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CO2 removal

Sanwasan Yodkhum, Sate Sampattagul, Shabbir H Gheewala
Rice cultivation and energy use for rice production can produce the environmental impacts, especially related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also, rice straw open burning by farmers generally practiced after harvesting stage in Thailand for removing the residues in the rice field is associated with emissions of air pollutants, especially particulate matter formation that affects human health and global climate. This study assessed the environmental burdens, consisting of GHG emissions, energy use, and particulate matter formation (PM10), from rice cultivation in Thailand by life cycle assessment (LCA) and compared the environmental burdens of rice straw management scenarios: open burning, incorporation into soil, and direct combustion for electricity generation...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yunqiang Zhang, Qiang Ma, Shulan Wang, Xuan Liu, Li Li
Three-dimensional hollow carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (DHCSs/RGO) nanocomposites with high-level heteroatom doping and hierarchical pores are fabricated via a versatile method. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) that serves as dispersant and nucleating agent is used as the non-removal template for synthesizing melamine resin (MR) spheres with abundant heteroatoms which are subsequently composited with graphene oxide (GO). Use of PVA and implementation of freezing treatment prevent agglomeration of MR spheres within GO network...
April 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Jian Lü, Cristina Perez-Krap, Fabien Trousselet, Yong Yan, Nada H Alsmail, Bahar Karadeniz, Nicholas M Jacques, William Lewis, Alexander J Blake, François-Xavier Coudert, Rong Cao, Martin Schröder
Controlled assembly of two-dimensional (2D) supramolecular organic frameworks (SOFs) has been demonstrated through a binary strategy in which 1,4-bis-(4-(3,5-dicyano-2,6-dipyridyl)pyridyl)naphthalene ( 2 ), generated in situ by oxidative dehydrogenation of 1,4-bis-(4-(3,5-dicyano-2,6-dipyridyl)dihydropyridyl)naphthalene ( 1 ), is coupled in a 1:1 ratio with terphenyl-3,3',4,4'-tetracarboxylic acid ( 3 ; to form SOF-8 ), 5,5'-(anthracene-9,10-diyl)diisophthalic acid ( 4 ; to form SOF-9 ), or 5,5'-bis-(azanediyl)-oxalyl-diisophthalic acid ( 5 ; to form SOF-10 )...
April 4, 2018: Crystal Growth & Design
Zhenchuan Niu, Weijian Zhou, Xue Feng, Tian Feng, Shugang Wu, Peng Cheng, Xuefeng Lu, Hua Du, Xiaohu Xiong, Yunchong Fu
Radiocarbon (14 C) is the most accurate tracer available for quantifying atmospheric CO2 derived from fossil fuel (CO2ff ), but it is expensive and time-consuming to measure. Here, we used common hourly Air Quality Index (AQI) pollutants (AQI, PM2.5 , PM10 , and CO) to indirectly trace diurnal CO2ff variations during certain days at the urban sites in Beijing and Xiamen, China, based on linear relationships between AQI pollutants and CO2ff traced by 14 C ([Formula: see text]) for semimonthly samples obtained in 2014...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Feng Song, Huayang Zhang, Shaobin Wang, Lihong Liu, Xiaoyao Tan, Shaomin Liu
We report a strategy for simultaneous cobalt removal and organic waste decomposition by using mesoporous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles wrapped in uniform carbon layers (HA@C). The in situ formation of CoOH+-HA@C due to ion exchange greatly improved the degradation efficiency by at least one order of magnitude compared to free Co2+.
