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Extracellular matrix

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914018/encapsulation-of-%C3%AE-sitosterol-in-polyurethane-by-sol-gel-electrospinning
#1
Musarat Amina, Touseef Amna, Nawal Al-Musayeib, Sami A Zabin, M Shamshi Hassan, Myung-Seob Khil
Pristine β-sitosterol or in combination with other phytosterols is utilized in an array of enriched commercial foods. Considering the presence of β-sitosterol in different functional foods and its potential role in prevention and cure of neurodegenerative diseases, the aims of our investigation were to encapsulate β-sitosterol in nanofibers and to estimate influence of β-sitosterol on proliferation of fibroblasts. Electrospun nanofibers have widely been used as scaffolds to mimic natural extracellular matrix...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914007/evaluation-of-68-ga-labeled-peptide-tracer-for-detection-of-gelatinase-expression-after-myocardial-infarction-in-rat
#2
Max Kiugel, Ville Kytö, Tiina Saanijoki, Heidi Liljenbäck, Olli Metsälä, Mia Ståhle, Johanna Tuomela, Xiang-Guo Li, Pekka Saukko, Juhani Knuuti, Anne Roivainen, Antti Saraste
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) play a role in extracellular matrix remodeling after an ischemic myocardial injury. We evaluated (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 for the detection of gelatinase expression after myocardial infarction (MI) in rat. METHODS: Rats were injected with 43 ± 7.7 MBq of (68)Ga-DOTA-peptide targeting MMP-2/9 at 7 days (n = 7) or 4 weeks (n = 8) after permanent coronary ligation or sham operation (n = 5 at both time points) followed by positron emission tomography (PET)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914000/from-transformation-to-metastasis-deconstructing-the-extracellular-matrix-in-breast-cancer
#3
Shelly Kaushik, Michael W Pickup, Valerie M Weaver
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a guiding force that regulates various developmental stages of the breast. In addition to providing structural support for the cells, it mediates epithelial-stromal communication and provides cues for cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Perturbations in ECM architecture profoundly influence breast tumor progression and metastasis. Understanding how a dysregulated ECM can facilitate malignant transformation is crucial to designing treatments to effectively target the tumor microenvironment...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913649/identification-and-function-of-fibrocytes-in-skeletal-muscle-injury-repair-and-muscular-dystrophy
#4
Xingyu Wang, Wanming Zhao, Richard M Ransohoff, Lan Zhou
We identified and characterized the function of CD45(+)/collagen I(+) fibrocytes in acutely injured skeletal muscle of wild-type (WT) and Ccr2(-/-) mice, and in quadriceps and diaphragm muscles of mdx(5cv) mice, a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Fibrocytes were not detected in peripheral blood of WT mice after acute muscle injury or mdx(5cv) mice. Fibrocytes were detected in acutely injured muscles and in mdx(5cv) quadriceps and diaphragm muscles. These cells expressed F4/80 and CCR2, and they were mostly Ly6C(lo) They expressed a low level of collagens but a high level of profibrotic growth factors as compared with i...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913355/hierarchically-micro-and-nanopatterned-topographical-cues-for-modulation-of-cellular-structure-and-function
#5
Hoon Seonwoo, Won-Gyu Bae, Sunho Park, Hong-Nam Kim, Kyoung Soon Choi, Ki Taek Lim, Hoon Hyun, Jin-Woo Kim, Jangho Kim, Jong Hoon Chung
Living cells receive biochemical and physical information from the surrounding microenvironment and respond to this information. Multiscale hierarchical substrates with micro- and nanogrooves have been shown to mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM) better than conventional nanopatterned substrates; therefore, substrates with hierarchical topographical cues are considered suitable for investigating the role of physical factors in tissue functions. In this study, precisely controllable, multiscale hierarchical substrates that could mimic the micro- and nanotopography of complex ECMs were fabricated and used to culture various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, and human mesenchymal stem cells...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913195/breast-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-pro-angiogenic-behavior-of-adipose-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Young Hye Song, Christine Warncke, Sung Jin Choi, Siyoung Choi, Aaron E Chiou, Lu Ling, Han-Yuan Liu, Susan Daniel, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione, Claudia Fischbach
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are abundantly present in the mammary microenvironment and can promote breast cancer malignancy by differentiating into myofibroblasts. However, it remains largely unclear which role tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) play in this process. Here, we used microfabricated, type I collagen-based 3-D tissue culture platforms to investigate the effect of breast cancer cell-derived TEVs on ASCs myofibroblast differentiation and consequential changes in extracellular matrix remodeling and vascular sprouting...
