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vasodilation and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635124/regular-aerobic-exercise-reduces-endothelin-1-mediated-vasoconstrictor-tone-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#1
Caitlin A Dow, Brian L Stauffer, Danielle L Brunjes, Jared J Greiner, Christopher A DeSouza
Endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in overweight and obese adults, contributing to vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease risk. While the effects of habitual aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in overweight/obese adults has been studied, little is known regarding ET-1 vasoconstriction. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to determine: (1) if regular aerobic exercise training reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults; and, if so (2) whether the reduction in ET-1 vasoconstriction contributes to exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in this population...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596298/sex-differences-in-pulmonary-vascular-control-focus-on-the-nitric-oxide-pathway
#2
Daphne P M de Wijs-Meijler, A H Jan Danser, Irwin K M Reiss, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
Although the incidence of pulmonary hypertension is higher in females, the severity and prognosis of pulmonary vascular disease in both neonates and adults have been shown to be worse in male subjects. Studies of sex differences in pulmonary hypertension have mainly focused on the role of sex hormones. However, the contribution of sex differences in terms of vascular signaling pathways regulating pulmonary vascular function remains incompletely understood. Consequently, we investigated pulmonary vascular function of male and female swine in vivo, both at rest and during exercise, and in isolated small pulmonary arteries in vitro, with a particular focus on the NO-cGMP-PDE5 pathway...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596274/dietary-nitrate-restores-compensatory-vasodilation-and-exercise-capacity-in-response-to-a-compromise-in-oxygen-delivery-in-the-non-compensator-phenotype
#3
Robert F Bentley, Jeremy J Walsh, Patrick J Drouin, Aleksandra Velickovic, Sarah J Kitner, Alyssa M Fenuta, Michael E Tschakovsky
Recently dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise capacity in healthy individuals through a potential nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Nitric oxide has been shown to play an important role in compensatory vasodilation during exercise under hypoperfusion. Previously we established that certain individuals lack a vasodilation response when perfusion pressure reductions compromise exercising muscle blood flow. Whether this lack of compensatory vasodilation in healthy young individuals can be restored with dietary nitrate supplementation is unknown...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591344/aerobic-swim-training-restores-aortic-endothelial-function-by-decreasing-superoxide-levels-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#4
Camila P Jordão, Tiago Fernandes, Leonardo Yuji Tanaka, Luiz R Grassmann Bechara, Luis Gustavo Oliveira de Sousa, Edilamar M Oliveira, Paulo Rizzo Ramires
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether aerobic training decreases superoxide levels, increases nitric oxide levels, and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were distributed into 2 groups: sedentary (SHRsd and WKYsd, n=10 each) and swimming-trained (SHRtr, n=10 and WKYtr, n=10, respectively). The trained group participated in training sessions 5 days/week for 1 h/day with an additional work load of 4% of the animal's body weight...
May 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590059/sympatholytic-effect-of-intravascular-atp-is-independent-of-nitric-oxide-prostaglandins-na-k-atpase-and-kir-channels-in-humans
#5
Christopher M Hearon, Jennifer C Richards, Mathew L Racine, Gary J Luckasen, Dennis G Larson, Michael J Joyner, Frank A Dinenno
Exercise and intravascular ATP elicit vasodilatation that is dependent on activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR ) channels, with a modest reliance on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis.  Both exercise and intravascular ATP attenuate sympathetic α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (sympatholysis). However, KIR channels, NO, PGs and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity are not obligatory to observe sympatholysis during exercise. To further determine similarities between exercise and intravascular ATP, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of KIR channels, NO and PG synthesis, and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, would not alter the ability of ATP to blunt α1 -adrenergic vasoconstriction...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513179/consumption-of-watermelon-juice-enriched-in-l-citrulline-and-pomegranate-ellagitannins-enhanced-metabolism-during-physical-exercise
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ascensión Martínez-Sánchez, Fernando Alacid, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias, Bárbara Fernández-Lobato, Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Encarna Aguayo
l-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid precursor of arginine and indirectly a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vasodilator and increases mitochondrial respiration. On the other hand, the antioxidant pomegranate ellagitannins are precursors of urolithin A, which has been associated with mitophagy and increased muscle function. To elucidate if a single dose of watermelon enrichment with these compounds could have a positive effect after high-intensity exercise (eight sets of eight repetitions of half-squat exercise), a double-blind randomized crossover in vivo study was performed in healthy male subjects (n = 19)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509889/the-role-of-nitrates-in-the-management-of-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-a-review-of-the-current-evidence-and-guidelines
#7
Mehul A Pragani, Karan P Desai, Doralisa Morrone, Mandeep S Sidhu, William E Boden
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and can result in significant morbidity. In particular, stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) is a condition that affects nearly 9 million individuals in the United States alone, with substantial annual health care costs related to recurrent medical visits and chronic disease management. Nitrates form a cornerstone of SIHD management by reducing myocardial oxygen consumption and increasing exercise capacity by several mechanisms, including increasing epicardial blood flow through vasodilation and decreased vascular resistance, blunting coronary steal, and reducing preload...