April 9, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Emily M Bock, Brady S L Coleman, Zachary M Easton
Denitrifying bioreactors are recently-established agricultural best management practices with growing acceptance in the US Midwest but less studied in other agriculturally significant regions, such as the US Mid-Atlantic. A bioreactor was installed in the Virginia Coastal Plain to evaluate performance in this geographically novel region facing challenges managing nutrient pollution. The 25.3 m3 woodchip bed amended with 10% biochar (v/v) intercepted subsurface drainage from 6.5 ha cultivated in soy. Influent and effluent nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and flowrate were monitored intensively during the second year of operation...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jorge Vidal, Cesar Huiliñir, Rocío Santander, Javier Silva-Agredo, Ricardo A Torres-Palma, Ricardo Salazar
The elimination of the antibiotic Nafcillin (NAF), which is usually used in hospitals and veterinary clinics around the world, was assessed through a combination of three advanced electrochemical oxidation processes followed by anaerobic digestion process. In the first stage different electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) were used: electro-oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (EO-H2 O2 ), electro-Fenton (EF) and Photo electro-Fenton (PEF). After PEF, almost complete and highly efficient degradation and elimination of NAF was achieved, with the concomitant elimination of the associated antimicrobial activity...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wen Zhu, Laurie A Reinhardt, Nigel G J Richards
There is considerable interest in how "second shell" interactions between protein side chains and metal ligands might modulate Mn(II) ion redox properties and reactivity in metalloenzymes. One such Mn-dependent enzyme is oxalate decarboxylase (OxDC), which catalyzes the disproportionation of oxalate monoanion into formate and CO2. EPR studies have shown that a non-heme, mononuclear Mn(III) ion is formed in OxDC during catalytic turnover and that removal of a hydrogen bond between one of the metal ligands (Glu101) and a conserved, second shell tryptophan residue (Trp132) gives rise to altered zero-field splitting parameters for the catalytically important Mn(II) ion...
April 5, 2018: Biochemistry
David C Grills, Sergei V Lymar
The solvated electron in CH3CN is scavenged by CO2 with a rate constant of 3.2 × 1010 M-1 s-1 to produce the carbon dioxide radical anion (CO2˙-), a strong and versatile reductant. Using pulse radiolysis with time-resolved IR detection, this radical is unambiguously identified by its absorption band at 1650 cm-1 corresponding to the antisymmetric CO2˙- stretch. This assignment is confirmed by 13C isotopic labelling experiments and DFT calculations. In neat CH3CN, CO2˙- decays on a ∼10 μs time scale via recombination with solvent-derived radicals (R˙) and solvated protons...
April 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Daisuke Tanikawa, Takahiro Watari, Trung Cuong Mai, Masao Fukuda, Kazuaki Syutsubo, Ngoc Bich Nguyen, Takashi Yamaguchi
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from both open-type and closed anaerobic wastewater treatment systems in a natural rubber processing factory in Vietnam were surveyed. In this factory, wastewater was treated by an open-type anaerobic baffled reactor (OABR) that comprised 60 compartments. A part of the wastewater was fed to a pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to enable a comparison of the process performance and GHG emission characteristics with those of the OABR. In the OABR, 94.4% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 18...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Technology
Fuxun Ai, Nico Eisenhauer, Alexandre Jousset, Olaf Butenschoen, Rong Ji, Hongyan Guo
The concentrations of tropospheric CO2 and O3 have been rising due to human activities. These rising concentrations may have strong impacts on soil functions as changes in plant physiology may lead to altered plant-soil interactions. Here, the effects of eCO2 and eO3 on the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants in grassland soil were studied. Both elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations decreased PAH removal with lowest removal rates at elevated CO2 and elevated O3 concentrations. This effect was linked to a shift in soil microbial community structure by structural equation modeling...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Valerio Paolini, Francesco Petracchini, Monica Carnevale, Francesco Gallucci, Mattia Perilli, Giulio Esposito, Marco Segreto, Leandro Galanti Occulti, Davide Scaglione, Antonietta Ianniello, Massimiliano Frattoni
This study investigates the conversion of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) into biomethane for automotive fuel or grid injection. A prototype plant was monitored in Northern Italy, based on vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) on synthetic zeolite 13×: this biogas upgrading method is similar to pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and commonly used for other kinds of biomass. Measurements of biogas inlet, biomethane outlet and off-gas were performed including CH4 , CO2 , CO, H2 , O2 , N2 , HCl, HF, NH3 , H2 S and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Liqiang Zhao, Stefania Milano, Eric O Walliser, Bernd R Schöne
Marine bivalves inhabiting naturally pCO2 -enriched habitats can likely tolerate high levels of acidification. Consequently, elucidating the mechanisms behind such resilience can help to predict the fate of this economically and ecologically important group under near-future scenarios of CO2 -driven ocean acidification. Here, we assess the effects of four environmentally realistic pCO2 levels (900, 1500, 2900 and 6600 μatm) on the shell production rate of Mya arenaria juveniles originating from a periodically pCO2 -enriched habitat (Kiel Fjord, Western Baltic Sea)...
