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vasodilation and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145311/pulmonary-hypertension-as-a-manifestation-of-mitochondrial-disease-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#1
Shan Xu, Xiaoling Xu, Jisong Zhang, Kejing Ying, Yuquan Shao, Ruifeng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial diseases are a group of multisystem heterogeneous diseases caused by pathologic dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A wide range of clinical expression has been described. However, pulmonary hypertension has rarely been described in association with mitochondrial disease until the past decade, and there is no currently recognized treatment for the pulmonary hypertension complicated with mitochondrial disorder. PATIENT CONCERNS: We reported the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with shortness of breath and exercise limitation after a cold, and the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension was confirmed by right heart catheter...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141882/transparent-anemone-shrimp-ancylomenes-pedersoni-become-opaque-after-exercise-and-physiological-stress-in-correlation-with-increased-hemolymph-perfusion
#2
Laura E Bagge, Stephen T Kinsey, Justin Gladman, Sönke Johnsen
Whole-body transparency, an effective camouflage strategy in many aquatic species, can be disrupted by environmental and/or physiological stressors. We found that tail-flip escape responses temporarily disrupt the transparency of the anemone shrimp Ancylomenes pedersoni After as few as three tail flips, the previously transparent abdominal muscle became cloudy. Eliciting additional tail flips to the point of exhaustion (16±1 s.e.m.; n=23) resulted in complete opacity, though the original transparency returned after 20-60 min of inactivity...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140431/microvascular-adaptations-to-exercise-protective-effect-of-pgc-1-alpha
#3
Andrew O Kadlec, Chad Barnes, Matthew J Durand, David D Gutterman
BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular physical activity has independent protective effects on the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Recent studies suggest that the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) participates in the response to exercise training. We hypothesized that the arterioles of athletes maintain dilation to flow despite combined inhibition of multiple vasodilators, but loss of PGC-1α renders these vessels susceptible to inhibition of a single vasodilator pathway...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125372/matched-increases-in-cerebral-artery-shear-stress-irrespective-of-stimulus-induce-similar-changes-in-extra-cranial-arterial-diameter-in-humans
#4
Kurt J Smith, Ryan L Hoiland, Ryan Grove, Hamish McKirdy, Louise Naylor, Philip N Ainslie, Daniel J Green
The mechanistic role of arterial shear stress in the regulation of cerebrovascular responses to physiological stimuli (exercise and hypercapnia) is poorly understood. We hypothesised that, if shear stress is a key regulator of arterial dilation, then matched increases in shear, induced by distinct physiological stimuli, would trigger similar dilation of the large extra-cranial arteries. Participants ( n = 10) participated in three 30-min experimental interventions, each separated by ≥48 h: (1) mild-hypercapnia (FICO2:∼0...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119275/comparison-of-effects-of-losartan-and-metoprolol-on-left-ventricular-and-aortic-function-at-rest-and-during-exercise-in-chronic-aortic-regurgitation
#5
Paul A Roberts, Aaron C W Lin, Brett R Cowan, Alistair A Young, Ralph Stewart
Aortic regurgitation (AR) increases the hemodynamic load on both the left ventricle (LV) and the aorta. Vasodilators and beta-blockers both reduce systemic blood pressure, but their relative effects on the LV and aortic function and aortic regurgitant fraction in chronic AR are uncertain. We aimed to compare short-term effects of losartan and metoprolol on LV and aortic function in asymptomatic patients with chronic moderate to severe AR, both at rest and during exercise, using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114523/skeletal-muscle-contraction-induced-vasodilation-in-the-microcirculation
#6
REVIEW
Kwang-Seok Hong, Kijeong Kim
Maximal whole body exercise leads skeletal muscle blood flow to markedly increase to match metabolic demands, a phenomenon termed exercise hyperaemia that is accomplished by increasing vasodilation. However, local vasodilatory mechanisms in response to skeletal muscle contraction remain uncertain. This review highlights metabolic vasodilators released from contracting skeletal muscle, endothelium, or blood cells. As a considerable skeletal muscle vasodilation potentially results in hypotension, sympathetic nerve activity needs to be augmented to elevate cardiac output and blood pressure during dynamic exercise...
