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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759686/molecular-mechanisms-governing-embryonic-differentiation-of-pituitary-somatotropes
#1
REVIEW
Buffy S Ellsworth, Caitlin E Stallings
Pituitary somatotropes secrete growth hormone (GH), which is essential for normal growth and metabolism. Somatotrope defects result in GH deficiency (GHD), leading to short stature in childhood and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Current hormone replacement therapies fail to recapitulate normal pulsatile GH secretion. Stem cell therapies could overcome this problem but are dependent on a thorough understanding of somatotrope differentiation. Although several transcription factors, signaling pathways, and hormones that regulate this process have been identified, the mechanisms of action are not well understood...
May 11, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752700/neuro-radiological-features-can-predict-hypopituitarism-in-primary-autoimmune-hypophysitis
#2
Tommaso Tartaglione, Sabrina Chiloiro, Maria Elena Laino, Antonella Giampietro, Simona Gaudino, Angelo Zoli, Antonio Bianchi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Cesare Colosimo, Laura De Marinis
Primary autoimmune hypophysitis (PAH) is considered an underdiagnosed disease, due to the difficulty in reaching a definitive diagnosis. PAH clinical diagnosis remains an exclusion diagnosis. We aimed to correlate PAH neuro-radiological signs to endocrine features and evaluate their prognostic role. 24 PAH cases were enrolled and classified according to neuro-radiological signs: in 12 adeno-hypophysitis (AHs), 8 infundibulo-neuro-hypophysitis (INHs) and 4 pan-hypophysitis (PHs). Secondary hypogonadism developed more frequently in INHs as compared to AHs (54...
May 11, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736148/the-pre-treatment-characteristics-and-evaluation-of-the-effects-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-therapy-in-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-and-celiac-disease-or-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Ewelina Witkowska-Sędek, Dominika Labochka, Anna Majcher, Beata Pyrżak
The aim of the study: was to investigate the coincidence of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and celiac disease (CD) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients referred for short stature, and to evaluate the baseline anthropometric parameters and the effectiveness of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy in the first year in those patients (GHD+CD/IBD subgroup) in comparison to patients with GHD without CD or IBD (GHD-CD/IBD subgroup). Material and methods: The study was retrospective and included 2196 short patients (height SDS [Standard Deviation Score] ≤ -1...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703730/screening-for-germline-kcnq1-and-kcne2-mutations-in-a-set-of-somatotropinoma-patients
#4
Anna-Pauliina Iivonen, Johanna Känsäkoski, Atte Karppinen, Leena Kivipelto, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti, Auli Karhu, Taneli Raivio
OBJECTIVE: Recently, mutations in KCNQ1 , a potassium channel gene usually linked to long QT syndrome, were reported to cause maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis and growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Expression of the mutated KCNQ1 with the auxiliary potassium channel subunit KCNE2 was shown to reduce pituitary hormone secretion in functional experiments. Here, we investigated if germline mutations in KCNQ1 and KCNE2 were present in patients with somatotropinomas, which represent a model of growth hormone excess...
May 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687007/association-between-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-axis-gene-polymorphisms-and-short-stature-in-chinese-children
#5
Yanhong Zhang, Mei Zhang, Yuntian Chu, Baolan Ji, Qian Shao, Bo Ban
Objective: This study was designed to analyze the association between the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH-IGF-1) axis gene polymorphisms and short stature in Chinese children. Methods: 181 growth hormone deficiency (GHD) patients and 206 normal stature controls were enrolled to attend this study. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the GH receptor (GHR) and 5 SNPs within the GH-signaling pathway were genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671202/pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-once-weekly-somapacitan-in-children-and-adults-supporting-dosing-rationales-with-a-model-based-analysis-of-three-phase-i-trials
#6
Rasmus Vestergaard Juul, Michael Højby Rasmussen, Henrik Agersø, Rune Viig Overgaard
BACKGROUND: Somapacitan, a long-acting growth hormone (GH) derivative, has been well-tolerated in children with GH deficiency (GHD) and adults (healthy and adult GHD), in phase I, single- and multiple-dose trials, respectively, and has pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties supporting a once-weekly dosing regimen. OBJECTIVE: In the absence of a multiple-dose phase I trial in children with GHD, the aim was to develop a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to predict somapacitan exposure and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) response after once-weekly multiple doses in both children and adults with GHD...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661785/the-prevalence-of-the-metabolic-syndrome-and-associated-cardiovascular-complications-in-adult-onset-ghd-during-gh-replacement-a-kims-analysis
#7
Johan Verhelst, Anders Mattsson, Cecilia Camacho-Hubner, Anton Luger, Roger Abs
BACKGROUND: Adult-onset GH deficiency (AO-GHD) is associated with a increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). AIM: To determine the effect of GH replacement on the prevalence of MetS in AO-GHD and to study the impact of MetS on the incidence of cardiovascular events during GH replacement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1449 AO-GHD patients (males 48.9%; mean age 48.9 ± 12.8 yr) were retrieved from KIMS (Pfizer International Metabolic Database)...
