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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303667/exercise-induced-saphenous-vein-graft-spasm-prevented-by-stenting
#1
William G Boliek, Dean J Kereiakes, Atul Chugh
Recurrence of anginal symptoms following coronary artery bypass surgery is usually secondary to graft closure or progression of native vessel disease. The present case demonstrates severe exercise-induced saphenous vein graft (SVG) spasm associated with transmural ischemia refractory to maximal vasodilator therapy. Symptoms resolved and exercise electrocardiography normalized following stenting of SVG regions demonstrating spasm. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
March 17, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295341/exercise-training-reverses-age-induced-diastolic-dysfunction-and-restores-coronary-microvascular-function
#2
Kazuki Hotta, Bei Chen, Bradley J Behnke, Payal Ghosh, John N Stabley, Jeremy A Bramy, Jaime L Sepulveda, Michael D Delp, Judy M Muller-Delp
The risk for diastolic dysfunction increases with advancing age. Regular exercise training ameliorates age-related diastolic dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. We investigated whether 1) microvascular dysfunction contributes to the development of age-related diastolic dysfunction, and 2) initiation of late-life exercise training reverses age-related diastolic and microvascular dysfunction. Young and old rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training or remained as sedentary, cage-controls...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284324/readdressing-the-entity-of-exercise-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#3
REVIEW
Boris I Medarov, Sidharth Jogani, Johnathan Sun, Marc A Judson
Exercise pulmonary hypertension (EPH) indicates an abnormally elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during exercise. The physiological range of PAP during exercise remains poorly defined and, therefore, a universally accepted definition of EPH remains elusive. Nevertheless, previous data concerning the distribution of PAP in normal populations and more recent retrospective clinical data enhanced our ability to define EPH. EPH can impair exercise capacity and cause dyspnea. The underlying pathophysiology of the arterial form of EPH (EPAH) appears to be similar to that seen in resting pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and EPAH individuals are at risk of developing resting PAH...
March 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274927/endothelial-dysfunction-correlates-with-exaggerated-exercise-pressor-response-during-whole-body-maximal-exercise-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#4
Ryan M Downey, Peizhou Liao, Erin C Millson, Arshed A Quyyumi, Salman Sher, Jeanie Park
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have exercise intolerance associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. Previous studies demonstrate that blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nerve responses to handgrip exercise are exaggerated in CKD. These patients also have decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction which could potentially lead to an impaired ability to vasodilate during exercise. We hypothesized that CKD patients have exaggerated BP responses during maximal whole body exercise and that endothelial dysfunction correlates with greater exercise pressor responses in these patients...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271412/clinical-value-of-hyperemic-left-ventricular-systolic-function-in-vasodilator-stress-testing
#5
Venkatesh L Murthy, Sharmila Dorbala
Exercise results in increased left ventricular contractility in normal individuals. Similar changes can also be seen with vasodilator stress. This article discusses the physiologic basis of these changes as well as reviews the clinical data supporting the use of these parameters for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation. Methodologic limitations as well as other concomitant pathologic processes which may confound interpretation of stress-induced changes in LVEF are also reviewed.
March 7, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266825/cardiovascular-disease-update-pulmonary-hypertension
#6
Johnathan D McDivitt, Craig Barstow
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a spectrum disorder with multiple causes of the elevation of pressure in the lungs. It often is difficult to diagnose because it mimics many commonly reported symptoms (eg, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, chest pain). Diagnosis is made via right heart catheterization; however, transthoracic echocardiography may show evidence of elevated pulmonary pressure as the first clue to the diagnosis. Diagnostic tests to consider include a liver panel, complete blood count, and thyroid function test; electrocardiogram; chest x-ray; pulmonary function testing; and possibly lung imaging via computed tomography scan or ventilation-perfusion scan...
March 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261859/a-phantom-study-to-determine-the-theoretical-accuracy-and-precision-of-radial-mri-to-measure-cross-sectional-area-differences-for-the-application-of-coronary-endothelial-function-assessment
#7
Jérôme Yerly, Danilo Gubian, Jean-Francois Knebel, Ali Schenk, Jerome Chaptinel, Giulia Ginami, Matthias Stuber
PURPOSE: MRI has been used to noninvasively assess coronary endothelial function by measuring the vasoreactivity in response to handgrip exercise. However, the spatial resolution of MRI is limited relative to the expected vasodilation response of healthy coronary arteries (10%-20%), and the sensitivity of MRI to detect such small cross-sectional area differences has yet to be quantitatively examined. METHODS: Holes of different diameters were drilled in a phantom to simulate a range of physiological responses of coronary arteries to stress...