November 29, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911749/casting-a-wide-net-role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-neural-plasticity
#7
Barbara A Sorg, Sabina Berretta, Jordan M Blacktop, James W Fawcett, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Jessica C F Kwok, Marta Miquel
Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are unique extracellular matrix structures that wrap around certain neurons in the CNS during development and control plasticity in the adult CNS. They appear to contribute to a wide range of diseases/disorders of the brain, are involved in recovery from spinal cord injury, and are altered during aging, learning and memory, and after exposure to drugs of abuse. Here the focus is on how a major component of PNNs, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, control plasticity, and on the role of PNNs in memory in normal aging, in a tauopathy model of Alzheimer's disease, and in drug addiction...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911728/modulation-of-bmp-signalling-by-integrins
#8
REVIEW
Hilary L Ashe
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is a major conserved signalling pathway with diverse roles in development and homeostasis. Given that cells exist in three-dimensional environments, one important area is to understand how the BMP pathway operates within such complex cellular environments. The extracellular matrix contains information regarding tissue architecture and its mechanical properties that is transmitted to the cell via integrin receptors. In this review, I describe various examples of modulation of the BMP pathway by integrins...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911717/extracellular-matrix-endocytosis-in-controlling-matrix-turnover-and-beyond-emerging-roles-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Elena Rainero
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a network of secreted proteins that, beyond providing support for tissues and organs, is involved in the regulation of a variety of cell functions, including cell proliferation, polarity, migration and oncogenic transformation. ECM homeostasis is maintained through a tightly controlled balance between synthesis, deposition and degradation. While the role of metalloproteases in ECM degradation is widely recognised, the contribution of ECM internalisation and intracellular degradation to ECM maintenance has been mostly overlooked...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911568/nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediates-mesenchymal-transition-remodeling-and-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-response-to-chronic-inflammation-by-viral-rna-patterns
#10
Bing Tian, Igor Patrikeev, Lorenzo Ochoa, Gracie Vargas, KarryAnne K Belanger, Julia Litvinov, Istvan Boldogh, Bill T Ameredes, Massoud Motamedi, Allan R Brasier
Airway remodeling is resultant of a complex multi-cellular response associated with a progressive decline of pulmonary function in patients with chronic airway disease. Here, repeated infections with respiratory viruses are linked with airway remodeling through largely unknown mechanisms. Although acute activation of the Toll like receptor (TLR)3 pathway by extracellular poly(I:C) induces innate signaling through the NFkB transcription factor in human small airway epithelial cells (hSAECs), prolonged (repetitive or tonic) poly(I:C) stimulation produces chronic stress fiber formation, mesenchymal transition and activation of a fibrotic program...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911136/a-functional-nanocarrier-that-copenetrates-extracellular-matrix-and-multiple-layers-of-tumor-cells-for-sequential-and-deep-tumor-autophagy-inhibitor-and-chemotherapeutic-delivery
#11
Yang Wang, Yue Qiu, Sheng Yin, Li Zhang, Kairong Shi, Huile Gao, Zhirong Zhang, Qin He
To further enhance the intensity of deep tumor drug delivery and integrate a combined therapy, we herein report on a core-shell nanocarrier that could simultaneously overcome the double barriers of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and multiple layers of tumor cells (MLTC). A pH-triggered reversible swelling-shrinking core and an MMP2 (matrix metallopeptidase 2) degradable shell were developed to encapsulate chemotherapeutics and macroautophagy/autophagy inhibitors, respectively. MMP2 degraded the shell, which was followed by the autophagy inhibitors release...
December 2, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910812/inflammatory-markers-associated-with-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm
#12
Sarah Lindberg, Moncef Zarrouk, Jan Holst, Anders Gottsäter
PURPOSE: Inflammation with leukocytic infiltration, degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM), and depletion of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are pathological hallmarks of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The aim of this study was to further evaluate relationships between AAA and inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), by comparing levels in 65-year-old men with and without AAA at ultrasound screening...
September 1, 2016: European Cytokine Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909812/in-phyllodes-tumors-of-the-breast-expression-of-sparc-osteonectin-bm40-mrna-by-in-situ-hybridization-correlates-with-protein-expression-by-immunohistochemistry-and-is-associated-with-tumor-progression
#13
Nah Ihm Kim, Ga-Eon Kim, Ji Shin Lee, Min Ho Park
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) plays an essential role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The present work was undertaken to detect expression of SPARC mRNA in phyllodes tumors (PTs) and its association with SPARC protein expression. This study also evaluated expression of SPARC mRNA and its correlation between grade and clinical behavior of PTs. In addition, we assessed in PTs the association of expression of SPARC with that of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and of MMP-9. SPARC mRNA expression was determined by RNAscope in situ hybridization (ISH) in 50 benign, 22 borderline, and 10 malignant PTs using a tissue microarray...
