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vasodilation and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099583/swimming-training-prevents-coronary-endothelial-dysfunction-in-ovariectomized-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#1
E R G Claudio, S A Almeida, V Mengal, G A Brasil, C H Santuzzi, R V Tiradentes, S A Gouvea, N S Bissoli, R L Santos, G R Abreu
Estrogen deficiency and hypertension are considered major risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. On the other hand, exercise training is considered an effective form to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of swimming training (SW) on coronary vascular reactivity in female ovariectomized hypertensive rats are not known. We aimed to evaluate the effects of SW on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. Three-month old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n=50) were divided into four groups: sham (SH), sham plus swimming training (SSW), ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized plus swimming training (OSW)...
January 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089456/protective-effects-of-exercise-training-on-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-total-sleep-deprivation-in-healthy-subjects
#2
Fabien Sauvet, Pierrick J Arnal, Pierre Emmanuel Tardo-Dino, Catherine Drogou, Pascal Van Beers, Clément Bougard, Arnaud Rabat, Garance Dispersyn, Alexandra Malgoyre, Damien Leger, Danielle Gomez-Merino, Mounir Chennaoui
BACKGROUND: Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. AIMS: To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. METHODS: 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025832/characterizing-the-sympatholytic-role-of-endothelial-dependent-vasodilator-signalling-during-handgrip-exercise
#3
Iain R Lamb, Nicole M Novielli
The dynamic metabolic range of skeletal muscle necessitates an equally dynamic blood flow requirement, to the point where the demand for skeletal muscle blood flow during intense bouts of large muscle mass exercise can theoretically 'outstrip' the heart's ability to generate the cardiac output necessary for maintaining sufficient mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle perfusion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 26, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018840/hand-impairment-in-systemic-sclerosis-various-manifestations-and-currently-available-treatment
#4
Amber Young, Rajaie Namas, Carole Dodge, Dinesh Khanna
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease initially recognized by hand involvement due to characteristic Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), puffy hands, skin thickening, and contractures resembling claw deformities. SSc contributes to hand impairment through inflammatory arthritis, joint contractures, tendon friction rubs (TFRs), RP, digital ulcers (DU), puffy hands, skin sclerosis, acro-osteolysis, and calcinosis. These manifestations, which often co-exist, can contribute to difficulty with occupational activities and activities of daily living (ADL), which can result in impaired quality of life...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013386/potentiation-of-the-no-cgmp-pathway-and-blood-flow-responses-during-dynamic-exercise-in-healthy-humans
#5
Jacqueline K Limberg, Katherine R Malterer, J Mikhail Kellawan, William G Schrage, Brad W Wilkins, Wayne T Nicholson, John H Eisenach, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry
PURPOSE: Previous work has shown nitric oxide (NO) contributes to ~15% of the hyperemic response to dynamic exercise in healthy humans. This NO-mediated vasodilation occurs, in part, via increases in intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is catabolized by phosphodiesterase. We sought to examine the effect of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibition on forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to dynamic handgrip exercise in healthy humans and the role of NO. We hypothesized exercise hyperemia would be augmented by sildenafil citrate (SDF, PDE-5 inhibitor)...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012855/prostanoids-counterbalance-the-synergism-between-endothelin-1-and-angiotensin-ii-in-mesenteric-veins-of-trained-rats
#6
Agnaldo Bruno Chies, Priscilla Bianca de Oliveira, Patrícia de Souza Rossignoli, Rafaela de Fátima Ferreira Baptista, Roger William de Lábio, Spencer Luiz Marques Payão
Exercise-induced adaptations of the modulating mechanisms that influence the angiotensin (Ang II) responses assume different features depending on the venous bed. In femoral veins, exercise mobilizes vasodilator prostanoids to cooperate with NO in order to maintain reduced Ang II responses. On the other hand, exercise's influence on the Ang II responses in veins that drain blood from the mesenteric region has been poorly described. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the effects of a single bout of exercise, as well as exercise training, on the Ang II responses in mesenteric veins...
December 21, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994602/vasodilation-and-exercise-capacity-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease-a-prospective-proof-of-concept-study
#7
Dirk Habedank, Joerg C Schefold, Carolin Bernhardt, Tim Karhausen, Wolfram Doehner, Stefan D Anker, Petra Reinke
BACKGROUND: Previous data have pointed to the fact that vascular function is significantly impaired in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We aimed to better characterise vasodilation and exercise capacity in both ESRD and chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. METHODS: A total of 30 ESRD patients (23 male; mean age 45.7 ± 9.9 years) were included in a prospective proof-of-concept study at a tertiary care academic centre. The patients underwent forearm venous plethysmography with post-ischaemic peak blood flow (PF) and flow-dependent flow (FDF) testing as well as cardiopulmonary exercise testing during the morning of the day following the last haemodialysis...
