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CO2 removal

Zhihai Ju, Jinhui Ma, Chen Wang, Jie Yu, Yeru Qiao, Feilong Hei
Pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (pECLA) has been reported to efficiently remove the systemic CO 2 production and provide mild to moderate oxygenation, thereby allowing for ventilator settings and modes prioritizing oxygenation and lung protection. However, an adequate bypass flow, the capacity to provide respiratory support and the effect on the inflammatory cascade response and tissue perfusion require further study to be determined. After induction of acute lung injury (ALI) by oleic acid injection, pECLA was implemented in 12 anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated dogs for 48 h...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Gongping Liu, Valeriya Chernikova, Yang Liu, Kuang Zhang, Youssef Belmabkhout, Osama Shekhah, Chen Zhang, Shouliang Yi, Mohamed Eddaoudi, William J Koros
Membrane-based separations can improve energy efficiency and reduce the environmental impacts associated with traditional approaches. Nevertheless, many challenges must be overcome to design membranes that can replace conventional gas separation processes. Here, we report on the incorporation of engineered submicrometre-sized metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals into polymers to form hybrid materials that successfully translate the excellent molecular sieving properties of face-centred cubic (fcu)-MOFs into the resultant membranes...
February 12, 2018: Nature Materials
Sung Kyu Maeng, Song Hee You, Joo-Youn Nam, Hodon Ryu, Thomas C Timmes, Hyun-Chul Kim
This study achieves a better operational simplicity for the phycoremediation of reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate using Scenedesmus quadricauda microalgae. Under continuous illumination with CO2 supplementation, algal growth in the RO concentrate resulted in a conversion of polymeric organic matter (a mixture of humic substances and polysaccharides) to biodegradable fractions and their prompt removal along with inorganic nutrients (NO3- and PO43-). The algal-induced degradation of humic-like substances which are typically refractory to microbial decomposition was demonstrated in an indirect manner...
February 5, 2018: Water Research
A Castro, A I Calvo, C Blanco-Alegre, F Oduber, C Alves, E Coz, F Amato, X Querol, R Fraile
Presently, both in rural areas and in cities open fireplaces are still present and large quantities of wood are combusted every year. The present study aims to characterize aerosol size distribution, chemical composition and deposition in the human respiratory tract of particles emitted during the combustion of logs of oak in an open fireplace installed in the living room of a typical village house. CO 2 and CO levels and aerosol size distribution have been continuously monitored and a PM 10 sampler with two types of filters for chemical and microscopic analysis was also installed...
February 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yuan-Ye Jiang, Tian-Tian Liu, Rui-Xue Zhang, Zhong-Yan Xu, Xue Sun, Siwei Bi
Acyl transfer of in-situ generated mixed anhydrides is an important method for the amide bond formation from short linkages with the easily-removed by-product CO2. To enrich the understanding of the inherently-difficult acyl transfer hindered by the large ring strain, a density functional theory (DFT) study was performed herein. The calculations indicate that the amidation of activated -aminoesters and N-protected amino acids is more likely to proceed via the self-catalytic nucleophilic substitution of the two substrates and the subsequent 1,3-acyl transfer...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Xiaoyan Pei, Dazhen Xiong, Huiyong Wang, Shuaiqi Gao, Xinying Zhang, Suojiang Zhang, Jian Ji Wang
Carbon dots (CDs) have attracted increasing attention in applications such as bio-imaging, sensors, catalysis, and drug delivery. However, unlike metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles, the transfer of CDs between polar and non-polar phases is little understood. In this work, a novel class of amine-terminated CDs is developed and their phase transfer behaviour has been investigated. It is found that these CDs can reversibly transfer between aqueous and organic solvents by alternatively bubbling and removal of CO2 at atmospheric pressure...
