIV infection was occurring, and 2012-2016, when the outbreak was controlled with the implementation of harm reduction program, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Noemia Teixeira de Siqueira-Filha, Maria de Fatima Militao de Albuquerque, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Rosa Legood, Andreia Costa Santos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to measure the costs of people living with HIV (PLHIV) as well as active tuberculosis (TB/HIV), latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI/HIV) or without TB (HIV/AIDS). METHODS: We analysed the costs through the entire pathway of care during the prediagnosis and treatment periods from the Brazilian public health system perspective. We applied a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches to capture and estimate direct medical and non-medical costs...
March 15, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Hyun Ha Chang, Shin Woo Kim, Hyejin Jung, Sang Ah Lee, Han Ki Park, Sujeong Kim, Jong Myung Lee, Jun Yong Choi
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the awareness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among high-risk individuals, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and medical personnel (MP) in Korea through a cross-sectional survey, identify possible obstacles hindering their access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS: In 2016, the first questionnaire survey was sent to randomly selected MSM and MP. To compare the changes in attitudes and knowledge of MSM, a second questionnaire survey was conducted in August 2017...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Sherrie L Kelly, Rowan Martin-Hughes, Robyn M Stuart, Xiao F Yap, David J Kedziora, Kelsey L Grantham, S Azfar Hussain, Iyanoosh Reporter, Andrew J Shattock, Laura Grobicki, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Zofia Baranczuk, Olivia Keiser, Janne Estill, Janka Petravic, Richard T Gray, Clemens J Benedikt, Nicole Fraser, Marelize Gorgens, David Wilson, Cliff C Kerr, David P Wilson
BACKGROUND: To move towards ending AIDS by 2030, HIV resources should be allocated cost-effectively. We used the Optima HIV model to estimate how global HIV resources could be retargeted for greatest epidemiological effect and how many additional new infections could be averted by 2030. METHODS: We collated standard data used in country modelling exercises (including demographic, epidemiological, behavioural, programmatic, and expenditure data) from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2015 for 44 countries, capturing 80% of people living with HIV worldwide...
March 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
João Gabriel Guimarães Luz, Danilo Bueno Naves, Amanda Gabriela de Carvalho, Gilvani Alves Meira, João Victor Leite Dias, Cor Jesus Fernandes Fontes
The Brazilian municipality of Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso State, represents an important visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic area. This study described epidemiological and clinical aspects of the occurrence, VL/HIV coinfection and lethality related to VL in Rondonópolis. Data from autochthonous cases reported between 2011 and 2016 were obtained from official information systems. During this period, 81 autochthonous cases were reported, with decreasing incidence through 2016. Contrastingly, the lethality rate was 8...
March 8, 2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
Ikram Ul-Haq, Alessia Dalla Pria, Elisa Suardi, David J Pinato, Fieke Froeling, John Forni, Paul Randell, Mark Bower
In HIV-seronegative patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viraemia at diagnosis predicts a worse progression-free survival (PFS), independent of the International Prognostic Score. However, its role in HIV-associated HL is uncharacterised. We collected clinico-pathologic and treatment data from a prospective series of 44 HIV-associated HLs from 2000 to 2016. We evaluated circulating EBV DNA as a prognostic factor on uni- and multivariable analyses in relationship to the International Prognostic Index criteria...
March 13, 2018: Medical Oncology
Hao-Hsin Wu, Yi-Ting Shen, Chien-Shun Chiou, Chi-Tai Fang, Yi-Chun Lo
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of shigellosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported since the late 1990s. HIV infection is an important risk factor. Since 2014, the global shigellosis epidemic has intensified. Whether chemsex (the use of crystal methamphetamine, γ-hydroxybutyrate or mephedrone to enhance sex) is a new risk factor has not been previously examined. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study in Taiwan. Acute shigellosis cases diagnosed during the 2015 outbreak among MSM living with HIV were compared with those without shigellosis...