November 2016: Cardiorenal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979988/the-effect-of-acute-aerobic-exercise-and-histamine-receptor-blockade-on-arterial-stiffness-in-african-americans-and-caucasians
#8
Huimin Yan, Sushant M Ranadive, Abbi D Lane-Cordova, Rebecca M Kappus, Michael A Behun, Marc D Cook, Jeffrey A Woods, Kenneth R Wilund, Tracy Baynard, John R Halliwill, Bo Fernhall
African-Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared to Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility following submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained post-exercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness, and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965417/why-diets-fail-a-hypothesis-for-discussion
#9
Philip D Welsby
Weight regulation depends on the difference between weights of absorbed and metabolised carbon and excretion of the end products of metabolism, calories and carbon dioxide, which can be independently and variably excreted. Calories can be variably excreted as heat by vasoconstriction or vasodilation and carbon dioxide can be excreted variably as exhaled carbon dioxide (the major route of carbon excretion). Unless there are changes in ventilatory carbon excretion, 'metabolism,' 'genetic factors,' 'hormones' or 'exercise' do not provide complete explanatory mechanisms for weight changes, obesity and failure of diets...
December 13, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912940/panax-ginseng-and-salvia-miltiorrhiza-supplementation-during-eccentric-resistance-training-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults-a-double-blind-randomized-control-trial
#10
Hsin-Fu Lin, Chun-Chung Chou, Hsiao-Han Chao, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Muscle damage induced by an acute bout of eccentric exercise results in transient arterial stiffening. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of progressive eccentric resistance exercise training on vascular functions, and whether herb supplementation would enhance training adaptation by ameliorating the arterial stiffening effects. METHODS: By using a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled design, older adults were randomly assigned to either the Panax ginseng and Salvia miltiorrhiza supplementation group (N=12) or the placebo group (N=11)...
December 2016: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912206/irisin-lowers-blood-pressure-by-improvement-of-endothelial-dysfunction-via-ampk-akt-enos-no-pathway-in-the-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#11
Jinjuan Fu, Yu Han, Jialiang Wang, Yukai Liu, Shuo Zheng, Lin Zhou, Pedro A Jose, Chunyu Zeng
BACKGROUND: Exercise is a major nonpharmacological treatment for hypertension, but its underlying mechanisms are still not completely elucidated. Irisin, a polypeptide containing 112 amino acids, which is secreted mainly by skeletal muscle cells during exercise, exerts a protective role in metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and obesity. Because of the close relationship between irisin and metabolic diseases, we hypothesized that irisin may play a role in the regulation of blood pressure...
October 26, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909229/vascular-function-and-endothelin-1-tipping-the-balance-between-vasodilation-and-vasoconstriction
#12
Steven K Nishiyama, Jia Zhao, D Walter Wray, Russell S Richardson
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor secreted by vascular endothelial cells, has been implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous cardiovascular diseases, yet the direct impact of ET-1 on vascular function remains unclear. Therefore, in seven young (23 ± 1 years) healthy subjects, we investigated the effect of an intra-arterial infusion of ET-1 on reactive hyperemia (RH) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in the popliteal artery following 5-min of suprasystolic cuff occlusion. ET-1 infusion significantly attenuated basal leg blood flow (Control: 62 ± 4 ml/min, ET-1: 47 ± 9 ml/min), RH (area-under-curve, AUC) (Control: 162 ± 15 ml, ET-1: 104 ± 16 ml), and peak RH (Control: 572 ± 51 ml/min, ET-1: 412 ± 32 ml/min) (P < 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891454/efficacy-and-safety-of-intralesional-xantinol-nicotinate-in-the-treatment-of-various-stages-of-oral-submucous-fibrosis
#13
Udita Singh
INTRODUCTION: Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is one of the most prevalent potentially malignant disorders seen in South east population since ages. Despite the extensive amount of research held in this field, its treatment still remains a challenge. In this study, we present our experience in successfully managing OSMF with intralesional injections of a peripheral vasodilator namely xantinol nicotinate. AIM: To determine the efficacy and safety of intralesional xantinol nicotinate in the treatment of various stages of OSMF...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885999/peripheral-vasomotor-activity-assessment-using-a-continuous-wavelet-analysis-on-webcam-photoplethysmographic-signals
#14
F Bousefsaf, C Maaoui, A Pruski
BACKGROUND: Vasoconstriction and vasodilation phenomena reflect the relative changes in the vascular bed. They induce particular modifications in the pulse wave magnitude. Webcams correspond to remote sensors that can be employed to measure the pulse wave in order to compute the pulse frequency. OBJECTIVE: Record and analyze pulse wave signal with a low-cost webcam to extract the amplitude information and assess the vasomotor activity of the participant. METHODS: Photoplethysmographic signals obtained from a webcam are analyzed through a continuous wavelet transform...