February 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
David Marín, Esther Posadas, Patricia Cano, Víctor Pérez, Raquel Lebrero, Raúl Muñoz
The influence of the daily and seasonal variations of environmental conditions on the quality of the upgraded biogas was evaluated in an outdoors pilot scale high rate algal pond (HRAP) interconnected to an external absorption column (AC) via a conical settler. The high alkalinity in the cultivation broth resulted in a constant biomethane composition during the day regardless of the monitored month, while the high algal-bacterial activity during spring and summer boosted a superior biomethane quality. CO2 concentrations in the upgraded biogas ranged from 0...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Rungnapha Khiewwijit, Huub Rijnaarts, Hardy Temmink, Karel J Keesman
This study explored the feasibility and estimated the environmental impacts of two novel wastewater treatment configurations. Both include combined bioflocculation and anaerobic digestion but apply different nutrient removal technologies, i.e. partial nitritation/Anammox or microalgae treatment. The feasibility of such configurations was investigated for 16 locations worldwide with respect to environmental impacts, such as net energy yield, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, CO2 emission, and area requirements...
February 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xia Jia, Chunyan Zhang, Yonghua Zhao, Tuo Liu, Yunhua He
Few studies have explored the long-term effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 combined with lead (Pb) contamination on plants. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 3 years of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol-1) on Pb accumulation and plant defenses in leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L. seedlings in exposed to Pb (500 mg kg-1 soil). Elevated CO2 increased Pb accumulation in leaves and Pb removal rate in soils. In plants exposed to Pb stress, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in leaves were lower under elevated CO2 than under ambient CO2, but seedling height and width increased under elevated CO2 relative to ambient CO2...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Guiyan Zang, Sharma Tejasvi, Albert Ratner, Electo Silva Lora
The Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BIGCC) power system is believed to potentially be a highly efficient way to utilize biomass to generate power. However, there is no comparative study of BIGCC systems that examines all the latest improvements for gasification agents, gas turbine combustion methods, and CO2 Capture and Storage options. This study examines the impact of recent advancements on BIGCC performance through exergy analysis using Aspen Plus. Results show that the exergy efficiency of these systems is ranged from 22...
February 2, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Ángel Benito, Fernando Calderón, Santiago Benito
The traditional way of producing wine is through the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in order to convert glucose and fructose into alcohol. In the case of red wines, after this alcoholic fermentation lactic bacteria Oenococus oeni is used to stabilize wine from a microbiological point of view by converting malic acid into lactic acid that it is not a microbiological substract. The yeast species Schizosaccharomyces pombe was traditionally considered spoilage yeast. Nevertheless, during the last decade it started to be used due to its unique malic acid deacidification ability to reduce the harsh acidity of wines from northern Europe, by converting malic acid to ethanol and CO2 without producing lactic acid as lactic bacteria does...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jessica Jewell, David McCollum, Johannes Emmerling, Christoph Bertram, David E H J Gernaat, Volker Krey, Leonidas Paroussos, Loïc Berger, Kostas Fragkiadakis, Ilkka Keppo, Nawfal Saadi, Massimo Tavoni, Detlef van Vuuren, Vadim Vinichenko, Keywan Riahi
Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders' Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today's low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices...
February 7, 2018: Nature
Yuan Shen, Ronald Benner
A large quantity of reduced carbon is sequestered in the ocean as refractory dissolved molecules that persist through several circuits of global overturning circulation. Key aspects of the cycling of refractory dissolved organic carbon (DOC) remain unknown, making it challenging to predict how this large carbon reservoir will respond to climate change. Herein we investigate mechanisms that remove refractory DOC using bioassay experiments with DOC isolated from surface, mesopelagic and deep waters of the Atlantic Ocean...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qing Ye, Jun Cheng, Wangbiao Guo, Junchen Xu, Ke Li, Junhu Zhou
A novel serial lantern-shaped draft tube (LDT) that generates vortices is proposed to increase radial velocity between dark and light regions for improving CO2 fixation with microalgae in a gas-lift circumflux column (GCC) photobioreactor. Clockwise vortices are generated in the downflow outerloop of the GCC photobioreactor with LDT. Radial velocity was improved from 1.50 to 4.35 × 10-2 m/s, thereby decreased liquid cycle period between dark and light regions by 1.9 times. Mixing time decreased by 21%, and mass transfer coefficient increased by 26% with LDT...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Maryam Izadifard, Gopal Achari, Cooper H Langford
Mineralization of sulfolane in aqueous systems by CaO2/O3 and CaO/O3 was investigated in this study. If 1.6 g/L of oxidants (CaO2 and CaO) were used along with 5 L/min of O3 in a batch reactor, degradation of sulfolane followed a pseudo-first order kinetics model. Both sulfolane and TOC were totally removed in less than 40 and 150 min respectively. For these treatments, the pH of the aqueous solutions was above 11, which made O3 more effective in removing sulfolane. However, the high pH of the solution didn't improve TOC removal...
