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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777425/the-use-of-hiv-post-exposure-prophylaxis-in-forensic-medicine-following-incidents-of-sexual-violence-in-hamburg-germany-a-retrospective-study
#1
Julia Ebert, Jan Peter Sperhake, Olaf Degen, Ann Sophie Schröder
In Hamburg, Germany, the initiation of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (HIV PEP) in cases of sexual violence is often carried out by forensic medical specialists (FMS) using the city's unique Hamburg Model. FMS-provided three-day HIV PEP starter packs include a combination of raltegravir and emtricitabine/tenofovir. This study aimed to investigate the practice of offering HIV PEP, reasons for discontinuing treatment, patient compliance, and whether or not potential perpetrators were tested for HIV. We conducted a retrospective study of forensic clinical examinations carried out by the Hamburg Department of Legal Medicine following incidents of sexual violence from 2009 to 2016...
May 18, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777420/what-role-do-masculine-norms-play-in-men-s-hiv-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review
#2
REVIEW
Katelyn M Sileo, Rebecca Fielding-Miller, Shari L Dworkin, Paul J Fleming
Men living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are less likely to test for HIV than women. We conducted a scoping review in May of 2016 to identify how masculine norms influence men's HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review yielded a total of 13 qualitative studies from 8 countries. Masculine norms create both barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included emotional inexpression, gendered communication, social pressures to be strong and self-reliant, and the fear that an HIV positive result would threaten traditional social roles (i...
May 18, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773899/management-of-acute-hcv-infection-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Marianne Martinello, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Gail V Matthews
The management of acute HCV infection has not been standardized following the availability of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for chronic HCV infection, and substantial uncertainty exists regarding the optimal treatment regimen and duration. Despite the lack of direct evidence, the 2016 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD)-Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines supported "the same regimens for acute HCV as recommended for chronic HCV infection … owing to high efficacy and safety", whereas the 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines recommended sofosbuvir-ledipasvir, sofosbuvir-velpatasvir or sofosbuvir plus daclatasvir for 8 weeks in acute HCV infection, with a longer duration of 12 weeks recommended for those infected with HIV and/or baseline HCV RNA levels >1,000,000 IU/ml...
May 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771871/trends-in-antiretroviral-therapy-eligibility-and-coverage-among-children-aged-15-years-with-hiv-infection-20-pepfar-supported-sub-saharan-african-countries-2012-2016
#4
Amanda Burrage, Monita Patel, Kelsey Mirkovic, Eric Dziuban, Wondimu Teferi, Laura Broyles, Emilia Rivadeneira
Rapid disease progression and associated opportunistic infections contribute to high mortality rates among children aged <15 years with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has decreased childhood HIV-associated morbidity and mortality rates over the past decade (2). As accumulating evidence revealed lower HIV-associated mortality with early ART initiation, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines broadened ART eligibility for children with HIV infection (2)...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771793/the-association-of-chronic-pain-and-long-term-opioid-therapy-with-hiv-treatment-outcomes
#5
Jessica S Merlin, Dustin Long, William C Becker, Edward R Cachay, Katerina A Christopolous, Kasey Claborn, Heidi M Crane, E Jennifer Edelman, Richard Harding, Stefan G Kertesz, Jane M Liebschutz, W Christopher Mathews, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Napravnik, Connall O'Cleirigh, Michael S Saag, Joanna L Starrels, Robert Gross
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain occurs in up to 85% of persons living with HIV (PLWH) and is commonly treated with long-term opioid therapy (LTOT). We investigated the impact of chronic pain and LTOT on HIV outcomes. METHODS: This was prospective cohort study conducted between 7/2015-7/2016 in five HIV primary care clinics. Chronic pain was defined as ≥moderate pain for ≥3 months on the Brief Chronic Pain Questionnaire and ≥4/10 on the Pain Enjoyment of life and General activity (PEG) questionnaire...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771792/using-a-social-network-strategy-to-distribute-hiv-self-test-kits-to-african-american-and-latino-msm
#6
Marguerita A Lightfoot, Chadwick K Campbell, Nicholas Moss, Sarah Treves-Kagan, Emily Agnew, Mi-Suk Kang Dufour, Hyman Scott, Aria M Sa'id, Sheri A Lippman
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be disproportionately impacted globally by the HIV epidemic. Studies suggest that HIV Self-testing (HIVST) is highly acceptable among MSM. Social network strategies to increase testing are effective in reaching MSM, particularly MSM of color, who may not otherwise test. We tested a social-network based strategy to distribute HIVST kits to African American and Latino MSM. SETTING: This study was conducted in Alameda County, California a large, urban/suburban county with an HIV epidemic mirroring the national HIV epidemic...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770367/engaging-religious-leaders-to-support-hiv-prevention-and-care-for-gays-bisexual-men-and-other-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-coastal-kenya
#7
Evans Gichuru, Bernadette Kombo, Noni Mumba, Salla Sariola, Eduard J Sanders, Elise M van der Elst
In Kenyan communities, religious leaders are important gatekeepers in matters of health and public morality. In a context that is generally homophobic, religious leaders may aggravate or reduce stigmatization of sexual minorities such as gay and bisexual men, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). Literature indicates mixed results in efforts to encourage religious leaders to work effectively and sensitively with issues regarding HIV and sexuality. This paper describes the implementation of an engagement intervention with religious leaders from different denominations, which took place following a homophobic hate attack that was led by local religious leaders, at an HIV research clinic for GBMSM on the Kenyan coast...