October 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114220/endothelin-1-regulation-of-exercise-induced-changes-in-flow-dynamic-regulation-of-vascular-tone
#7
Robert M Rapoport, Daphne Merkus
Although endothelin (ET)-1 is a highly potent vasoconstrictor with considerable efficacy in numerous vascular beds, the role of endogenous ET-1 in the regulation of vascular tone remains unclear. The perspective that ET-1 plays little role in the on-going regulation of vascular tone at least under physiologic conditions is supported by findings that potential ET-1 constriction is minimized by the release of the vasodilator and ET-1 synthesis inhibitor, nitric oxide (NO). Indeed, ET-1 release and constriction is self-limited by ET-1-induced, endothelial ETB receptor-mediated release of NO...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099231/effects-of-high-intensity-intermittent-training-on-vascular-function-in-obese-preadolescent-boys
#8
Napasakorn Chuensiri, Daroonwan Suksom, Hirofumi Tanaka
BACKGROUND: High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) may serve as an effective alternative to traditional endurance training, since HIIT has been shown to induce greater improvements in aerobic fitness and health-related markers in adult populations. Our objective was to determine whether HIIT and supramaximal high-intensity intermittent training (supra-HIIT) would improve vascular structure and function in obese preadolescent boys. METHODS: Before the baseline testing, 48 obese preadolescent boys, aged 8-12 years, were randomly assigned into control (CON; n = 16), HIIT (8 × 2 minutes at 90% peak power output, n = 16), and supra-HIIT (8 × 20 seconds at 170% peak power output, n = 16) groups...
November 3, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097199/trpv4-is-involved-in-irisin-induced-endothelium-dependent-vasodilation
#9
Li Ye, Mengnan Xu, Min Hu, Hai Zhang, Xianming Tan, Qing Li, Bing Shen, Junhao Huang
Irisin, an exercise-induced myokine, induces conversion of white into brown adipocytes, promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and energy expenditure. Irisin has a vascular protective effect on endothelial function in animals, including humans. Defects in irisin signaling pathways result in endothelial dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of irisin on endothelial function have not been elucidated. Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 4 (TRPV4) channels are one of the most important Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels in vascular endothelial cells...
October 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052078/carotid-artery-reactivity-during-sympathetic-activation-following-acute-resistance-exercise
#10
Kevin S Heffernan, Wesley K Lefferts, Eun Sun Yoon, Soo Hyun Park, Yong Hee Lee, Sae Young Jae
OBJECTIVE: Acute resistance exercise has been shown to reduce brachial endothelial function. Whether there are concomitant reductions in carotid endothelial function remains unexplored. METHODS: Cold pressor test-mediated vasodilation of the carotid artery was used to assess carotid endothelial function in 15 young and healthy participants (age 26 ± 1 years, body mass index 24 ± 1 kg/m(2)) after acute resistance exercise or an inactive time control condition...
December 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040222/neurovascular-response-during-exercise-and-mental-stress-in-anabolic-steroid-users
#11
Rafael Armani Porello, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Francis Ribeiro de Souza, Guilherme Wesley Peixoto da Fonseca, Ana Luiza Carrari Sayegh, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, César Abreu Akiho, Maurício Yonamine, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Maria-Janieire de Nazaré Nunes Alves
PURPOSE: Increased resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and lower forearm blood flow (FBF) were observed in young men who use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). However, the response of MSNA and FBF in AAS users triggered by muscle mechanoreflex and central command has never been tested. Additionally, we evaluated the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses during these maneuvers. METHODS: Nineteen AAS users (AASU) aged 31±6 yr and 18 AAS nonusers (AASNU) aged 29±4 yr were recruited...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030339/muscle-%C3%AE-adrenergic-responsiveness-during-exercise-and-atp-induced-vasodilation-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#12
Ulrik Winning Iepsen, Gregers Druedal Wibe Munch, Camilla Koch Ryrsø, Niels H Secher, Peter Lange, Pia Thaning, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Stefan P Mortensen
Sympathetic vasoconstriction is blunted in exercising muscle (functional sympatholysis) but becomes attenuated with age. We tested the hypothesis that functional sympatholysis is further impaired in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We determined leg blood flow (LBF) and calculated leg vascular conductance (LVC) during 1) femoral-arterial Tyramine infusion (evokes endogenous norepinephrine release; 1 µmol min(-1) kg leg mass(-1)); 2) one-legged knee-extensor exercise with and without Tyramine infusion (10 W and 20% of maximal workload (WLmax)); 3) ATP (0...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986358/pulmonary-vasodilation-by-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-is-enhanced-and-nitric-oxide-independent-in-early-pulmonary-hypertension-after-myocardial-infarction
#13
Richard W B van Duin, Birgit Houweling, Andre Uitterdijk, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