December 1, 2016: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909667/arthroscopic-capsular-reconstruction-of-the-hip-with-acellular-dermal-extracellular-matrix-surgical-technique
#14
Itay Perets, David E Hartigan, John P Walsh, Edwin Chaharbakhshi, Mary R Close, Benjamin G Domb
Atraumatic instability of the hip has become an increasingly studied occurrence in recent years. There are several established surgical techniques that help restore stability of the native hip joint. In some cases, these procedures are not an option. As the phenomenon has become recognized more frequently, a greater number of revision surgeries are warranted in patients with ligamentous laxity. A durable solution for irreparable microinstability needs to be formulated to address this vulnerable patient demographic...
October 2016: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909243/3d-culture-models-of-tissues-under-tension
#15
REVIEW
Jeroen Eyckmans, Christopher S Chen
Cells dynamically assemble and organize into complex tissues during development, and the resulting three-dimensional (3D) arrangement of cells and their surrounding extracellular matrix in turn feeds back to regulate cell and tissue function. Recent advances in engineered cultures of cells to model 3D tissues or organoids have begun to capture this dynamic reciprocity between form and function. Here, we describe the underlying principles that have advanced the field, focusing in particular on recent progress in using mechanical constraints to recapitulate the structure and function of musculoskeletal tissues...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909082/proteomic-investigation-of-dermal-fibroblasts-isolated-from-affected-and-unaffected-skin-samples-from-patients-with-limited-cutaneous-systemic-sclerosis-2-distinct-entities
#16
Claudio Corallo, Annalisa Santucci, Giulia Bernardini, Natale Figura, Roberto Leoncini, Giulia Riolo, Antonio Montella, Chiara Chirico, Ranuccio Nuti, Nicola Giordano
OBJECTIVE: To identify using proteomic analysis the proteins of altered abundance in the affected and unaffected limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) skin fibroblasts. METHODS: Excision biopsies (3 mm) were obtained from the affected and unaffected skin of 5 patients with lcSSc. Dermal fibroblasts were isolated enzymatically. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate and define proteins in affected and unaffected fibroblast lysates. Proteins of altered abundance were identified by mass spectrometry...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909049/control-of-secreted-protein-gene-expression-and-the-mammalian-secretome-by-the-metabolic-regulator-pgc-1%C3%AE
#17
Neri Minsky, Robert G Roeder
Secreted proteins serve pivotal roles in the development of multicellular organisms, acting as structural matrix, extracellular enzymes and signal molecules. However, how the secretome is regulated remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate, unexpectedly, that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), a critical transcriptional co-activator of metabolic gene expression, functions to down-regulate expression of diverse genes encoding secreted molecules and extracellular matrix (ECM) components to modulate the secretome...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908891/the-paraoxonase-gene-cluster-protects-against-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-formation
#18
Yun-Fei Yan, Jian-Fei Pei, Ran Zhang, Fang Wang, Peng Gao, Zhu-Qin Zhang, Ting-Ting Wang, Yang Zhang, Zhi-Gang She, Hou-Zao Chen, De-Pei Liu
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening vascular pathology, the pathogenesis of which is closely related to oxidative stress. However, an effective pharmaceutical treatment is lacking because the exact cause of AAA remains unknown. Here, we aimed at delineating the role of the paraoxonases (PONs) gene cluster (PC), which prevents atherosclerosis through the detoxification of oxidized substrates, in AAA formation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: PC transgenic (Tg) mice were crossed to an Apoe(-/-) background, and an angiotensin II-induced AAA mouse model was used to analyze the effect of the PC on AAA formation...
December 1, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908613/sparc-interacts-with-actin-in-skeletal-muscle-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#19
Louise H Jørgensen, Pia Lørup Jepsen, Anders Boysen, Line B Dalgaard, Lars G Hvid, Niels Ørtenblad, Dea Ravn, Jeeva Sellathurai, Jakob Møller-Jensen, Hanns Lochmüller, Henrik D Schrøder
The cytoskeleton is an integral part of skeletal muscle structure, and reorganization of the cytoskeleton occurs during various modes of remodeling. We previously found that the extracellular matrix protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is up-regulated and expressed intracellularly in developing muscle, during regeneration and in myopathies, which together suggests that SPARC might serve a specific role within muscle cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation combined with mass spectrometry and verified by staining for direct protein-protein interaction, we find that SPARC binds to actin...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908429/callose-associated-silica-deposition-in-arabidopsis
#20
Thibault Brugiére, Christopher Exley
The mechanism of biological silicification in plants remains to be elucidated. There are strong arguments supporting a role for the plant extracellular matrix and the β-1-3-glucan, callose, has been identified as a possible template for silica deposition in the common horsetail, Equisetum arvense. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, which is not known as a silica accumulator, can be engineered to produce mutants in which, following a pathogen-associated molecular pattern challenge, callose production in leaves is either induced (35S:PMR4-GFP) or not (pmr4)...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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