2018: Critical Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770100/lymphogranuloma-venereum-in-quebec-re-emergence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#8
C A Boutin, S Venne, M Fiset, C Fortin, D Murphy, A Severini, C Martineau, J Longtin, A C Labbé
Background: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes L1 , L2 and L3 . This LGV is associated with significant morbidity and increased risk of HIV transmission. While fewer than two cases per year were reported in Quebec before 2005, LGV emerged in 2005-2006 with 69 cases, followed by a period of low incidence (2007-2012), and subsequent re-emergence since 2013. Objectives: To describe the incidence of LGV in Quebec and the characteristics of the affected population, including demographics and risk factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatments and reinfection rates...
February 1, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770060/setting-the-stage-for-expanding-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-in-canada
#9
EDITORIAL
M Hull, Dhs Tan
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to disproportionately affect vulnerable populations in Canada; particularly men who have sex with men (MSM). Novel HIV prevention strategies have recently expanded from the use of non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) after high risk exposures to the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in which individuals reduce risk of HIV infection through use of combination antiretrovirals taken prior to risk exposure. With approval of tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for use as PrEP only in early 2016, and with limited public funding to date, uptake in Canada is in its preliminary stages...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770059/assessing-uptake-of-national-hiv-screening-and-testing-guidance-part-2-knowledge-comfort-and-practice
#10
G P Traversy, T Austin, J Yau, K Timmerman
Background: The Public Health Agency of Canada's (PHAC) HIV Screening and Testing Guide (the Guide) provides guidance to health care providers regarding who, when and how often to screen for HIV. HIV screening and testing is important in meeting the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets towards HIV elimination. Objective: To determine health care providers' levels of knowledge about and comfort with aspects of HIV testing, and to determine whether their HIV testing practices are consistent with the recommendations in the Guide...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770058/assessing-uptake-of-national-hiv-screening-and-testing-guidance-part-1-awareness-use-and-usefulness
#11
G P Traversy, T Austin, J Yau, K Timmerman
Background: In 2013, the Public Health Agency of Canada released the HIV Screening and Testing Guide (the Guide) to support routine HIV screening and testing practices of health care providers in Canada and promote early detection of new HIV cases. Little was known regarding health care providers' awareness and use of the Guide. Objective: To determine Canadian health care providers' awareness, use and perceived usefulness of the Guide. Methods: An open, anonymous online survey, including questions on awareness, use and usefulness, was developed with stakeholders, validated and pre-tested...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770057/aids-in-canada-surveillance-report-2016
#12
L Jonah, A C Bourgeois, M Edmunds, A Awan, O Varsaneux, W Siu
Background: Although there continues to be a global epidemic of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) there has been a decrease in the number of people dying of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), largely due to successful treatment with antiretroviral therapy. Objective: To provide a descriptive overview of the reported cases of AIDS in Canada by identifying trends by geographic location, sex, age group and mortality. While the descriptive analysis focuses on the year 2016, results are presented for reported cases from the beginning of national AIDS surveillance in 1979...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770056/hiv-in-canada-surveillance-report-2016
#13
A C Bourgeois, M Edmunds, A Awan, L Jonah, O Varsaneux, W Siu
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a global public health concern, with 2.1 million people newly infected in 2015. Although many high-income countries have noted decreasing rates of HIV, between 2013 and 2015 Canada's rates had stabilized at 5.8 per 100,000 population. Objective: To provide a descriptive overview of reported cases of HIV in Canada up until 2016 by geographic location, sex, age group, exposure category and race/ethnicity, with a focus on the most recent data...
