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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320159/prevalence-of-peripheral-neuropathy-and-associated-factors-in-hiv-infected-patients
#1
Maria Luiza Areal Corrêa de Sá E Benevides, Sérgio Beduschi Filho, Rodrigo Debona, Eduardo Novaes Costa Bergamaschi, Jean Costa Nunes
The progress on HIV infection treatment has allowed a longer survival for HIV-infected patients. However, chronic comorbidities are emerging. Peripheral Neuropathy (PN) represents one of the most prevalent neurologic disorders among these patients, and comprehensive studies may contribute to a reduction in the morbidity of this condition. This is a cross-sectional analytic study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in southern Brazil. This study investigates the prevalence of PN among HIV-infected patients and associated demographic, clinical and laboratory variables...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320142/ventriculo-peritoneal-shunt-surgery-for-tuberculous-meningitis-a-systematic-review
#2
Imran Rizvi, Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Neeraj Kumar, Eesha Sharma, Chhitij Srivastava, Ravi Uniyal
BACKGROUND: Ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery is one of the most commonly performed surgery for the management of tuberculous hydrocephalus. There is decreased clarity on issues regarding the indication as well as timing of cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures in tuberculous meningitis. We systematically analysed published literature on this subject with an objective to assess the value of cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures in tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: A systematic search of literature was performed using PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for articles published till August 2016...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319996/oral-direct-acting-agent-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-a-systematic-review
#3
Oluwaseun Falade-Nwulia, Catalina Suarez-Cuervo, David R Nelson, Michael W Fried, Jodi B Segal, Mark S Sulkowski
Background: Rapid improvements in hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy have led to the approval of multiple oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of chronic HCV infection. Purpose: To summarize published literature on the efficacy and safety of oral DAAs for treatment of persons with chronic HCV infection. Data Sources: MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception through 1 November 2016. Study Selection: 42 English-language studies from controlled and single-group registered clinical trials of adults with HCV infection that evaluated at least 8 weeks of an FDA-approved interferon-free HCV regimen that included at least 2 DAAs...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319246/estimated-perinatal-hiv-infection-among-infants-born-in-the-united-states-2002-2013
#4
Allan W Taylor, Steven R Nesheim, Xinjian Zhang, Ruiguang Song, Lauren F FitzHarris, Margaret A Lampe, Paul J Weidle, Patricia Sweeney
Importance: Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be reduced through services including antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis. Data on the national incidence of perinatal HIV transmission and missed prevention opportunities are needed to monitor progress toward elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Objective: To estimate the number of perinatal HIV cases among infants born in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were obtained from the National HIV Surveillance System on infants with HIV born in the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their mothers between 2002 and 2013 (reported through December 31, 2015)...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315708/2016-international-meeting-of-the-global-virus-network
#5
REVIEW
Ramesh Akkina, Heinz Ellerbrok, William Hall, Hideki Hasagawa, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Harold Kleanthous, Edward McSweegan, Natalia Mercer, Victor Romanowski, Hirofumi Sawa, Anders Vahlne
The Global Virus Network (GVN) was established in 2011 in order to strengthen research and responses to current viral causes of human disease and to prepare against new viral pandemic threats. There are now 38 GVN Centers of Excellence and 6 Affiliate laboratories in 24 countries. GVN scientists meet annually to learn about each other's current research, address collaborative priorities and plan future programs. The 2016 meeting was held from October 23-25 in Hokkaido, Japan, in partnership with the Japanese Society for Virology, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan and the Research Center for Zoonosis Control of Hokkaido University...
March 15, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306597/diagnosis-of-viral-hepatitis
#6
Philippa J Easterbrook, Teri Roberts, Anita Sands, Rosanna Peeling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing and their key recommendations) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302496/community-acquired-pneumococcal-pneumonia-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-adult-patients-a-matched-case-control-study
#7
Catia Cillóniz, Antoni Torres, Christian Manzardo, Albert Gabarrús, Juan Ambrosioni, Adriana Salazar, Felipe García, Adrián Ceccato, Josep Mensa, Jorge Puig de la Bella Casa, Asunción Moreno, Jose M Miró
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate whether the clinical presentations and outcomes (length-of-stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission and 30-day mortality) of pneumococcal pneumonia in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients on ART with a CD4+ T cell count >350 cells/mm(3) are comparable to those seen in non-HIV-infected patients, using a case-control design. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out in Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain (2001-2016)...
