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Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jéssica P Costa, Md T Ul-Islam, Pauline S Santos, Paula B Ferreira, George L S Oliveira, Marcus V O B Alancer, Marcia F C J Paz, Éverton L F Ferreira, Chistiane M Feitosa, Antonia M G L Citó, Damião P Sousa, Ana Amelia C Melo-Cavalcante
Phytol (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol; PHY), the alcoholic diterpenoid is particularly interesting due to its diverse activities found in literature. This study evaluated in vitro and in vivo antioxidant capacity of PHY. For this we conducted DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS•+ (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical scavenging tests as in vitro, while Saccharomyces cerevisiae test as in vivo. For in vitro tests, trolox and for in vivo test hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were taken as standard and stressor, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Sayantan Nath, Sankar Kumar Ghosh, Yashmin Choudhury
INTRODUCTION: A murine model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was used to compare the antidiabetic effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor vildagliptin and biguanide, metformin. METHODS: Swiss albino mice (n=20 males; n=25 females) were given high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum for 3weeks followed by low dose (40mgkg(-1) body weight, bw daily) of streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally five times from the 22nd day of treatment onwards, with HFD continued up to 26th day...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Bo Young Choi, In Yeol Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Bo Eun Lee, Song Hee Lee, A Ra Kho, Min Sohn, Sang Won Suh
Zinc is a central actor in regulating stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult brain. High levels of vesicular zinc are found in the presynaptic terminals. It has been demonstrated that high levels of vesicular zinc are localized in the presynaptic terminals of the granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) and that neurogenesis occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ). Furthermore, zinc chelation reduces hippocampal neurogenesis in pathological conditions such as hypoglycemia, epilepsy and traumatic brain injury...
October 20, 2016: Neuroscience
Li Qi, Yong-Gang Tang, Lin Wang, Wei He, Hong-Hua Pan, Rong-Rong Nie, Yan Can
OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to elucidate the role of Rho-mediated ROCK-Semaphorin3A signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) in a mouse model. METHODS: One-hundred twelve eight-week male C57BL/6 mice were selected. The mouse model of PD was constructed by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP. All mice were divided into four groups (28 mice in each group): Blank group, Model group, Rho knockout (Rho+/-) group and ROCK knockout (ROCK+/-) group...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Fan-Shiu Tsai, Li-Wei Lin, Chi-Rei Wu
Lupeol belongs to pentacyclic lupane-type triterpenes and exhibits in edible vegetables, fruits and many plants. Many researches indicated that lupeol possesses many beneficial pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-dyslipidemic and anti-mutagenic effects. From various disease-targeted animal models, these reports indicated that lupeol has anti-diabetic, anti-asthma, anti-arthritic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, neuroprotective and anticancer efficiency under various routes of administration such as topical, oral, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Guo-Bin Zhang, Shan-Shan Ren, Bao-Ying Wang, Lian-Qi Tian, Fei-Hong Bing
To investigate the effect of flaccidoside II on the serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rodents. Both mice and rats were injected intraperitoneally with potassium oxonate to induce hyperuricemia. Different dosages of flaccidoside II were orally administrated to hyperuricemic and normal rodents for 7 days, respectively. Liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities in hyperuricemic mice were determined using the colorimetric method. Acute toxicity of flaccidoside II was also evaluated in mice. Allopurinol, as a positive control, was administered under the same treatment scheme...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Kinga Sałat, Adrian Podkowa, Natalia Malikowska, Felix Kern, Jörg Pabel, Ewelina Wojcieszak, Katarzyna Kulig, Klaus T Wanner, Beata Strach, Elżbieta Wyska
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since GABAergic dysfunction underlies a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, numerous strategies leading to the augmentation of GABAergic neurotransmission have been introduced. One of them is the inhibition of GABA reuptake from the synaptic cleft mediated by four plasma membrane GABA transporters (GAT1-4). GAT1 which is exclusively expressed in the brain is an interesting target for centrally acting drugs. In this research, pharmacological properties of a novel, highly potent and selective inhibitor of GAT1, the guvacine derivative named DDPM-2571, were assessed in vivo...
October 19, 2016: Neuropharmacology
J Fotschki, A M Szyc, J M Laparra, L H Markiewicz, B Wróblewska
The aim of this study was to examine immune adaptive changes, the expression of innate biomarkers and variations in intestinal microbiota composition after horse-milk administration in BALB/c mice, which were sensitized intraperitoneally using cow β-lactoglobulin and α-casein with aluminum adjuvant. We measured serum antibody IgE levels and the expression of MCP-1, IL-4, and TNF-α in duodenal samples. Changes in immune cell populations in peripheral blood were quantified using flow cytometry, and intestinal microbiota composition was assessed using real-time PCR...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Shanzheng Lu, Ganggang Shi, Xiaoxi Xu, Grace Wang, Xu Lan, Peng Sun, Xiang Li, Baoren Zhang, Xiangying Gu, Thomas E Ichim, Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: The endometrial regenerative cell (ERC) is a novel type of adult mesenchymal stem cell isolated from menstrual blood. Previous studies demonstrated that ERCs possess unique immunoregulatory properties in vitro and in vivo, as well as the ability to differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells. For these reasons, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of ERCs on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury (ALI). METHODS: An ALI model in C57BL/6 mice was induced by administration of intraperitoneal injection of CCl4...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Eliane Brito Cortez Lima, Caren Nádia Soares de Sousa, Lucas Nascimento Meneses, Yuri Freitas E Silva Pereira, Natália Castelo Branco Matos, Rayanne Brito de Freitas, Nycole Brito Cortez Lima, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo Patrocínio, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira Leal, Glauce Socorro Barros Viana, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos
Extracts from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera are used in folk medicine, but their actions on the central nervous system have not been studied. Here, the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the standardized hydroalcoholic extract of C. nucifera husk fiber (HECN) were evaluated. Male Swiss mice were treated with HECN (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) 60 min before experiments involving the plus maze test, hole-board test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test (FST). HECN was administered orally (p.o.) in acute and repeated-dose treatments...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Moslem Mohammadi, Zohreh Zare, Esmaeil Allah-Moradi, Narges Vaezi, Reza Valadan, Mohsen Tehrani
Organophosphates affect brain function through a variety of mechanisms beyond their shared role as cholinesterase inhibitors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the changes in the expression of glial (GLAST and GLT-1) and neuronal (EAAC1) glutamate transporters at mRNA and protein levels in paraoxon-treated rat hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with either vehicle (corn oil) or one of three dosages of paraoxon (0.3, 0.7 or 1mg/kg). After 4 or 18h, both hippocampi of each rat were collected to detect mRNA and protein expression of glutamate transporters using the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively...