March 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Julia L Marcus, Leo B Hurley, Scott Chamberland, Jamila H Champsi, Laura C Gittleman, Daniel G Korn, Jennifer B Lai, Jennifer O Lam, Mary Patricia Pauly, Charles P Quesenberry, Joanna Ready, Varun Saxena, Suk Seo, David J Witt, Michael J Silverberg
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Treatment with the combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 12 weeks has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; some patients can be treated with an 8-week course. Guidelines recommend a 12-week treatment course for black patients, but studies have not compared the effectiveness of 8 vs 12 weeks in black patients who are otherwise eligible for an 8-week treatment regimen. METHODS: We conducted an observational study of Kaiser Permanente Northern California members with HCV genotype 1 infection who were eligible for 8 weeks of treatment with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (treatment-naïve, no cirrhosis, no HIV infection, level of HCV RNA <6 million IU/mL) and were treated for 8 or 12 weeks from October 2014 through December 2016...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Raynell Lang, Ron Read, Hartmut B Krentz, Soheil Ramazani, Mingkai Peng, Jennifer Gratrix, M John Gill
BACKGROUND: Syphilis is a global health concern disproportionately affecting HIV-infected populations. In Alberta, Canada, the incidence of syphilis in the general population has recently doubled with 25% of these infections occurring in HIV-infected patients. The Southern Alberta HIV Clinic (SAC) and Calgary STI Program (CSTI) analyzed the epidemiologic characteristics of incident syphilis infections in our well-defined, HIV-infected population over 11 years. METHODS: Since 2006, as routine practice of both the Southern Alberta Clinic (SAC) and Calgary STI Programs (CSTI), syphilis screening has accompanied HIV viral load measures every four months...
March 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Bhakti Hansoti, David Stead, Andy Parrish, Steven J Reynolds, Andrew D Redd, Madeleine M Whalen, Nomzamo Mvandaba, Thomas C Quinn
BACKGROUND: South Africa has the largest HIV epidemic in the world, with 19% of the global number of people living with HIV, 15% of new infections and 11% of AIDS-related deaths. Even though HIV testing is mandated in all hospital-based facilities in South Africa (SA), it is rarely implemented in the Emergency Department (ED). The ED provides episodic care to large volumes of undifferentiated who present with unplanned injury or illness. Thus, the ED may provide an opportunity to capture patients with undiagnosed HIV infection missed by clinic-based screening programs...
2018: PloS One
Gildas Baulier, Nahema Issa, Frederic Gabriel, Isabelle Accoceberry, Fabrice Camou, Pierre Duffau
OBJECTIVES: Guidelines for preventing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in HIV patients are based on CD4 below 200/mm3. Such cut-off value is suggested to guide prophylaxis in non-HIV conditions (NHIV) especially in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases (AD). We aimed to determine if CD4 could be used to guide PCP prophylaxis in AD. METHODS: CD4 and lymphocyte-count were retrospectively studied in patients diagnosed with PCP between January 2013 and February 2016. RESULTS: 129 patients were included...
February 26, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
William E Cunningham, Robert E Weiss, Terry Nakazono, Mark A Malek, Steve J Shoptaw, Susan L Ettner, Nina T Harawa
Importance: Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, linkage and retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are steps in the care continuum enabling consistent viral suppression for people living with HIV, extending longevity and preventing further transmission. While incarcerated, people living with HIV receive antiretroviral therapy and achieve viral suppression more consistently than after they are released. No interventions have shown sustained viral suppression after jail release...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Ellen Fm 't Hoen, Jacquelyn Veraldi, Brigit Toebes, Hans V Hogerzeil
Millions of people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, lack access to effective pharmaceuticals, often because they are unaffordable. The 2001 Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement and Public Health. The declaration recognized the implications of intellectual property rights for both new medicine development and the price of medicines. The declaration outlined measures, known as TRIPS flexibilities, that WTO Members can take to ensure access to medicines for all...
