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Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy

Giulia Coarelli, Silvia Romano, Lorena Travaglini, Michela Ferraldeschi, Francesco Nicita, Maria Spadaro, Arianna Fornasiero, Marina Frontali, Marco Salvetti, Enrico Bertini, Giovanni Ristori
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders characterized primarily by a pyramidal syndrome with lower limb spasticity, which can manifest as pure HSP or associated with a number of neurological or non-neurological signs (i.e., complicated HSPs). The clinical variability of HSPs is associated with a wide genetic heterogeneity, with more than eighty causative genes known. Recently, next generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed increasing genetic definition in such a heterogeneous group of disorders...
March 3, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Alejandra Gonzalez-Duarte
PURPOSE: Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (hATTR amyloidosis) is a progressive disease primarily characterized by adult-onset sensory, motor, and autonomic neuropathy. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology and principal findings of autonomic neuropathy in hATTR amyloidosis, the most common methods of assessment and progression, and its relation as a predictive risk factor or a measure of progression in the natural history of the disease. METHODS: A literature search was performed using the terms "autonomic neuropathy," "dysautonomia," and "autonomic symptoms" in patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis and familial amyloid polyneuropathy...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Atsushi Sato, Hiroshi Shibuya
The with no lysine (WNK) protein kinase family is conserved among many species. Some mutations in human WNK gene are associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, a form of hypertension, and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2A. In kidney, WNK regulates the activity of STE20/SPS1-related, proline alanine-rich kinase and/or oxidative-stress responsive 1, which in turn regulate ion co-transporters. The misregulation of this pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of pseudohypoaldosteronism type II...
2018: PloS One
Nathalie Bernard-Marissal, Roman Chrast, Bernard L Schneider
Recent progress in the understanding of neurodegenerative diseases revealed that multiple molecular mechanisms contribute to pathological changes in neurons. A large fraction of these alterations can be linked to dysfunction in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, affecting metabolism and secretion of lipids and proteins, calcium homeostasis, and energy production. Remarkably, these organelles are interacting with each other at specialized domains on the ER called mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs)...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Kijung Sung, Luiz F Ferrari, Wanlin Yang, ChiHye Chung, Xiaobei Zhao, Yingli Gu, Suzhen Lin, Kai Zhang, Bianxiao Cui, Matthew L Pearn, Michael T Maloney, William C Mobley, Jon D Levine, Chengbiao Wu
Nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts multiple functions on target neurons throughout development. The recent discovery of a point mutation leading to a change from arginine to tryptophan at residue 100 in the mature NGFβ sequence (NGFR100W ) in patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, type V (HSAN V), made it possible to distinguish the signaling mechanisms that lead to two functionally different outcomes of NGF: trophic versus nociceptive. We performed extensive biochemical, cellular and live imaging experiments to examine the binding and signaling properties of NGFR100W Our results show that, similar to the wildtype NGF (wtNGF), the naturally occurring NGFR100W mutant was capable of binding to and activating the TrkA receptor and its downstream signaling pathways to support neuronal survival and differentiation...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chiara Pisciotta, Michael E Shy
The genetic neuropathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases that can broadly be classified into two groups: those in which the neuropathy is the sole or primary part of the disorder (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, CMT) and those in which the neuropathy is part of a more generalized neurologic or multisystem disorder (e.g., familial amyloid polyneuropathy, neuropathies associated with mitochondrial diseases, with hereditary ataxias, porphyrias). The former is the most common group, with a prevalence of 1 in 2500 people, and this chapter will concentrate on CMT...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Katja Eggermann, Burkhard Gess, Martin Häusler, Joachim Weis, Andreas Hahn, Ingo Kurth
BACKGROUND: Hereditary peripheral neuropathies constitute a large group of genetic diseases, with an overall prevalence of 1:2500. In recent years, the use of so-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) has led to the identification of many previously unknown involved genes and genetic defects that cause neuropathy. In this article, we review the procedures and utility of genetic evaluation for hereditary neurop - athies, while also considering the implications of the fact that causally directed treatment of these disorders is generally unavailable...