April 16, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658834/alterations-in-thyroid-hormone-levels-following-growth-hormone-replacement-exert-complex-biological-effects
#8
Nigel Glynn, Helena Kenny, Tarik Salim, David J Halsall, Diarmuid Smith, Tommy Kyaw Tun, John H McDermott, William Tormey, Christopher J Thompson, Brendan McAdam, Donal O' Gorman, Amar Agha
OBJECTIVE: Alterations in the thyroid axis are frequently observed following growth hormone (GH) replacement, but uncertainty exists regarding their clinical significance. We aimed to compare fluctuations in circulating thyroid hormone levels, induced by GH, to changes in sensitive biological markers of thyroid hormone action. METHODS: This was a prospective observational clinical study. Twenty hypopituitary men were studied before and after GH replacement. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones, and insulin-like growth factor 1 were measured...
April 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656861/efficacy-of-growth-hormone-treatment-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-and-growth-hormone-deficiency-an-analysis-of-kigs-data
#9
Walter Bonfig, Anders Lindberg, Martin Carlsson, Wayne Cutfield, David Dunger, Cecilia Camacho-Hübner, Reinhard W Holl
OBJECTIVE: To analyze first-year treatment growth response and growth hormone (GH) dosage in prepubertal patients with the combination of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD). STUDY DESIGN: A total of 69 patients with T1DM and GHD treated with GH have been enrolled in KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database). Of these, 24 prepubertal patients had developed T1DM before GHD and were included in this analysis. Of 30 570 patients with GHD without T1DM, 15 024 were prepubertal and served as controls...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652668/still-too-little-too-late-ten-years-of-growth-hormone-therapy-baseline-data-from-the-nordinet%C3%A2-international-outcome-study
#10
Michel Polak, Daniel Konrad, Birgitte Tønnes Pedersen, Gediminas Puras, Marta Šnajderová
BACKGROUND: We investigated time trends in age, gender, growth hormone (GH) dose and height standard deviation score (SDS) in children with GH deficiency (GHD), born small for gestational age (SGA) or with Turner syndrome (TS) starting GH treatment. METHODS: Data were obtained from children enrolled in the NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) between 2006 and 2015 in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Serbia and Montenegro (all indications), and Switzerland and the UK (GHD only)...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618660/transcriptomics-and-machine-learning-predict-diagnosis-and-severity-of-growth-hormone-deficiency
#11
Philip G Murray, Adam Stevens, Chiara De Leonibus, Ekaterina Koledova, Pierre Chatelain, Peter E Clayton
BACKGROUND: The effect of gene expression data on diagnosis remains limited. Here, we show how diagnosis and classification of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) can be achieved from a single blood sample using a combination of transcriptomics and random forest analysis. METHODS: Prepubertal treatment-naive children with GHD (n = 98) were enrolled from the PREDICT study, and controls (n = 26) were acquired from online data sets. Whole blood gene expression was correlated with peak growth hormone (GH) using rank regression and a random forest algorithm tested for prediction of the presence of GHD and in classification of GHD as severe (peak GH <4 μg/l) and nonsevere (peak ≥4 μg/l)...
April 5, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616647/epidemiology-of-malignant-hemopathies-recorded-in-hospitals-in-cameroon
#12
P T Moueleu Ngalagou, E Ngouadjeu Dongho Tsakeu, F Ngo Sack, E C Eboumbou Moukoko, Y Konn Jolly, H Luma
Data about malignant blood diseases are sparse in Cameroon. Their epidemiology was studied in patients at the General Hospital of Douala (GHD) and the Yaoundé Central Hospital (CHY) from 2004 through 2014. The variables we studied were social and demographic (age, sex, occupation, marital status), clinical (reasons for consultation, clinical signs, year of diagnosis), and biological (blood count, myelogram and blood smear, immunophenotyping, biopsy, and cytogenetics). In all, 4409 files were reviewed and 454 cases identified, documented and confirmed (248 in GHD and 206 in CHY)...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615058/effects-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-administration-on-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-obese-children-with-relative-growth-hormone-deficiency
#13
Shuang Liang, Jiang Xue, Guimei Li
BACKGROUND: Based on the sample of obese children with relative growth hormone deficiency (GHD), the objective of our study was to determine the effects of rhGH treatment on cardiovascular risk factors, including body mass index (BMI), lipid levels and glucose metabolism index. METHODS: A total of 43 obese children with relative GHD were included in our final analysis. The obese subjects were divided into two groups: recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment group and untreated control group...
April 3, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609574/utility-of-serum-igf-1-for-diagnosis-of-growth-hormone-deficiency-following-traumatic-brain-injury-and-sport-related-concussion
#14
Kirstie Lithgow, Alex Chin, Chantel T Debert, Gregory A Kline
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a potential consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), including sport-related concussion (SRC). GH stimulation testing is required for definitive diagnosis; however, this is resource intensive and can be associated with adverse symptoms or risks. Measurement of serum IGF-1 is more practical and accessible, and pituitary tumour patients with hypopituitarism and low serum IGF-1 have been shown to have a high probability of GHD. We aimed to evaluate IGF-1 measurement for diagnosing GHD in our local TBI population...
