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CO2 removal

Jing Sun, Lina Wei, Yanzi Wang, Zhiping Zhao, Wenfang Liu
In recent years, the application of carbonic anhydrase (CA) in CO2 removal has attracted great interest. However, obtaining high enzyme recovery activity is difficult in existing immobilization techniques. In this work, water plasma-treated poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were modified via 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (KH550) or γ-(2, 3-epoxypropoxy) propyl trimethoxy silane (KH560), and then CA was attached. The immobilization process was optimized and the catalytic properties of PVDF-attached CA were characterized...
December 9, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Ewan C Goligher, Marcelo B P Amato, Arthur S Slutsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Luis Morales, Antonio Artigas, David A Kaufman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Grażyna Marczuk-Kolada, Elżbieta Łuczaj-Cepowicz, Małgorzata Pawińska, Adam Hołownia
BACKGROUND: Dentistry materials are the most frequently used substitutes of human tissues. Therefore, an assessment of dental filling materials should cover not only their chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics, but also their cytotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: To compare the cytotoxic effects of 13 conventional glass ionomer cements on human gingival fibroblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The assessment was conducted using the MTT test. Six samples were prepared for each material...
October 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Qianqian Feng, Jing Xu, Yayun Zhang, Xiaosha Li, Jiaojiao Xu, Huifang Han, Tangyuan Ning, Rattal Lal, Zengjia Li
This study was conducted to quantify the potential for CO2 fixation in the above-ground biomass of summer maize (Zea mays L.) under different tillage and residue retention treatments. The treatments were paired and included conventional tillage with straw removed (CT0), conventional tillage with straw retained (CTS), no-till with straw removed (NT0), no-till with straw retention (NTS), subsoiling with straw removed (SS0), and subsoiling with straw retained (SSS). The results indicated that NTS and SSS can enhance translocation of photosynthates to grains during the post-anthesis stage...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Niclas Heidenreich, Alexandra Lieb, Norbert Stock, Helge Reinsch
A new Al-based layered MOF [Al2(OH)4(O2C-C3H4-CO2)]·nH2O denoted as CAU-15-Cit was synthesised under mild aqueous conditions. It exhibits a layered structure incorporating infinite chains of edge-sharing AlO6 polyhedra being interconnected by citraconate anions to arrange into layers, which are stacked in an AAA fashion (citraconic acid = methylmaleic acid = H2Cit, HO2C-C3H4-CO2H). The crystal structures of the hydrated and dehydrated MOF were determined ab initio from powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) data...
December 4, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jian Zhang, Jie Yuan, Wen-Xue Zhang, Fang Tu, Ya Jiang, Chuan-Ze Sun
A novel and effective process was put forward for converting rice straw into feed by combining diluted acid hydrolysis and ammonization with Rhodospirillum rubrum fermentation. After pretreatment with dilute sulfuric or phosphoric acid (1%, w/w) at 100°C, materials were subjected to fermentation under several gases (N2, CO2, and air) and different light intensities in a 2-L fermentor. The key indexes of feed for fermented materials were estimated and several toxic substances were investigated during the fermentation...
December 1, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
Rocco Severino, Paolo Severino
Background: Intramedullary, nondysraphic, spinal cord lipomas are rare and account for less than 1% of all spinal cord lesions. Symptoms typically consist of a progressive myelopathy associated with increasing degrees of paralysis (e.g., quadriparesis/plegia, paraparesis/plegia). Case Description: A 39-year-old male, without a history of spinal dysraphism, presented with a progressive spastic quadriparesis. This was attributed to magnetic resonance-documented large intramedullary cervical lipoma...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
Yong Chen, Li-Ping Sun, Zhi-Hui Liu, Greg Martin, Zheng Sun
Managing waste is an increasing problem globally. Microalgae have the potential to help remove contaminants from a range of waste streams and convert them into useful biomass. This article presents a critical review of recent technological developments in the production of chemicals and other materials from microalgae grown using different types of waste. A range of novel approaches are examined for efficiently capturing CO2 in flue gas via photosynthetic microalgal cultivation. Strategies for using microalgae to assimilate nitrogen, organic carbon, phosphorus, and metal ions from wastewater are considered in relation to modes of production...
November 27, 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Yong Shin Kim, Yuanyuan Yang, Charles S Henry
Numerous fabrication methods have been reported for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) using barrier materials ranging from photoresist to wax. While these methods have been used with wide success, consistently producing small, high-resolution features using materials and methods that are compatible with solvents and surfactants remains a challenge. Two new methods are presented here for generating μPADs with well-defined, high-resolution structures compatible with solvents and surfactant-containing solutions by partially or fully fusing paper with Parafilm® followed by cutting with a CO2 laser cutter...
February 2018: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
Thomas B Chalk, Mathis P Hain, Gavin L Foster, Eelco J Rohling, Philip F Sexton, Marcus P S Badger, Soraya G Cherry, Adam P Hasenfratz, Gerald H Haug, Samuel L Jaccard, Alfredo Martínez-García, Heiko Pälike, Richard D Pancost, Paul A Wilson
During the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT; 1,200-800 kya), Earth's orbitally paced ice age cycles intensified, lengthened from ∼40,000 (∼40 ky) to ∼100 ky, and became distinctly asymmetrical. Testing hypotheses that implicate changing atmospheric CO2 levels as a driver of the MPT has proven difficult with available observations. Here, we use orbitally resolved, boron isotope CO2 data to show that the glacial to interglacial CO2 difference increased from ∼43 to ∼75 μatm across the MPT, mainly because of lower glacial CO2 levels...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Harlinde Peperstraete, Sunny Eloot, Pieter Depuydt, Filip De Somer, Carl Roosens, Eric Hoste
BACKGROUND: Lung protective mechanical ventilation (MV) is the corner stone of therapy for ARDS. However, its use may be limited by respiratory acidosis. This study explored feasibility of, effectiveness and safety of low flow extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R). METHODS: This was a prospective pilot study, using the Abylcap® (Bellco) ECCO2R, with crossover off-on-off design (2-h blocks) under stable MV settings, and follow up till end of ECCO2R. Primary endpoint for effectiveness was a 20% reduction of PaCO2 after the first 2-h...