February 9, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Tim Godel, Victor-Felix Mautner, Said Farschtschi, Mirko Pham, Daniel Schwarz, Moritz Kronlage, Isabel Gugel, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Philipp Bäumer
Schwannomatosis and neurofibromatosis type 2 are hereditary tumor syndromes and peripheral neuropathy has been reported in both. We prospectively applied in-vivo morphometric measurement of dorsal root ganglia volume in 16 schwannomatosis, 14 neurofibromatosis type 2 patients, and 26 healthy controls by MR-Neurography. Compared to healthy controls, dorsal root ganglia hypertrophy was a consistent finding in neurofibromatosis type 2 (L3: +267%, L4: +235%, L5: +241%, S1: +300% and S2: +242%, Bonferroni-adjusted p<0...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Bianca Flores, Cara C Schornak, Eric Delpire
The potassium chloride cotransporter, KCC3, is an electroneutral cotransporter expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system. KCC3 is responsible for the efflux of K+ and Cl- in neurons to help maintain cell volume and intracellular chloride levels. A loss-of- function (LOF) of KCC3 causes Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (HMSN/ACC) in a population of individuals in the Charlevoix/Lac-Saint-Jean region of Quebec, Canada. A variety of mouse models have been created to understand the physiological and deleterious effects of a KCC3 LOF...
January 20, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Pengfei Lin, Dong Zhang, Guangrun Xu, Chuanzhu Yan
Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of autosomal dominant, clinically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorders. SCA18 is a rare autosomal dominant sensory/motor neuropathy with ataxia (OMIM#607458) associated with a single missense variant c.514 A>G in the interferon related developmental regulator 1 (IFRD1) gene previously reported in a five-generation American family of Irish origin. However, to date, there have been no other reports of the IFRD1 mutation to confirm its role in SCA. Here, we report a Han Chinese family with SCA18; the family members presented with a slowly progressing gait ataxia, pyramidal tract signs, and peripheral neuropathy...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Yoshiki Sekijima, Mitsuharu Ueda, Haruki Koike, Sonoko Misawa, Tomonori Ishii, Yukio Ando
Hereditary ATTR (ATTRm) amyloidosis (also called transthyretin-type familial amyloid polyneuropathy [ATTR-FAP]) is an autosomal-dominant, adult-onset, rare systemic disorder predominantly characterized by irreversible, progressive, and persistent peripheral nerve damage. TTR gene mutations (e.g. replacement of valine with methionine at position 30 [Val30Met (p.Val50Met)]) lead to destabilization and dissociation of TTR tetramers into variant TTR monomers, which form amyloid fibrils that deposit in peripheral nerves and various organs, giving rise to peripheral and autonomic neuropathy and several non-disease specific symptoms...
January 17, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Da Eun Nam, Soo Hyun Nam, Ah Jin Lee, Young Bin Hong, Byung-Ok Choi, Ki Wha Chung
HSPB3 gene encodes a small heat-shock protein 27-like protein which has a high sequence homology with HSPB1. A mutation in the HSPB3 was reported as the putative underlying cause of distal hereditary motor neuropathy 2C (dHMN2C) in 2010. We identified a heterozygous mutation (c.352T>C, p.Tyr118His) in the HSPB3 from a Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) family by the method of targeted next generation sequencing. The mutation was located in the well conserved alpha-crystalline domain, and several in silico predictions indicated a pathogenic effect of the mutation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Joel V Gutiérrez, Horacio Kaufmann, Jose-Alberto Palma, Carlos Mendoza-Santiesteban, Vaughan G Macefield, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann
OBJECTIVE: To assess vestibular function in patients with familial dysautonomia (FD), a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy - caused by a mutation in the IKBKAP gene (c.2204 + 6 T>C) - and characterized by marked gait ataxia. METHODS: Cervical and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs and oVEMPs) were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and extraocular muscles in 14 homozygous patients, 2 heterozygous patients, and 15 healthy controls during percussion of the forehead...
