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CO2 removal

Iman Manavitehrani, Ali Fathi, Yiwei Wang, Peter K Maitz, Farid Mirmohseni, Tegan L Cheng, Lauren Peacock, David G Little, Aaron Schindeler, Fariba Dehghani
Biodegradable polymers are appealing material for the manufacturing of surgical implants as such implants break down in vivo, negating the need for a subsequent operation for removal. Many biocompatible polymers produce acidic breakdown products that can lead to localized inflammation and osteolysis. This study assesses the feasibility of fabricating implants out of poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC)-starch that degrades into CO2 and water. The basic compression modulus of PPC-starch (1:1 w/w) is 34 MPa; however, the addition of glycerol (1% w/w) and water as plasticizers doubles this value and enhances the surface wettability...
May 23, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Pio Gabrielle B Calderon, Mustafa Habib, Franz Kappel, Aurelio A de Los Reyes V
The human cardiovascular system (CVS) and respiratory system (RS) work together in order to supply oxygen (O2) and other substrates needed for metabolism and to remove carbon dioxide (CO2). Global and local control mechanisms act on the CVS in order to adjust blood flow to the different parts of the body. This, in turn, affects the RS since the amount of O2 and CO2 transported, respectively to and away from the tissues depends on the cardiac output and blood flow in both the systemic and pulmonary circuits of the CVS...
May 19, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
Amandine Cadiau, Youssef Belmabkhout, Karim Adil, Prashant M Bhatt, Renjith S Pillai, Aleksander Shkurenko, Charlotte Martineau-Corcos, Guillaume Maurin, Mohamed Eddaoudi
Natural gas must be dehydrated before it can be transported and used, but conventional drying agents such as activated alumina or inorganic molecular sieves require an energy-intensive desiccant-regeneration step. We report a hydrolytically stable fluorinated metal-organic framework, AlFFIVE-1-Ni (KAUST-8), with a periodic array of open metal coordination sites and fluorine moieties within the contracted square-shaped one-dimensional channel. This material selectively removed water vapor from gas streams containing CO2, N2, CH4, and higher hydrocarbons typical of natural gas, as well as selectively removed both H2O and CO2 in N2-containing streams...
May 19, 2017: Science
Yeong-Tarng Shieh, Yen-Tzu Lin, Chih-Chia Cheng
Chitosan-g-poly[(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] was investigated as a CO2-switchable emulsifier in this study. Poly(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA) was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization followed by grafting to chitosan (CS). The CO2-responsiveness and reversible CO2-switchable temperature- and pH-sensitive behavior of PDMAEMA and CS-g-PDMAEMA were investigated as emulsifiers via simple CO2 and N2 bubbling. The lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) of PDMAEMA and CS-g-PDMAEMA aqueous solutions both increased as pH decreased to about pH 7...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Hai-Hua Wang, Lei Hou, Yong-Zhi Li, Chen-Yu Jiang, Yao-Yu Wang, Zhonghua Zhu
A new Co(II)-based MOF, {[Co2(tzpa)(OH)(H2O)2]·DMF}n (1) (H3tzpa = 5-(4-(tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)isophthalic acid), was constructed by employing a tetrazolyl-carboxyl ligand H3tzpa. 1 possesses 1D tubular channels that are decorated by μ3-OH groups, uncoordinated carboxylate O atoms, and open metal centers generated by the removal of coordinated water molecules, leading to high CO2 adsorption capacity and significantly selective capture for CO2 over CH4 and CO in the temperature range of 298-333 K. Moreover, 1 shows the chemical stability in acidic and basic aqueous solutions...
May 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhengqing Liu, Zongyou Yin, Casandra Cox, Michel Bosman, Xiaofeng Qian, Na Li, Hongyang Zhao, Yaping Du, Ju Li, Daniel G Nocera
Methanol, which contains 12.6 weight percent hydrogen, is a good hydrogen storage medium because it is a liquid at room temperature. However, by releasing the hydrogen, undesirable CO and/or CO2 byproducts are formed during catalytic fuel reforming. We show that alkaline earth metal oxides, in our case MgO nanocrystals, exhibit stable photocatalytic activity for CO/CO2-free H2 production from liquid methanol at room temperature. The performance of MgO nanocrystals toward methanol dehydrogenation increases with time and approaches ~320 μmol g(-1) hour(-1) after a 2-day photocatalytic reaction...