2017: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493475/change-of-left-ventricular-rigid-body-rotation-during-dipyridamole-induced-vasodilation-a-case-from-the-three-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiographic-magyar-stress-study
#8
Attila Nemes, Gyula Szántó, Péter Domsik, Árpád Kormányos, Anita Kalapos, Nóra Ambrus, Tamás Forster
A patient with previous coronary stenting presented with stable angina and positive exercise treadmill test. Echocardiography with three-dimensional speckle-tracking demonstrated left ventricular rigid body rotation (near absence of left ventricular twist), whose characteristics changed dramatically during dipyridamole-induced vasodilatation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2017.
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492794/exploring-vascular-function-biomarkers-implications-for-rehabilitation
#9
Shane A Phillips, Daniela Kuguimoto Andaku, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Flávia Rossi Caruso, Ramona Cabiddu, Rodrigo Boemo Jaenisch, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
The endothelium plays an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis and regulating blood vessel function. Endothelial function is considered an independent predictor for risk of future cardiovascular events in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular patients, as well as a predictor for postoperative complications in cardiovascular surgery patients. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by high-resolution ultrasound is widely used to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which is mainly mediated by nitric oxide release...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490452/role-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-in-control-of-peripheral-vascular-conductance-during-muscle-metaboreflex-activation
#10
Danielle Senador, Jasdeep Kaur, Alberto Alvarez, Hanna W Hanna, Abhinav C Krishnan, Yasir H Altamimi, Donal S O'Leary
Muscle metaboreflex activation during submaximal dynamic exercise, increases arterial pressure primarily via increases in cardiac output as there is little systemic vasoconstriction. Indeed, in normal animals we have often shown a small, but significant, peripheral vasodilation during metaboreflex activation, which is mediated, at least in part, by release of epinephrine and activation of vascular β2 receptors. We tested whether this vasodilation is in part due to increased release of nitric oxide caused by the rise in cardiac output eliciting endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483859/wearing-graduated-compression-stockings-augments-cutaneous-vasodilation-but-not-sweating-during-exercise-in-the-heat
#11
Naoto Fujii, Toshiya Nikawa, Bun Tsuji, Glen P Kenny, Narihiko Kondo, Takeshi Nishiyasu
The activation of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating are essential to the regulation of core temperature during exercise in the heat. We assessed the effect of graduated compression induced by wearing stockings on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat (30°C). On two separate occasions, nine young males exercised for 45 min or until core temperature reached ~1.5°C above baseline resting while wearing either (1) stockings causing graduated compression (graduate compression stockings, GCS), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without compression (Control)...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476923/acute-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-sympathetic-nerve-activity-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-proof-of-concept-study
#12
Karambir Notay, Anthony V Incognito, Philip J Millar
Acute dietary nitrate supplementation reduces resting blood pressure in healthy normotensives. This response is attributed to increased nitric oxide bioavailability and peripheral vasodilation, though nitric oxide also tonically inhibits central sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation using beetroot (BR) juice would reduce blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest and during exercise. Fourteen participants (7 men, 25±10 years) underwent blood pressure and MSNA measurements before and after (165-180 minutes) ingestion of 70ml high-nitrate (~6...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458514/riociguat-a-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulator-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Tian-Yu Lian, Xin Jiang, Zhi-Cheng Jing
Despite advances in treatments and improved survival, patients with pulmonary hypertension still experience poor exercise and functional capacity, which has a significant detrimental impact on their quality of life. The nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway has been shown to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology, especially in vasodilation and pulmonary vascular tone. The oral sGC stimulator riociguat has a dual mode of action on the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway: direct stimulation of sGC independent of NO and indirect simulation via sensitization of sGC to endogenous NO...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444930/does-postexercise-modelled-capillary-blood-flow-accurately-reflect-cardiovascular-effects-by-different-exercise-intensities
#14
F Stöcker, C Von Oldershausen, F K Paternoster, T Schulz, R Oberhoffer