March 28, 2018: Chemosphere
J Fuglestvedt, J Rogelj, R J Millar, M Allen, O Boucher, M Cain, P M Forster, E Kriegler, D Shindell
The main goal of the Paris Agreement as stated in Article 2 is 'holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C'. Article 4 points to this long-term goal and the need to achieve 'balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases'. This statement on 'greenhouse gas balance' is subject to interpretation, and clarifications are needed to make it operational for national and international climate policies...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Elmar Kriegler, Gunnar Luderer, Nico Bauer, Lavinia Baumstark, Shinichiro Fujimori, Alexander Popp, Joeri Rogelj, Jessica Strefler, Detlef P van Vuuren
We explore the feasibility of limiting global warming to 1.5°C without overshoot and without the deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies. For this purpose, we perform a sensitivity analysis of four generic emissions reduction measures to identify a lower bound on future CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes. Final energy demand reductions and electrification of energy end uses as well as decarbonization of electricity and non-electric energy supply are all considered...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Saziye Ilgaz, Ihsan Gungor Sat, Atilla Polat
In this pilot-scale study supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 ) extraction technique was used for decaffeination of black tea. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO2 flow rate (1, 2, 3 L/min) and modifier quantity (0, 2.5, 5 mol%) were selected as extraction parameters. Three-level and five-factor response surface methodology experimental design with a Box-Behnken type was employed to generate 46 different processing conditions. 100% of caffeine from black tea was removed under two different extraction conditions; one of which was consist of 375 bar pressure, 62...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yang Yang, Chen Zhang, Cui Lai, Guangming Zeng, Danlian Huang, Min Cheng, Jiajia Wang, Fei Chen, Chengyun Zhou, Weiping Xiong
Energy and environmental issues are the major concerns in our contemporary "risk society". As a green technique, photocatalysis has been identified as a promising solution for above-mentioned problems. In recent decade, BiOX (X = Cl, Br, I) photocatalytic nanomaterials have sparked numerous interest as economical and efficient photocatalysts for energy conversion and environmental management. The distinctive physicochemical properties of BiOX nanomaterials, especially their energy band structures and levels as well as relaxed layered nanostructures, should be responsible for the visible-light-driven photocatalytic performance improvement, which could be utilized in dealing with the global energy and environmental challenges...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Pengzhao Yao, Hongli Liu, Dongtao Wang, Jiangyao Chen, Guiying Li, Taicheng An
Poor visible-light-driven activity and deactivation property as well as wide band gap of the most common TiO2 photocatalyst significantly limits its practical application in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) purification. In this study, tiny TiO2 nanoparticles incorporated into a typical metal-organic framework (MOF), NH2 -UiO-66, with controllable TiO2 content and size, were synthesized based on the hard-soft acid-base (HSAB) principle and applied to VOCs purification. Compared to bare TiO2 , the TiO2 @NH2 -UiO-66 composites could extend the optical absorption to the visible light range and accelerate the photogenerated electrons-holes separation, due to the excellent interface contact between TiO2 and NH2 -UiO-66...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Leonardo S Sousa, Poliane Chagas, Luiz Carlos Alves de Oliveira, Cinthia Soares de Castro
Composite materials from PET and red mud (RM) wastes were used as catalysts for environmental application such as the wastewater treatment. The PET-RM catalysts were obtained by mechanical mixture of the residues followed by thermal treatment under N2 atmosphere (300o C/1h). An additional activation of the composites with CO2 was investigated (at 800-900°C) to reduce the red mud basicity. The CO2 activation affected the composites surface area and reduced their carbon content. XRD revealed that the hematite (α-Fe2 O3 ) and maghemite/magnetite are the main iron oxides present in the composites...
March 26, 2018: Environmental Technology
Meng Mu, Xinjie Luo, Wei Wang, Hongyao Yin, Yujun Feng
HYPOTHESIS: Hollow nanospheres, characterized by a cavity inside a solid shell, have potential applications due to their unique structure, but the unchangeable morphology and permeability of the shell restrain their further practical utilization. While several smart hollow nanospheres that can respond to pH, ion strength, and temperature have been developed, they are inclined to suffer from problems associated with high energy consumption or the difficult removal of residual stimulants...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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