November 26, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
M J Ibañez-Juliá, G Berzero, G Reyes-Botero, T Maisonobe, T Lenglet, M Slim, S Louis, A Balaguer, M Sanson, E Le Guern, P Latour, D Ricard, T Stojkovic, D Psimaras
BACKGROUND: Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) disease is the most common form of hereditary neuropathy. Due to the high prevalence of mild and undiagnosed forms, patients with CMT disease may be exposed to severe neurotoxicity following the administration of neurotoxic chemotherapies. The aim of this report is to alert oncologists to the potential to precipitate severe irreversible peripheral neuropathies when administering neurotoxic compounds to undiagnosed CMT patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective research in the OncoNeuroTox database was performed (2010-2016), searching for patients with the diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) and CMT disease...
March 2018: Acta Oncologica
Farhadul Islam, Vinod Gopalan, Alfred King-Yin Lam
FAM134B (family with sequence similarity 134, member B)/RETREG1 and its functional roles are relatively new in human diseases. This review aimed to summarize various functions of FAM134B since our first discovery of the gene in 2001. The protein encoded by FAM134B is a reticulophagy receptor that regulates turnover of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by selective phagocytosis. Absence or non-functional expression of FAM134B protein impairs ER-turnover and thereby is involved in the pathogenesis of some human diseases...
June 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Masashi Watanabe, Yushi Matsumoto, Kensho Okamoto, Bungo Okuda, Ikuko Mizuta, Toshiki Mizuno
A 49-year-old man had developed gradually personality change, gait disturbance, and hearing loss for five years. On admission, he presented with frontal release signs, stuttering, vertical gaze palsy, sensorineural deafness, muscle rigidity, ataxia, and sensory disturbance with areflexia in the lower extremities. Brain MRI demonstrated atrophy in the cerebellum and midbrain tegmentum as well as cerebral atrophy, predominantly in the frontal lobe. He was tentatively diagnosed as progressive supranuclear palsy on the basis of clinical features and imagings...
December 27, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Kai F Loewenbrück, Markus Dittrich, Josef Böhm, Jürgen Klingelhöfer, Petra Baum, Jochen Schäfer, Heinz Reichmann, Andreas Hermann, Alexander Storch
PURPOSE: To develop specific diagnostic ultrasound (US) models for hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) in patients with primarily demyelinating or axonal polyneuropathies (PNP) according to standard nerve conduction studies (NCS) criteria. METHODS: Single-centre, examiner-blinded cross-sectional study in acquired PNP (consecutive recruitment strategy) and HMSN patients (convenience sample). Allocation into demyelinating or axonal phenotype via easily applicable NCS criteria...
January 2018: Journal of Neurology
John P O'Donnell, Laura J Byrnes, Richard B Cooley, Holger Sondermann
The dynamin-related GTPase atlastin (ATL) catalyzes membrane fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum and thus establishes a network of branched membrane tubules. When ATL function is compromised, the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum deteriorates, and these defects can result in neurological disorders such as hereditary spastic paraplegia and hereditary sensory neuropathy. ATLs harness the energy of GTP hydrolysis to initiate a series of conformational changes that enable homodimerization and subsequent membrane fusion...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ricardo H Roda, Alice B Schindler, Craig Blackstone
Autosomal recessive KIF1A missense mutations cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) type SPG30, while recessive truncations lead to sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSN2C) and many de novo missense mutations are associated with cognitive impairment. Here, we describe family members across three generations with pure HSP. A heterozygous p.Ser69Leu KIF1A mutation segregates with those afflicted. The same variant was previously reported in a Finnish father and son with pure HSP as well as four members of a Sicilian kindred with more intrafamilial phenotypic variability...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Zehra Aktan, Nihan Hande Akcakaya, Pinar Tekturk, Engin Deniz, Bahar Koyuncu, Zuhal Yapici
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a hereditary neurologic disease which affects the sensorial and motor fibers of the peripheral nerves. CMTX1 is an X-linked dominantly inherited subtype of CMT and is caused by mutations in gap junction beta 1 gene (GJB1). A small proportion of GJB1 mutations are associated with recurrent central nervous system findings. We describe a 15-year-old male patient with CMTX1 who had stroke-like findings along with foot deformities and peripheral neuropathy. Strokes and stroke-like attacks are rarely seen in children and adolescents...
November 9, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
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