November 25, 2016: Bio-medical Materials and Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881556/nitrite-and-s-nitrosohemoglobin-exchange-across-the-human-cerebral-and-femoral-circulation-relationship-to-basal-and-exercise-blood-flow-responses-to-hypoxia
#15
Damian M Bailey, Peter Rasmussen, Morten Overgaard, Kevin A Evans, Aske M Bohm, Thomas Seifert, Patrice Brassard, Morten Zaar, Henning B Nielsen, Peter Raven, Niels H Secher
BACKGROUND: -The mechanisms underlying red blood cell (RBC)-mediated hypoxic vasodilation remain controversial with separate roles for nitrite (NO2(-)) and S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb) widely contested given their ability to transduce nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity within the microcirculation. To establish their relative contribution in vivo, we quantified arterial-venous (a-v) concentration gradients across the human cerebral and femoral circulation at rest and during exercise, an ideal model system characterized by physiological extremes of O2 tension and blood flow...
November 15, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856609/ppar%C3%AE-is-required-for-exercise-to-attenuate-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-diabetic-mice
#16
Wai San Cheang, Wing Tak Wong, Lei Zhao, Jian Xu, Li Wang, Chi Wai Lau, Zhen Yu Chen, Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Aimin Xu, Nanping Wang, Xiao Yu Tian, Yu Huang
Physical activity has profound benefits on health, especially on cardiometabolic wellness. Experiments in rodents with trained exercise have shown that exercise improves vascular function and reduces vascular inflammation by modulating the balance between nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative stress. However, the upstream regulator of exercise-induced vascular benefits is unclear. We aimed to investigate the involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in exercise-induced vascular functional improvement...
February 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836751/activation-of-gper-ameliorates-experimental-pulmonary-hypertension-in-male-rats
#17
Allan K Alencar, Guilherme C Montes, Tadeu Montagnoli, Ananssa M Silva, Sabrina T Martinez, Aline G Fraga, Hao Wang, Leanne Groban, Roberto T Sudo, Gisele Zapata-Sudo
RATIONALE: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling that leads to pulmonary congestion, uncompensated right-ventricle (RV) failure, and premature death. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is cardioprotective in male rats and that its activation elicits vascular relaxation in rats of either sex. OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of GPER on the cardiopulmonary system by the administration of its selective agonist G1 in male rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH...
January 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787594/the-long-term-management-of-children-and-adults-with-a-fontan-circulation-a-systematic-review-and-survey-of-current-practice-in-australia-and-new-zealand
#18
Ganesh K Gnanappa, David S Celermajer, Gary F Sholler, Tom Gentles, David Winlaw, Yves d'Udekem, Julian Ayer
Although long-term survival is now the norm, Fontan patients face significant morbidity and premature mortality. Wide variation exists in long-term Fontan management. With an aim of improving their long-term management, we conducted a systematic review to identify best available evidence and gaps in knowledge for future research focus. We also surveyed cardiologists in Australia and New Zealand managing Fontan patients, to determine the alignment of current local practice with best available evidence. A systematic review was conducted using strict search criteria (PRISMA guidelines), pertaining to long-term Fontan management...
October 27, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769997/exaggerated-coronary-vasoconstriction-limits-muscle-metaboreflex-induced-increases-in-ventricular-performance-in-hypertension
#19
Marty D Spranger, Jasdeep Kaur, Javier A Sala-Mercado, Abhinav C Krishnan, Rania Abu-Hamdah, Alberto Alvarez, Tiago M Machado, Robert A Augustyniak, Donal S O'Leary
: Increases in myocardial oxygen consumption during exercise mainly occur via increases in coronary blood flow (CBF) as cardiac oxygen extraction is high even at rest. However, sympathetic coronary constrictor tone can limit increases in CBF. Increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during exercise likely occurs via the action of and interaction among activation of skeletal muscle afferents, central command, and resetting of the arterial baroreflex. As SNA is heightened even at rest in subjects with hypertension (HTN), we tested whether HTN causes exaggerated coronary vasoconstriction in canines during mild treadmill exercise with muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA; elicited by reducing hindlimb blood flow by ~60%) thereby limiting increases in CBF and ventricular performance...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767975/assessing-the-evidence-exploring-the-effects-of-exercise-on-diabetic-microcirculation
#20
Helena Lenasi, Markos Klonizakis
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with cardiovascular complications. Impairment of glycemic control induces noxious glycations, an increase in oxydative stress and dearangement of various metabolic pathways. DM leads to dysfunction of micro and macrovessels, connected to metabolic, endothelial and autonomic nervous system. Thus, assessing vascular reactivity might be one of the clinical tools to evaluate the impact of harmful effects of DM and potential benefit of treatment; skin and skeletal muscle microcirculation have usually been tested...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
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