March 13, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301552/radiological-characteristics-of-pulmonary-cryptococcosis-in-hiv-infected-patients
#8
Zhiliang Hu, Jun Chen, Juan Wang, Qingfang Xiong, Yandan Zhong, Yongfeng Yang, Chuanjun Xu, Hongxia Wei
BACKGROUND: Current understanding of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated pulmonary cryptococcosis (PC) is largely based on studies performed about 2 decades ago which reported that the most common findings on chest radiograph were diffuse interstitial infiltrates. Few studies are available regarding the computed tomography (CT) findings. The aim of this study was to characterize chest CT features of HIV-associated PC. METHODS: HIV patients with cryptococccal infection and pulmonary abnormalities on Chest CT between September 2010 and May 2016 in the Second Affiliated Hospital of the Southeast University were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301337/improving-estimates-of-children-living-with-hiv-from-the-spectrum-aids-impact-model
#9
Mary Mahy, Martina Penazzato, Andrea Ciaranello, Lynne Mofenson, Constantin T Yianoutsos, Mary-Ann Davies, John Stover
OBJECTIVE: Estimated numbers of children living with HIV determine programmatic and treatment needs. We explain the changes made to the UNAIDS estimates between 2015 and 2016, and describe the challenges around these estimates. METHODS: Estimates of children newly infected, living with HIV, and dying of AIDS are developed by country teams using Spectrum software. Spectrum files are available for 160 countries, which represent 98% of the global population. In 2016, the methods were updated to reflect the latest evidence on mother-to-child HIV transmission and improved assumptions on the age children initiate antiretroviral therapy...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299155/maternal-health-service-disparities-across-incomes-and-implications-on-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-service-coverage-current-context-in-sub-saharan-africa
#10
Nibretie Gobezie Workneh, Sebastian Kevany
About 69% of people living with HIV globally and over 90% of the children who acquired HIV infection are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this, promising results have been observed, especially over the last decade - for example, a 25% decline in new HIV infections as compared to 2001 and a 38% decline in the number of children newly infected by HIV in 2012 as compared to 2009. However, the Global Plan and the Global Fast-Track Commitments of eliminating new HIV infections among children require addressing impediments to service expansion...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296803/age-patterns-and-sex-ratios-of-adult-mortality-in-countries-with-high-hiv-prevalence
#11
Bruno Masquelier, Jeffrey W Eaton, Patrick Gerland, François Pelletier, Kennedy K Mutai
OBJECTIVE: To compare the 2016 United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) modelled estimates of adult mortality in sub-Saharan Africa to empirical estimates. DESIGN: Age-specific mortality rates were obtained from nationally representative sibling survival data, recent household deaths and vital registration, and directly compared with UNAIDS estimates. Orphanhood prevalence derived from UNAIDS mortality estimates was compared with survey and census reports on the survival of children's parents...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296801/accounting-for-nonsampling-error-in-estimates-of-hiv-epidemic-trends-from-antenatal-clinic-sentinel-surveillance
#12
Jeffrey W Eaton, Le Bao
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to propose and demonstrate an approach to allow additional nonsampling uncertainty about HIV prevalence measured at antenatal clinic sentinel surveillance (ANC-SS) in model-based inferences about trends in HIV incidence and prevalence. DESIGN: Mathematical model fitted to surveillance data with Bayesian inference. METHODS: We introduce a variance inflation parameter (Equation is included in full-text article...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296797/improvements-in-spectrum-s-fit-to-program-data-tool
#13
Severin G Mahiane, Kimberly Marsh, Kelsey Grantham, Shawna Crichlow, Karen Caceres, John Stover
OBJECTIVE: The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS-supported Spectrum software package (Glastonbury, Connecticut, USA) is used by most countries worldwide to monitor the HIV epidemic. In Spectrum, HIV incidence trends among adults (aged 15-49 years) are derived by either fitting to seroprevalence surveillance and survey data or generating curves consistent with program and vital registration data, such as historical trends in the number of newly diagnosed infections or people living with HIV and AIDS related deaths...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296796/updates-to-the-spectrum-estimations-and-projections-package-model-for-estimating-trends-and-current-values-for-key-hiv-indicators
#14
John Stover, Tim Brown, Robert Puckett, Wiwat Peerapatanapokin
BACKGROUND: The Spectrum model is used by national programs and UNAIDS to prepare annual estimates of the status of the HIV epidemic in 160 countries. The model and assumptions are updated regularly under the guidance of the UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections in response to new data, studies, and program needs. This study describes the most recent updates for the 2016 round of estimates. METHODS: Meetings of the UNAIDS Reference Group include individuals with extensive knowledge of HIV programs, research, statistics, and public policy...