March 5, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256176/stress-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-current-and-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Thu-Thao Le, Weiting Huang, Jennifer Ann Bryant, Stuart Alexander Cook, Calvin Woon-Loong Chin
Vasodilator and dobutamine are the main pharmacological agents used in current stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Exercise stress has well-established advantages and it is commonly used in other stress imaging, but the technical considerations have limited its use in stress CMR. In this review, we will describe the diagnostic performance, prognostic value, strengths and challenges of current stress CMR techniques. We will also discuss future perspectives of exercise stress CMR. Areas covered: Despite notable mechanistic differences, vasodilator and dobutamine stress CMR offer similar diagnostic and prognostic value in coronary artery disease...
March 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254750/the-roles-of-kca-katp-and-kv-channels-in-regulating-cutaneous-vasodilation-and-sweating-during-exercise-in-the-heat
#9
Jeffrey C Louie, Naoto Fujii, Robert D Meade, Brendan D McNeely, Glen P Kenny
We recently showed the varying roles of Ca(2+)-activated (KCa), ATP-sensitive (KATP) and voltage-gated (KV) K(+) channels in regulating cholinergic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating in normothermic conditions. However, it is unclear whether the respective contributions of these K(+) channels remain intact during dynamic exercise in the heat. Eleven young (23±4 years) males completed a 30-min exercise bout at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W), followed by a 40-min recovery period in the heat (35°C, 20% relative humidity)...
March 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242634/ketone-body-infusion-with-3-hydroxybutyrate-reduces-myocardial-glucose-uptake-and-increases-blood-flow-in-humans-a-positron-emission-tomography-study
#10
Lars C Gormsen, Mads Svart, Henrik Holm Thomsen, Esben Søndergaard, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Nana Christensen, Lars Poulsen Tolbod, Hendrik Johannes Harms, Roni Nielsen, Henrik Wiggers, Niels Jessen, Jakob Hansen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Niels Møller
BACKGROUND: High levels of ketone bodies are associated with improved survival as observed with regular exercise, caloric restriction, and-most recently-treatment with sodium-glucose linked transporter 2 inhibitor antidiabetic drugs. In heart failure, indices of ketone body metabolism are upregulated, which may improve energy efficiency and increase blood flow in skeletal muscle and the kidneys. Nevertheless, it is uncertain how ketone bodies affect myocardial glucose uptake and blood flow in humans...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230704/muscle-metaboreflex-control-of-sympathetic-activity-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#11
Linda M Ueno-Pardi, Renan S Guerra, Thiago T Goya, Rosyvaldo F Silva, Elisangela M Gara, Marta F Lima, Thais S Nobre, Maria J N N Alves, Ivani C Trombetta, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho
PURPOSE: Previous studies report abnormal muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in obesity, hypertension, and heart failure. We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with augmented metaboreflex control of MSNA. METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary individuals with no comorbidities (age = 52±1 y, body mass index = 28±1 kg/m) without (control, n = 14) and with OSA (n = 17) defined by polysomnography, underwent echocardiography...
February 22, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219917/isosorbide-dinitrate-with-or-without-hydralazine-does-not-reduce-wave-reflections-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-or-myocardial-fibrosis-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#12
Payman Zamani, Scott Akers, Haideliza Soto-Calderon, Melissa Beraun, Maheswara R Koppula, Swapna Varakantam, Deepa Rawat, Prithvi Shiva-Kumar, Philip G Haines, Jesse Chittams, Raymond R Townsend, Walter R Witschey, Patrick Segers, Julio A Chirinos
BACKGROUND: Wave reflections, which are increased in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, impair diastolic function and promote pathologic myocardial remodeling. Organic nitrates reduce wave reflections acutely, but whether this is sustained chronically or affected by hydralazine coadministration is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We randomized 44 patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in a double-blinded fashion to isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN; n=13), ISDN+hydralazine (ISDN+hydral; n=15), or placebo (n=16) for 6 months...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217027/adenosine-stress-induced-left-bundle-branch-block-during-technetium-99m-tetrofosmin-myocardial-perfusion-imaging
#13
Mohan Roop Jayanthi, Arun Sasikumar, Arun Kumar Reddy Gorla, Ashwani Sood, Anish Bhattacharya, Bhagwant Rai Mittal
The occurrence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) in electrocardiogram during exercise testing is a relatively rare finding. The incidence of LBBB during exercise testing ranges from 0.5% to 1.1%. The mechanism of exercise-induced LBBB (EI-LBBB) is poorly understood, but ischemia is a proposed etiology. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can be useful in patients with EI-LBBB to rule out coronary artery disease. Adenosine vasodilator stress is the preferred mode of stress in patients with LBBB for performing stress-MPI...