October 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology
Jing Xue, Qinglan Zhao, Vishal Sharma, Linh P Nguyen, Yvonne N Lee, Kim L Pham, Mouad Edderkaoui, Stephen J Pandol, Walter Park, Aida Habtezion
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cigarette smoke has been identified as an independent risk factor for chronic pancreatitis (CP). Little is known about the mechanisms by which smoking promotes development of CP. We assessed the effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands found in cigarette smoke on immune cell activation in humans and pancreatic fibrosis in animal models of CP. METHODS: We obtained serum samples from patients with CP treated at Stanford University hospital and healthy individuals (controls) and isolated CD4+ T cells; levels of interleukin-22 (IL22) were measured by ELISA and smoking histories were collected...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
Rui Hu, Zhiwei Wang, Zongli Ren, Min Liu
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies reported that diabetic patients had a lower incidence of aortic dissection (AD), but the definite mechanism is unknown. We aim to investigate the possible protective effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on AD formation with an emphasis on autonomic remodeling. METHODS: Streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection was applied to induce diabetes, unilateral renal artery stenosis (URAS) together with β-amino propionitrile (BAPN) oral treatment was used to induce AD...
October 21, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Jing Qiu, Min Wang, Jun Zhang, Qing Cai, Dan Lu, Yansong Li, Yushu Dong, Tianzhi Zhao, Huisheng Chen
Neuroinflammation remains the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in stroke-induced secondary brain injury. The NOD-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in diverse inflammatory diseases, including cerebral ischemia, and is thus considered an effective therapeutic target. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotection of Sinomenine (SINO), a potent natural anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory molecule, against cerebral ischemia in a mouse model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo and in an oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated astrocytes/microglia model in vitro...
October 18, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Xin Zhong, Bogale Aredo, Yi Ding, Kaiyan Zhang, Cynthia X Zhao, Rafael L Ufret-Vincenty
Purpose: Oxidative stress, partly due to light, has an important role in many retinal diseases, including macular degeneration and retinal dystrophies. The Leu450Met variant of RPE65 is expressed in C57BL/6 and in many genetically modified mice. It confers significant resistance to light induced retinal degeneration (LIRD). Our goal was to develop an effective and efficient method to induce LIRD in resistant mice that would recapitulate mechanisms seen in known models of LIRD. Methods: The retinas of C57BL/6J mice were exposed to light using a murine fundus camera...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Swarupa Kancherla, William J Kohler, Yolandi van der Merwe, Kevin C Chan
Visual function has been shown to deteriorate prior to the onset of retinopathy in some diabetic patients and experimental animal models. This suggests the involvement of the brain's visual system in the early stages of diabetes. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by examining the integrity of the visual pathway in a diabetic rat model using in vivo multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an experimental diabetic group by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin in 0...
2016: PloS One
Xiu-Zhi Wu, Qiong Zhou, Hua Lin, Kan Zhai, Xiao-Juan Wang, Wei-Bing Yang, Huan-Zhong Shi
RATIONALE: Toll like receptor (TLR) 2 is well known by sensing multiple ligands; however, its role in the development of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) remains unknown. We performed the present study to explore the impact of TLR2 signaling on the development of MPE, and to define the underline mechanisms by which TLR2 works. METHODS: Development of MPE was compared between TLR2-/- and wild type (WT) mice. The effect of TLR2 on differentiation of Th17, Th9, and Th2 cells in MPE was explored...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Alessandro Rubini, Vincenzo Catena, Daniele Del Monte, Gerardo Bosco
CONTEXT: Calcium channel blockers may theoretically exhibit relaxing effects not only on vascular smooth muscle but also on airway smooth muscle. OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible effects of nifedipine on respiratory mechanics in the rat. METHODS: Respiratory system mechanical parameters were measured by the end-inflation occlusion method in the rat in vivo before and after the intraperitoneal administration of nifedipine. RESULTS: We found that nifedipine affects respiratory mechanics, inducing a reduction of airway resistance and of respiratory system elastance, probably because of a relaxing action on airway and parenchimal smooth muscle cells...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Koji Kono, Wei-Peng Yong, Hirokazu Okayama, Asim Shabbir, Tomoyuki Momma, Shinji Ohki, Seiichi Takenoshita, Jimmy So
Among advanced gastric cancer cases, peritoneal dissemination is a life-threatening mode of metastasis, and any strategy to control peritoneal metastasis will significantly improve treatment outcomes. Since intraperitoneal administration of anticancer drugs can induce an extremely high concentration of drugs in the peritoneal cavity, intraperitoneal chemotherapy would appear to be a reasonable and promising strategy to control the peritoneal dissemination. However, it has been reported in the past that intraperitoneal administration of mitomycin C or cisplatin resulted in no significant clinical effects against peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer...
October 20, 2016: Gastric Cancer
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