Myocardial infarction (MI) may result in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of cGMP in vascular smooth muscle, has become part of the contemporary therapeutic armamentarium for pulmonary arterial hypertension and may also be of benefit in PH secondary to MI. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important source of cGMP and can be enhanced in early PH and decreased in severe PH. In the present study we investigated if PDE5-inhibition ameliorates pulmonary hemodynamics in swine with PH secondary to MI and whether NO is essential...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982942/phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-preserves-exercise-onset-vasodilator-kinetics-when-nos-activity-is-reduced
#14
J Mikhail Kellawan, Jacqueline K Limberg, Zachariah M Scruggs, Wayne T Nicholson, William G Schrage, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry
BBackground: Nitric oxide (NO) mediated vasodilation contributes to the rapid rise in muscle blood flow at exercise onset. This occurs via increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is catabolized by phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5). Whether PDE-5 limits exercise vasodilation onset kinetics is unknown. We hypothesized the time-course of exercise vasodilation would be: 1) accelerated during PDE-5 inhibition (sildenafil citrate, SDF), 2) decelerated during NO synthase inhibition (L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine, L-NMMA), 3) effect of SDF on vasodilation onset kinetics would be attenuated with concurrent L-NMMA...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939649/muscle-metaboreflex-induced-vasoconstriction-in-the-ischemic-active-muscle-is-exaggerated-in-heart-failure
#15
Jasdeep Kaur, Danielle Senador, Abhinav C Krishnan, Hanna W Hanna, Alberto Alvarez, Tiago M Machado, Donal S O'Leary
When oxygen delivery to active muscle is insufficient to meet the metabolic demand during exercise, metabolites accumulate and stimulate skeletal muscle afferents inducing a reflex increase in blood pressure, termed the muscle metaboreflex. In healthy individuals, muscle metaboreflex activation (MMA) during submaximal exercise increases arterial pressure primarily via an increase in cardiac output (CO), as little peripheral vasoconstriction occurs. This increase in CO partially restores blood flow to ischemic muscle...
September 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931548/fluid-replacement-modulates-oxidative-stress-but-not-nitric-oxide-mediated-cutaneous-vasodilation-and-sweating-during-prolonged-exercise-in-the-heat
#16
Brendan D McNeely, Robert D Meade, Naoto Fujii, Andrew J E Seely, Ronald J Sigal, Glen P Kenny
The roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) activation in regulating cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during prolonged (≥60 min) exercise are currently unclear. Moreover, it remains to be determined whether fluid replacement (FR) modulates the above thermoeffector responses. To investigate, eleven young men completed 90-min of continuous moderate intensity (46% of VO2peak) cycling performed at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production of 600 W (No-FR condition)...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871621/systolic-blood-pressure-reduction-during-the-first-24%C3%A2-h-in-acute-heart-failure-admission-friend-or-foe
#17
Gad Cotter, Marco Metra, Beth A Davison, Guillaume Jondeau, John G F Cleland, Robert C Bourge, Olga Milo, Christopher M O'Connor, John D Parker, Guillermo Torre-Amione, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Isaac Kobrin, Maurizio Rainisio, Stefanie Senger, Christopher Edwards, John J V McMurray, John R Teerlink
AIMS: Changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) during an admission for acute heart failure (AHF), especially those leading to hypotension, have been suggested to increase the risk for adverse outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed associations of SBP decrease during the first 24 h from randomization with serum creatinine changes at the last time-point available (72 h), using linear regression, and with 30- and 180-day outcomes, using Cox regression, in 1257 patients in the VERITAS study...
September 4, 2017: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834278/contribution-of-mitochondria-derived-free-radicals-to-endothelial-dysfunction-in-human-skeletal-muscle-feed-arteries-another-hazard-of-the-ageing-process
#18
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817465/new-insights-into-the-recognition-classification-and-management-of-systemic-sclerosis-associated-pulmonary-hypertension
#19
Christopher J Mullin, Stephen C Mathai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc), and remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We will review recent developments in the recognition, classification and treatment of pulmonary hypertension in SSc. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in screening for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and use of exercise haemodynamics may help to identify pulmonary vascular disease earlier in SSc. Recent studies have led to changes in recommendations for adjunct therapy and selection of pulmonary vasodilators for the treatment of SSc-associated PAH...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816705/microvascular-vasodilator-plasticity-following-acute-exercise
#20
Austin T Robinson, Ibra S Fancher, Abeer M Mahmoud, Shane A Phillips
Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is reduced following acute exercise, or following high intraluminal pressure in isolated arterioles from sedentary adults, but not in arterioles from regular exercisers. The preserved vasodilation in arterioles from exercisers is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-dependent, whereas resting dilation is nitric oxide (NO)-dependent. We hypothesize chronic exercise elicits adaptations allowing for maintained vasodilation when NO bioavailability is reduced.
August 14, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
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