April 2, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605215/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-growth-hormone-deficiency-ghd-on-lung-function-in-children-a-mediation-analysis
#15
Giovanna Cilluffo, Giuliana Ferrante, Salvatore Fasola, Alessandro Ciresi, Irene Cardillo, Giancarlo Tancredi, Giovanni Viegi, Carla Giordano, Nicola Scichilone, Stefania La Grutta
BACKGROUND: Studies on pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) children are lacking. The aims of this study were: (i) to investigate PFTs in GHD pre-pubertal children with respect to Controls, before starting Growth Hormone Therapy (GHT) (T0); (ii) to evaluate changes of PFTs in GHD vs Controls, after 1-year GHT (T1). For both aims the mediation analysis (MA) was applied to evaluate the extent to which the relationship between GHD and PFTs could be ascribed to a height-mediated (indirect) or a GH direct effect...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594258/elevated-pro-renin-receptor-expression-contributes-to-maintaining-aerobic-metabolism-in-growth-hormone-deficiency
#16
Yasufumi Seki, Midori Yatabe, Chikahito Suda, Satoshi Morimoto, Atsuhiro Ichihara
Context: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) leads to obesity and may induce tissue hypoxia. As (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is reported to contribute to the aerobic metabolism by stabilizing pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), it may play a substantial role in GHD. Objective: We aimed to investigate serum soluble (P)RR [s(P)RR] concentration, the origin of s(P)RR, and significance of (P)RR in GHD. Design Setting and Participants: Serum s(P)RR concentration was examined in 72 patients with pituitary diseases, including 32 patients with severe GHD (SGHD) and after GH replacement in 16 SGHD patients...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581094/prenatal-remote-monitoring-of-women-with-gestational-hypertensive-diseases-cost-analysis
#17
Dorien Lanssens, Thijs Vandenberk, Christophe Jp Smeets, Hélène De Cannière, Sharona Vonck, Jade Claessens, Yenthel Heyrman, Dominique Vandijck, Valerie Storms, Inge M Thijs, Lars Grieten, Wilfried Gyselaers
BACKGROUND: Remote monitoring in obstetrics is relatively new; some studies have shown its effectiveness for both mother and child. However, few studies have evaluated the economic impact compared to conventional care, and no cost analysis of a remote monitoring prenatal follow-up program for women diagnosed with gestational hypertensive diseases (GHD) has been published. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the costs of remote monitoring versus conventional care relative to reported benefits...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575874/influence-of-growth-hormone-therapy-on-selected-dental-and-skeletal-system-parameters
#18
Małgorzata Partyka, Renata Chałas, Izabella Dunin-Wilczyńska, Myroslava Drohomyretska, Maria Klatka
INTRODUCTION: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is one of the main indications for growth hormone therapy. One characteristic of this disease is bone age delay in relation to the chronological age. Pituitary dysfunction negatively affects the growth and development of the jaws and teeth of the child. The secretion of endocrine glands regulates growth, development, and gender differentiation. It also controls the growth of bones and teeth, regulates metabolism of calcium and phosphate, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates...
March 14, 2018: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562611/treatment-with-growth-hormone-for-adults-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-syndrome-benefits-and-risks
#19
REVIEW
Juan J Díez, Susana Sangiao-Alvarellos, Fernando Cordido
Pharmacological treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults began in clinical practice more than 20 years ago. Since then, a great volume of experience has been accumulated on its effects on the symptoms and biochemical alterations that characterize this hormonal deficiency. The effects on body composition, muscle mass and strength, exercise capacity, glucose and lipid profile, bone metabolism, and quality of life have been fully demonstrated. The advance of knowledge has also taken place in the biological and molecular aspects of the action of this hormone in patients who have completed longitudinal growth...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553045/prospective-follow-up-of-children-with-idiopathic-growth-hormone-deficiency-after-termination-of-gh-treatment-is-there-really-need-for-treatment-at-transition-to-adulthood
#20
Emine Çamtosun, Zeynep Şıklar, Merih Berberoğlu
OBJECTIVES: Continuation of GH treatment in adolescents with severe childhood onset Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency (IGHD) during the transition period, irrespective of achievement of final height is still debatable.We aimed to investigate the metabolic profile, BMD and body composition of the patients with isolated childhood onset GHD in whom GH treatments were terminated after they reached their final height, prospectively six months after the cessation of therapy. METHODS: Twelve patients, 6 of which with peak GH <5 ng/mL (Permanent GHD, Group 1), and 6 of which with peak GH >5 ng/mL (Transient GHD, Group 2) after insulin stimulation test were evaluated for anthropometric and laboratory parameters including fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FI), lipid profile, BMD, body composition measurements, and 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring before (baseline) and at six months after discontinuation of GH...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
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