September 2016: Science Advances
E Tipping, J A C Davies, P A Henrys, G J D Kirk, A Lilly, U Dragosits, E J Carnell, A J Dore, M A Sutton, S J Tomlinson
Fertilization of nitrogen (N)-limited ecosystems by anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen deposition (Ndep) may promote CO2 removal from the atmosphere, thereby buffering human effects on global radiative forcing. We used the biogeochemical ecosystem model N14CP, which considers interactions among C (carbon), N and P (phosphorus), driven by a new reconstruction of historical Ndep, to assess the responses of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in British semi-natural landscapes to anthropogenic change. We calculate that increased net primary production due to Ndep has enhanced detrital inputs of C to soils, causing an average increase of 1...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
J L Diehl, J Boisramé-Helms, A Chardon-Couteau, M Commereuc, J-L Augy, A Sokoloff, N Rivet, P Gaussem, D M Smadja, N Aissaoui
INTRODUCTION: The aim of extracorporeal removal of CO2 (ECCO2R) is to ensure the removal of CO2 without any significant effect on oxygenation. ECCO2R makes use of low to moderate extracorporeal blood flow rates, whereas extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) requires high blood flows. STATE OF THE ART: For each ECCO2R device it is important to consider not only performance in terms of CO2 removal, but also cost and safety, including the incidence of hemolysis and of hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications...
May 12, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
Liqun Jiang, Juan Cheng, Haiyan Pei, Shuo Zhang, Zhigang Yang, Changliang Nie, Lijie Zhang
The ability of Scenedesmus quadricauda SDEC-13 to accumulate biomass and remove nutrients in domestic sewage from campus when incorporated with 15% CO2 was explored. The maximum specific growth rate, biomass productivity, biomass concentration and CO2 fixation rate were 0.14 d(-1), 0.08 g/L/d, 0.69 g/L and 0.076 g-CO2/L/d respectively. The lipid content of SDEC-13 at different culture phases was also evaluated and it increased following nutrient limitation. The removal efficiencies of TN, TP, nitrate and ammonium were all above 90%...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Technology
V Vieitez, I Á Gómez de Segura, M Martin-Cuervo, L Alfonso Gracia, L Javier Ezquerra
BACKGROUND: Lipid emulsion has been reported to be effective for the treatment of local anaesthetic overdoses in rats, dogs and humans. OBJECTIVES: To describe the successful treatment of cardiovascular lidocaine toxicity in a foal with intravenous lipid administration. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study: case report. METHODS: An 8-month-old Arabian cross foal was anaesthetised for removal of the right alar fold and nasal plate...
May 14, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Jeff Kuo, Jason Dow
Biopower can diversify energy supply and improve energy resiliency. Increases in biopower production from sustainable biomass can provide many economic and environmental benefits. For example, increasing biogas production through anaerobic digestion of food waste would increase the use of renewable fuels throughout California and add to its renewables portfolio. Although a biopower project will produce renewable energy, the process of producing bioenergy should harmonize with the goal of protecting public health...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Justin M Hutchison, Jeremy S Guest, Julie L Zilles
Removing micropollutants is challenging in part because of their toxicity at low concentrations. A biocatalytic approach could harness the high affinity of enzymes for their substrates to address this challenge. The potential of biocatalysis relative to mature (non-selective ion exchange, selective exchange, and whole-cell biological reduction) and emerging (catalysis) perchlorate-removal technologies was evaluated through a quantitative sustainable design framework, and research objectives were prioritized to advance economic and environmental sustainability...
May 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Fujian Liu, Kuan Huang, Qin Wu, Sheng Dai
A solvent-free induced self-assembly technology for the synthesis of nitrogen-doped ordered mesoporous polymers (N-OMPs) is developed, which is realized by mixing polymer precursors with block copolymer templates, curing at 140-180 °C, and calcination to remove the templates. This synthetic strategy represents a significant advancement in the preparation of functional porous polymers through a fast and scalable yet environmentally friendly route, since no solvents or catalysts are used. The synthesized N-OMPs and their derived catalysts are found to exhibit competitive CO2 capacities (0...