April 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291302/psychosocial-group-interventions-to-improve-psychological-well-being-in-adults-living-with-hiv
#15
REVIEW
Ingrid van der Heijden, Naeemah Abrahams, David Sinclair
BACKGROUND: Being diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and labelled with a chronic, life-threatening, and often stigmatizing disease, can impact on a person's well-being. Psychosocial group interventions aim to improve life-functioning and coping as individuals adjust to the diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of psychosocial group interventions for improving the psychological well-being of adults living with HIV/AIDS. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases up to 14 March 2016: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) published in the Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2016), PubMed (MEDLINE) (1996 to 14 March 2016), Embase (1996 to 14 March 2016), and Clinical Trials...
March 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290767/sedentary-behaviour-in-people-living-with-hiv-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst, Brendon Stubbs
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour is independently associated with an increased risk of poor mental health, developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. Despite the knowledge that CVD is one of the leading causes of non-AIDS related premature mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH), relatively little attention has been attributed to sedentary behaviour in this population. The aims of this meta-analysis were to: (a) establish the pooled mean time spent sedentary, (b) investigate predictors of sedentary levels, and (c) explore differences with age- and gender matched healthy controls...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290161/corticosteroids-for-tuberculous-pleurisy
#17
REVIEW
Hannah Ryan, Jinho Yoo, Padmapriya Darsini
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids used in addition to antituberculous therapy have been reported to benefit people with tuberculous pleurisy. However, research findings are inconsistent and raise doubt as to whether such treatment is worthwhile. There is also concern regarding the potential adverse effects of corticosteroids, especially in HIV-positive people. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of adding corticosteroids to drug regimens for tuberculous pleural effusion...
March 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288577/elevated-prevalence-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-organisms-in-hiv-positive-men
#18
Claudia Reinheimer, Oliver T Keppler, Christoph Stephan, Thomas A Wichelhaus, Imke Friedrichs, Volkhard A J Kempf
BACKGROUND: Routes of transmission of multidrug-resistant gram-negative organisms (MDRGN) are not completely understood. Since sexual transmission of MDRGN might represent a potential mode that has not been noticed so far, this study evaluated transmission of MDRGN in HIV positive men. METHODS: Between November 2014 and March 2016, we retrospectively investigated the MDRGN prevalence in rectal swabs of n = 109 males tested positive for HIV (HP). These findings were compared to the MDRGN prevalence in n = 109 rectal swabs in age-matched males tested negative for HIV (HN) within the same period...
March 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288159/determinants-of-anemia-among-pregnant-mothers-attending-antenatal-care-in-dessie-town-health-facilities-northern-central-ethiopia-unmatched-case-control-study
#19
Sisay Eshete Tadesse, Omer Seid, Yemane G/Mariam, Abel Fekadu, Yitbarek Wasihun, Kedir Endris, Abebayehu Bitew
INTRODUCTION: Anemia affects around 38.2% and 22% of pregnant women at a global and national level respectively. In developing countries, women start pregnancy with already depleted body stores of iron and other vitamins with significant variation of anemia within and between regions. OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants of anemia among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care in Dessie town health facilities, northern central Ethiopia. METHODS: A health facility based unmatched case control study was conducted among 112 cases and 336 controls from January to March 2016 G...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287844/intersectional-epistemologies-of-ignorance-how-behavioral-and-social-science-research-shapes-what-we-know-think-we-know-and-don-t-know-about-u-s-black-men-s-sexualities
#20
Lisa Bowleg, Ana María Del Río-González, Sidney L Holt, Carolin Pérez, Jenné S Massie, Jessica E Mandell, Cheriko A Boone
Epistemologies of ignorance describe how ignorance influences the production of knowledge. Advancing an intersectional epistemologies of ignorance approach that examines how conscious (or unconscious) ignorance about racism, heterosexism, and classism shapes empirical knowledge about Black men's sexualities, we conducted a critical review of the behavioral and social science research on U.S. Black men, ages 18 and older, for two time frames: pre-1981 and the most recent decade, 2006-2016. Our search yielded 668 articles, which we classified into five categories: sexual violence, sexual experiences and expressions, sexual identities, cultural and social-structural influences, and sexual health and sexual risk...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
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