Blood flow (BF) in exercising muscles is an important factor for exercise capacity. Recently, a non-invasive method to estimate capillary BF (Qcap ) was introduced. Using this method, the Fick principle is re-arranged by using relative differences in deoxygenated haemoglobin (ΔHHb) as a surrogate for arteriovenous O2 difference and pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 ) instead of muscular oxygen uptake. The aim of this study was to examine (I) the relationship between Qcap and exercise intensity during and following exercise, and (II) to critically reflect the Qcap approach...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400505/no-effect-of-ascorbate-on-cutaneous-vasodilation-and-sweating-in-older-men-and-those-with-type-2-diabetes-exercising-in-the-heat
#15
Naoto Fujii, Robert D Meade, Pegah Akbari, Jeffrey C Louie, Lacy M Alexander, Pierre Boulay, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny
Aging and chronic disease such as type 2 diabetes (T2D) are associated with impairments in the body's ability to dissipate heat. To reduce the risk of heat-related injuries in these heat vulnerable individuals, it is necessary to identify interventions that can attenuate this impairment. We evaluated the hypothesis that intradermal administration of ascorbate improves cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in older adults via nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent mechanisms during exercise in the heat and whether these improvements, if any, are greater in individuals with T2D...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397384/characteristics-and-effectiveness-of-vasodilatory-and-pressor-compensation-for-reduced-relaxation-time-during-rhythmic-forearm-contractions
#16
Robert F Bentley, Veronica J Poitras, Terrence Hong, Michael E Tschakovsky
During muscle contraction in rhythmic exercise muscle blood flow is significantly impeded by microvascular compression. The purpose of this study was to establish the nature and magnitude of vasodilatory and/or pressor compensatory responses during forearm exercise in the face of an increased duration of mechanical microvascular compression, and whether the effectiveness of such compensation was exercise intensity dependent. Seven healthy males (21.0 ± 1.8 yrs) completed progressive forearm exercise (24...
April 10, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390060/chronic-heat-exposure-for-health-and-exercise-performance-cardiovascular-research-heats-up
#17
Kyle M A Thompson, Alexandra M Coates, Anthony V Incognito, Alanna K Whinton
Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a method used to measure endothelial-dependent vasodilation, quantified by the change in conduit artery luminal diameter during post-occlusive hyperemia This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385914/sympathetic-nervous-system-activation-reduces-contraction-induced-rapid-vasodilation-in-the-leg-of-humans-independent-of-age
#18
William E Hughes, Nicholas T Kruse, Darren P Casey
Contraction-induced rapid vasodilation is attenuated similarly in the upper and lower limbs of older adults. In the forearm, this attenuation is in part due to a greater sympathetic vasoconstriction. We examined whether the age-related reduction in contraction-induced vasodilation in the leg is also due to a sympathetic vasoconstrictive mechanism. Thirteen young (24±1yr) and twelve older adults (67±1yr) performed single leg knee-extension at 20% and 40% of work-rate maximum (WRmax) during control and cold-pressor test (CPT) conditions...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381470/evidence-supporting-the-existence-of-a-distinct-obese-phenotype-of-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#19
Masaru Obokata, Yogesh N V Reddy, Sorin V Pislaru, Vojtech Melenovsky, Barry A Borlaug
Background -Heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a heterogeneous syndrome. Phenotyping patients into pathophysiologically homogenous groups may enable better targeting of treatment. Obesity is common in HFpEF and has many cardiovascular effects, suggesting it may be a viable candidate for phenotyping. We compared cardiovascular structure, function, and reserve capacity in subjects with obese HFpEF, non-obese HFpEF, and controls. Methods -Subjects with obese HFpEF (BMI≥35kg/m(2), n=99), non-obese HFpEF (BMI<30kg/m(2), n=96), and non-obese controls free of HF (n=71) underwent detailed clinical assessment, echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic exercise testing...
April 5, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373523/fire-simulation-and-cardiovascular-health-in-firefighters
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Amanda L Hunter, Anoop S V Shah, Jeremy P Langrish, Jennifer B Raftis, Andrew J Lucking, Mairi Brittan, Sowmya Venkatasubramanian, Catherine L Stables, Dominik Stelzle, James Marshall, Richard Graveling, Andrew D Flapan, David E Newby, Nicholas L Mills
BACKGROUND: Rates of myocardial infarction in firefighters are increased during fire suppression duties, and are likely to reflect a combination of factors including extreme physical exertion and heat exposure. We assessed the effects of simulated fire suppression on measures of cardiovascular health in healthy firefighters. METHODS: In an open-label randomized crossover study, 19 healthy firefighters (age, 41±7 years; 16 males) performed a standardized training exercise in a fire simulation facility or light duties for 20 minutes...
April 4, 2017: Circulation
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