December 7, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769102/securitizing-hiv-aids-a-game-changer-in-state-societal-relations-in-china
#14
Catherine Yuk-Ping Lo
BACKGROUND: China has experienced unprecedented economic growth since the 1980s. Despite this impressive economic development, this growth exists side by side with the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) crises and the persisting deficiencies in public health provision in China. Acknowledging the prevailing health problems, the Chinese government has encouraged the development of health non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to respond to the health challenges and address the gaps in public health provision of the government...
May 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769038/impact-of-new-daa-therapy-on-real-clinical-practice-a-multicenter-region-wide-cohort-study
#15
Simone Lanini, Paola Scognamiglio, Alessandra Mecozzi, Lorella Lombardozzi, Vincenzo Vullo, Mario Angelico, Antonio Gasbarrini, Gloria Taliani, Adolfo Francesco Attili, Carlo Federico Perno, Adriano De Santis, Vincenzo Puro, Fabio Cerqua, Gianpiero D'Offizi, Adriano Pellicelli, Orlando Armignacco, Francesco Saverio Mennini, Massimo Siciliano, Enrico Girardi, Vincenzo Panella, Giuseppe Ippolito
BACKGROUND: Management of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) has significantly accelerated in the last few years. Currently, second generation direct acting antivirals (DAAs) promise clearance of infection in most of patients. Here we present the results of the first analysis carried out on data of Lazio clinical network for DAAs. METHODS: The study was designed as a multicenter cohort: a) to assess the evolution of treatment during the first 24 months of the activity of the Clinical Network; b) to report overall efficacy of treatments; c) to analyze potential factors associated with lack of virological response at 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12); d) to evaluate the variation of ALT at baseline and 12 weeks after therapy in those who achieved SVR12 in comparison to those who did not...
May 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768547/clinical-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-death-from-disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-patients-with-aids-who-visited-a-high-complexity-hospital-in-campo-grande-ms-brazil
#16
Barbara Cristina Scarcelli Boigues, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima, Maina de Oliveira Nunes, Silvia Naomi de Oliveira Uehara
INTRODUCTION: Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) is a systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum) and is characterized by progressive and fatal evolution in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, it is considered an AIDS-defining disease. METHODS: We performed an observational, analytical, retrospective study to identify the clinical outcomes and risk factors for death from DH in patients with AIDS at an infectious diseases service facility in Brazil between September 2011 and July 2016...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765285/anemia-and-thrombocytopenia-in-the-cohort-of-hiv-infected-adults-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-facility-based-cross-sectional-study
#17
Tekalign Deressa, Debasu Damtie, Meseret Workineh, Meaza Genetu, Mulugeta Melku
Background: Anemia and thrombocytopenia are frequent hematological abnormalities in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence and correlates of these hematological abnormalities among HIV infected adults in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of anemia and thrombocytopenia in a cohort of HIV-1 infected adults in northwest Ethiopia...
April 2018: EJIFCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764412/causes-of-death-among-street-connected-children-and-youth-in-eldoret-kenya
#18
Lonnie Embleton, David Ayuku, Dominic Makori, Allan Kamanda, Paula Braitstein
BACKGROUND: Street-connected young people carry a disproportionate burden of morbidities, and engage in a variety of practices that may heighten their risk of premature mortality, yet there are currently no reports in the literature on the rates or risk factors for mortality among them, nor on their causes of death. In low- and middle-income countries they are frequently in situations that violate their human rights, likely contributing to their increased burden of morbidities and vulnerability to mortality...
May 15, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764247/survey-and-analysis-for-impact-factors-of-psychological-distress-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-who-continue-pregnancy
#19
Shouxue Qin, Yanping Tan, Bingyan Lu, Yuqing Cheng, Yanli Nong
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to explore the psychological distress of HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy, and analyze the possible influencing factors. METHODS: A total of 194 HIV-infected pregnant women who continue pregnancy were enrolled for this study by a convenient sampling method during June 2012-August 2016. Participants completed questionnaires including Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Berger HIV Stigma Scale (BHSS), Distress Thermometer (DT) and Problem List (PL), and to determine the cut-off value of DT in the group...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763788/hiv-as-social-and-ecological-experience
#20
Brian King, Margaret S Winchester
The spread and varied impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic demonstrate the complex and reciprocal relationships between the socio-political and biophysical dimensions of human health. Yet even with increasing research and policy attention there remain critical gaps in the literature on how HIV-positive households manage health through their engagement with social and ecological systems. This is particularly urgent given improvements in the global response to the epidemic, whereby expanded access to antiretroviral therapy has extended the possibility for survival for years or decades...
April 16, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
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