November 28, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
Zonglong Li, Hui Li, Xinyu Guan, Junjie Tang, Yusran Yusran, Zhan Li, Ming Xue, Qianrong Fang, Yushan Yan, Valentin Valtchev, Shilun Qiu
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have emerged as functional materials for various potential applications. However, the availability of three-dimensional (3D) COFs is still limited, and nearly all of them exhibit neutral porous skeletons. Here we report a general strategy to design porous positively charged 3D ionic COFs by incorporation of cationic monomers in the framework. The obtained 3D COFs are built of 3-fold interpenetrated diamond net, and show impressive surface area and CO2 uptakes. The ion exchange ability of 3D ionic COFs has been highlighted by reversible removal of nuclear waste model ions and excellent size-selective capture for anionic pollutants...
November 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jun Di, Jun Xiong, Huaming Li, Zheng Liu
As a sustainable technology, semiconductor photocatalysis has attracted considerable interest in the past several decades owing to the potential to relieve or resolve energy and environmental-pollution issues. By virtue of their unique structural and electronic properties, emerging ultrathin 2D materials with appropriate band structure show enormous potential to achieve efficient photocatalytic performance. Here, the state-of-the-art progress on ultrathin 2D photocatalysts is reviewed and a critical appraisal of the classification, controllable synthesis, and formation mechanism of ultrathin 2D photocatalysts is presented...
November 27, 2017: Advanced Materials
Shunzheng Zhao, Honghong Yi, Xiaolong Tang, Dongjuan Kang, Fengyu Gao, Jiangen Wang, Yonghai Huang, Zhongyu Yang
In this paper, a series of NiAl hydrotalcite-like compounds (HTLCs) were prepared by the urea-decomposition method. Removal of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and methyl mercaptan (CH4S) over the hydrotalcite-derived oxides (HTO) at low temperature was studied. The Ni3Al-HTO exhibited higher catalytic activities than Ni3Al mixed oxides prepared by physical mixing method (Ni3Al-PM) or impregnation/calcination method (Ni3Al-IC). Based on the characterization, it was found that desulfurization activities are closely tied to the surface acid-base properties of catalysts...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Rasool Razmi, Bahman Ramavandi, Mehdi Ardjmand, Amir Heydarinasab
The entry of phenol into the environment causes damage to humans and living beings. Hence, it is essential to reduce phenol concentration from wastewaters to below standard level. This research has analysed the physio-chemical properties of a catalyst that has been developed-biochar-La, including BJH, BET, EDX, SEM, FTIR, pHpzc, and iodine number. The catalyst consisted of effective functional groups, including C=S, C-O, C=C, -COOH and O-H, with a specific surface area of 31.2 m(2)/g. The catalyst was used in the biochar-La/ultrasonic/persulphate system to remove phenol from wastewater...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
María Erans, Michal Jeremias, Vasilije Manovic, Edward J Anthony
Calcium looping (CaL) is a post-combustion CO2 capture technology that is suitable for retrofitting existing power plants. The CaL process uses limestone as a cheap and readily available CO2 sorbent. While the technology has been widely studied, there are a few available options that could be applied to make it more economically viable. One of these is to increase the oxygen concentration in the calciner to reduce or eliminate the amount of recycled gas (CO2, H2O and impurities); therefore, decreasing or removing the energy necessary to heat the recycled gas stream...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Florian Halboth, Flavio Roces
Nest ventilation in the leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri is driven via a wind-induced mechanism. On their nests, workers construct small turrets that are expected to facilitate nest ventilation. We hypothesized that the construction and structural features of the turrets would depend on the colony's current demands for ventilation and thus might be influenced by the prevailing environmental conditions inside the nest. Therefore, we tested whether climate-related parameters, namely airflow, air humidity and CO2 levels in the outflowing nest air influenced turret construction in Atta vollenweideri...
2017: PloS One
K Michael Schäfer, Leonie Reinders, Jan Fiedler, Mark R Ringenberg
Recently we had reported the noninnocent behavior of 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene (dppf) in Fe(CO)3dppf [Ringenberg et al., Inorg. Chem., 2017, 56, 7501]. Moving to the left in the periodic table, HMn(CO)3(dRpf) where dRpf = dppf (1H) and 1,1'-bis(diisopropylphosphino)ferrocene (dippf) (2H) were synthesized. The hydride ligand was removed by protonation with [(Et2O)2H][B(Ar(F))4] ([B(Ar(F))4](-) = tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate), resulting in the rapid evolution of H2 followed by the formation of an Fe→Mn interaction...
November 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Stephen C Theophilus, Fredrick U Mbanaso, Ernest O Nnadi, Kingsley T Onyedeke
Filter drains are usually laid along the margins of highways. Highway runoffs are polluted with hydrocarbons and high levels of total dissolved solids. Therefore, effective pollution removal mechanism is necessary in order to avoid contamination of surrounding soils and groundwater. Biodegradation is amongst pollution removal mechanisms in filter drains, but it is a relatively slow process which is dependent on wide range of factors including the type of pollutant and availability of nutrients. This paper reports on a study conducted to investigate the impact of slow-release fertilizer and struvite in enhancement of biodegradation of hydrocarbon in filter drains...
November 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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