January 18, 2018: Chemosphere
A Di Francesco, M Mari, L Ugolini, E Baraldi
Kiwifruit, wounded at the equator or by pedicel removal, to simulate the stem end wound, were treated with Aureobasidium pullulans (L1 and L8 strains) and subsequently inoculated with conidia of Botrytis cinerea. Fruits were stored at -1 °C in normal refrigeration (NR) or in controlled atmosphere (CA) (2% O2; 4.5% CO2). After 4 months, both antagonists significantly reduced the disease in all experiments, L1 better than L8. In NR, their efficacy was higher than 80%. In CA, the disease reduction was lower: between 30% (L1) and 60% (L8)...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
Matthias P Hilty, Thomas Riva, Silvia R Cottini, Eva-Maria Kleinert, Alessandra Maggiorini, Marco Maggiorini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
Hussein Znad, Ahmed M D Al Ketife, Simon Judd
The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated with light at different wavelengths (λmax) and irradiation intensities (I) by applying coloured tape (CT) as a simple, inexpensive solar light filter. C. vulgaris was cultivated in a standard medium using blue (CTB), green (CTG), red (CTR), yellow (CTY), and white (CTW) coloured tape to filter the light, as well the unfiltered light (U). The CT-filtered light spectrum was characterized in terms of λmax and I, and the influence of these parameters on algal growth (specific growth rate, µ), nutrient removal efficiency (% RE of total nitrogen, TN, and phosphorus, TP), CO2 fixation rate (RC) and lipid productivity (Plipid) evaluated...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Technology
Ming Quan Lam, Nik Nurhidayu Nik Mut, Suganthi Thevarajoo, Sye Jinn Chen, Chitra Selvaratnam, Huszalina Hussin, Haryati Jamaluddin, Chun Shiong Chong
A halophilic bacterium, Virgibacillus sp. strain CD6, was isolated from salted fish and its extracellular protease was characterized. Protease production was found to be highest when yeast extract was used as nitrogen source for growth. The protease exhibited stability at wide range of salt concentration (0-12.5%, w/v), temperatures (20-60 °C), and pH (4-10) with maximum activity at 10.0% (w/v) NaCl, 60 °C, pH 7 and 10, indicating its polyextremophilicity. The protease activity was enhanced in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, Cd2+, and Al3+ (107-122% relative activity), and with retention of activity > 80% for all of other metal ions examined (K+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+)...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Yulia M Litvinova, Yakov M Gayfulin, Konstantin A Kovalenko, Denis G Samsonenko, Jan van Leusen, Ilya V Korolkov, Vladimir P Fedin, Yuri V Mironov
The redox-active rhenium octahedral cluster unit [Re6Se8(CN)6]4- was combined with Gd3+ ions and dicarboxylate linkers in novel types of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that display a set of functional properties. The hydrolytically stable complexes [{Gd(H2O)3}2(L)Re6Se8(CN)6]·nH2O (1, L = furan-2,5-dicarboxylate, fdc; 2, L = thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylate, tdc) exhibit a 3D framework of trigonal symmetry where 1D chains of [{Gd(H2O)3}2(L)]4+ are connected by [Re6Se8(CN)6]4- clusters. Frameworks contain spacious channels filled with H2O...
February 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
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