May 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
Amelia J Davies, Cédric M John
RATIONALE: Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry examines the thermodynamic preference of (13) C-(18) O bonds to form within the carbonate crystal lattice. The (13) C(18) O(16) O isotopologue in analyte CO2 has a natural abundance of 44.4 ppm necessitating stringent purification procedures to remove contaminant molecules that may produce significant isobaric effects within range of the mass 47 isotopologue. Strict purifications of analyte CO2 are thus required as well as reliable contamination indicators...
May 10, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Jessica L Linville, Yanwen Shen, Patricia A Ignacio-de Leon, Robin P Schoene, Meltem Urgun-Demirtas
A modified version of an in-situ CO2 removal process was applied during anaerobic digestion of food waste with two types of walnut shell biochar at bench scale under batch operating mode. Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8.4 vs. 5.6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23.4 vs. 0.3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0.2 vs. 40% wt% of ash). The 0.96-3...
May 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
Francisco J Choix, Raúl Snell-Castro, Jorge Arreola-Vargas, Alberto Carbajal-López, Hugo O Méndez-Acosta
In the present study, the capacity of the cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. CChF1 to remove CO2 from real and synthetic biogas was evaluated. The identification of the cyanobacterium, isolated from the lake Chapala, was carried out by means of morphological and molecular analyses, while its potential for CO2 removal from biogas streams was evaluated by kinetic experiments and optimized by a central composite design coupled to a response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that Leptolyngbya sp. CChF1 is able to remove CO2 and grow indistinctly in real or synthetic biogas streams, showing tolerance to high concentrations of CO2 and CH4, 25 and 75%, respectively...
May 10, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Y Qu, W-Y Ma, Q Sun
OBJECTIVE: The fractional laser and topical retinoic acid treatment have been applied for skin rejuvenation; however, the possible molecular mechanism of promoting remodeling of dermis is not clearly. Here we aimed to compare the effects of 10600 nm CO2 fractional laser and topical retinoic acid formulation on the skin collagen proliferation of Wistar rats, and to further explore the possible molecular mechanism of promoting remodeling of dermis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The hair on the back of Wistar rats was removed, and the back was divided equally into four regions with the cross-streaking method: A (the control group), B (the retinoic acid group), C (retinoic acid and fractional laser combination treatment group), and D (the fractional laser group)...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Hafiz Abdul Azeem, Johan Martinsson, Kristina Eriksson Stenström, Erik Swietlicki, Margareta Sandahl
Air-starved combustion of biomass and fossil fuels releases aerosols, including airborne carbonaceous particles, causing negative climatic and health effects. Radiocarbon analysis of the elemental carbon (EC) fraction can help apportion sources of its emission, which is greatly constrained by the challenges in isolation of EC from organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols. The isolation of EC using thermo-optical analysis is however biased by the presence of interfering compounds that undergo pyrolysis during the analysis...
May 8, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Andrew T Jang, Kenneth H Chan, Daniel Fried
Dental composites are used as restorative materials for filling cavities, shaping, and covering teeth for esthetic purposes, and as adhesives. Dentists spend more time replacing existing restorations that fail than they do placing new restorations. Tooth colored restorations are difficult to differentiate from the surrounding tooth structure making them challenging to remove without damaging healthy tooth structure. Previous studies have demonstrated that CO2 lasers in conjunction with spectral feedback can be used to selectively remove composite from tooth surfaces...
January 28, 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
Jianglin Ye, Shuilin Wu, Kun Ni, Ziqi Tan, Jin Xu, Zhuchen Tao, Yanwu Zhu
While potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation has been used to create pores in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for improved energy storage performance, the KOH activation mechanism of CNTs has been rarely investigated. In the work, the reaction between single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and KOH is studied in-situ with thermogravimetric analysis coupled to infrared spectrometry (IR) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS). The IR and MS results clearly demonstrate the sequential evolution of CO, hydrocarbons, CO2 and H2O in the activation process...
May 5, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
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