March 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
Rosario Palacios, M Mayorga, C M González-Domenech, C Hidalgo-Tenorio, C Gálvez, L Muñoz-Medina, J de la Torre, A Lozano, M Castaño, M Omar, Jesús Santos
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir/rilpivirine (DTG/RPV) in HIV-infected patients who switched from any other antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Open-label, multicenter study including patients who switched to DTG/RPV between February 2015 and February 2016. Efficacy (HIV RNA <50 copies/mL), adverse events, and metabolic changes at 24 weeks were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 104 participants were included, who switched for the following reasons: toxicity/intolerance (42...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Yanink Caro-Vega, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Brenda E Crabtree-Ramírez, Bryan E Shepherd, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Marcelo Wolff, Jean W Pape, Denis Padgett, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Catherine C McGowan, Juan G Sierra-Madero
Background: Efavirenz (EFV) and boosted protease inhibitors (bPIs) are still the preferred options for firstline antiretroviral regimens (firstline ART) in Latin America and have comparable short-term efficacy. We assessed the long-term durability and outcomes of patients receiving EFV or bPIs as firstline ART in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology (CCASAnet). Methods: We included ART-naïve, HIV-positive adults on EFV or bPIs as firstline ART in CCASAnet between 2000 and 2016...
March 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Agnese Comelli, Ilaria Izzo, Salvatore Casari, Angiola Spinetti, Alberto Bergamasco, Francesco Castelli
Since June 2016, an outbreak of hepatitis A has been reported in Europe. Here we report the HAV outbreak in Brescia (Northern Italy) from July 2016 to July 2017. We actively recorded all HAV cases defined by detection of HAV IgM antibodies in serum. Data on sexual behaviour, travel attitudes, concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), clinical presentation and laboratory results were collected. Forty-two confirmed cases were recorded: 25 (60%) were MSM and reported sexual contact at risk of STDs. Compared to 2015 and the first half of 2016, when only three hepatitis A cases were recorded, in the 12 months in question the number of cases rose 14-fold...
March 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Anna Starshinova, Viacheslav Zhuravlev, Irina Dovgaluk, Alexandr Panteleev, Vera Manina, Ulia Zinchenko, Evgenia Istomina, Maria Pavlova, Piotr Yablonskiy
Background: The WHO strategy for eradication of tuberculosis (TB) by 2035 (The End TB Strategy) is aimed at an early and precise diagnosis and subsequent effective treatment of TB patients. Currently, there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of latent TB infection. This study evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of a new intradermal test using recombinant TB allergen (Diaskintest) compared with tuberculin skin test (TST) and commercial TB interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs). Methods: A post-hoc data analysis that involved examining 860 HIV-negative, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated persons aged 1-65 years who visited the TB health-care institutions of Saint Petersburg to rule out or confirm an active TB was conducted from 2011 to 2016...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Sergio Carmona, Jacob Bor, Cornelius Nattey, Brendan Maughan-Brown, Mhairi Maskew, Matthew P Fox, Deborah K Glencross, Nathan Ford, William B MacLeod
Background: The South African national HIV program has increased antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage over the last decade, supported by policy changes allowing for earlier ART initiation. However, many patients still enter care with advanced (<200 cells/μL) and very advanced (<100 cells/μL) HIV disease. We assessed disease progression at entry to care using nationwide laboratory data. Methods: We constructed a national HIV cohort using laboratory records containing HIV RNA loads and CD4 counts from 2004 to 2016 to determine entry into care...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Meg Osler, Katherine Hilderbrand, Eric Goemaere, Nathan Ford, Mariette Smith, Graeme Meintjes, James Kruger, Nelesh P Govender, Andrew Boulle
Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been massively scaled up to decrease human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related morbidity, mortality, and HIV transmission. However, despite documented increases in ART coverage, morbidity and mortality have remained substantial. This study describes trends in the numbers and characteristics of patients with very advanced HIV disease in the Western Cape, South Africa. Methods: Annual cross-sectional snapshots of CD4 distributions were described over 10 years, derived from a province-wide cohort of all HIV patients receiving CD4 cell count testing in the public sector...
March 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Craig J Heck, Stephanie A Grilo, Xiaoyu Song, Tom Lutalo, Neema Nakyanjo, John S Santelli
OBJECTIVE(S): Covert contraceptive use (CCU) is the use of family planning without a partner's knowledge. This study sought to examine CCU prevalence among women living in Rakai, Uganda, predictors of CCU, and why women resort to CCU. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from women (15-49years) currently using contraceptives (oral contraceptives, Depo Provera, implants, intrauterine devices, and periodic abstinence) during Round 15 (2011-2013) of the Rakai Community Cohort Survey (n=2206)...
March 4, 2018: Contraception
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