January 2017: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212586/effects-of-resistance-band-exercise-on-vascular-activity-and-fitness-in-older-adults
#14
Mark F Smith, Mistrelle Ellmore, Geoff Middleton, Paul M Murgatroyd, Thomas I Gee
This study investigated the effects of a low to moderately intense resistance-band exercise intervention on cutaneous microvascular function in an older population. 18 sedentary healthy participants (age: 58±5) were assessed for their upper and lower-limb endothelial cutaneous vascular conductance using laser Doppler fluximetry with endothelial-dependent (80 μl acetylcholine chloride), and -independent vasodilation (80 μl sodium nitroprusside). In addition, participants underwent a range of functional assessments (cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, flexibility), and completed a perceived quality of life questionnaire...
March 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192127/long-term-treatment-with-nandrolone-decanoate-impairs-mesenteric-vascular-relaxation-in-both-sedentary-and-exercised-female-rats
#15
Izabela F Caliman, Cristian S Bernabe, Antônio F de Melo, Girlândia A Brasil, Andrews M do Nascimento, Ewelyne M de Lima, Suely G Figueiredo, Tadeu U de Andrade, Nazaré S Bissoli
Nandrolone Decanoate (ND) is an Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) that under abusive regimen can lead to multiple physiological adverse effects. Studies of AAS-mediated cardiovascular (CV) alterations were mostly taken from male subjects, even though women are also susceptible to the effects of AAS and gender-specific differences in susceptibility to vascular diseases exist. Here we investigate ND-induced vascular reactivity alterations in both sedentary and exercised female rats and whether these alterations depend on endothelium-derived factors...
April 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186430/cerebral-blood-flow-frontal-lobe-oxygenation-and-intra-arterial-blood-pressure-during-sprint-exercise-in-normoxia-and-severe-acute-hypoxia-in-humans
#16
David Curtelin, David Morales-Alamo, Rafael Torres-Peralta, Peter Rasmussen, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Mario Perez-Valera, Christoph Siebenmann, Ismael Pérez-Suárez, Evgenia Cherouveim, A William Sheel, Carsten Lundby, José Al Calbet
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated to secure brain O2 delivery while simultaneously avoiding hyperperfusion; however, both requisites may conflict during sprint exercise. To determine whether brain O2 delivery or CBF is prioritized, young men performed sprint exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (PIO2 = 73 mmHg). During the sprints, cardiac output increased to ∼22 L min(-1), mean arterial pressure to ∼131 mmHg and peak systolic blood pressure ranged between 200 and 304 mmHg. Middle-cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) increased to peak values (∼16%) after 7...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159512/effect-of-calcium-channel-blockers-evaluated-by-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-responding-to-acute-pulmonary-vasoreactivity-testing
#17
Yi Tang, Lei Yao, Zhihong Liu, Xiuping Ma, Qin Luo, Zhihui Zhao, Zhiwei Huang, Laura Tu, Liu Gao, Qi Jin, Xinhai Ni, Changming Xiong
BACKGROUND: The baseline exercise capacity evaluated by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and the change after administration of calcium channel blockers (CCB) therapy in patients with vasodilator-responsive idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (VR-IPAH)are unknown. METHODS: 25 patients with newly diagnosed VR-IPAH from 1 January 2012 to 16 November 2015 were prospectively enrolled, and 28 age, sex and pulmonary vascular resistance matched newly diagnosed patients with vasodilator-nonresponsive idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (VNR-IPAH) were enrolled...
January 31, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138261/the-effects-of-exercise-training-and-caloric-restriction-on-the-cardiac-oxytocin-natriuretic-peptide-system-in-the-diabetic-mouse
#18
Tom L Broderick, Marek Jankowski, Jolanta Gutkowska
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise training (ET) and caloric restriction (CR) are the frontline strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the aim at reducing cardiometabolic risk. ET and CR improve body weight and glycemic control, and experimental studies indicate that these paradigms afford cardioprotection. In this study, the effects of combined ET and CR on the cardioprotective oxytocin (OT)-natriuretic peptide (NP) system were determined in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and obesity...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099583/swimming-training-prevents-coronary-endothelial-dysfunction-in-ovariectomized-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#19
E R G Claudio, S A Almeida, V Mengal, G A Brasil, C H Santuzzi, R V Tiradentes, S A Gouvea, N S Bissoli, R L Santos, G R Abreu
Estrogen deficiency and hypertension are considered major risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. On the other hand, exercise training is considered an effective form to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of swimming training (SW) on coronary vascular reactivity in female ovariectomized hypertensive rats are not known. We aimed to evaluate the effects of SW on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. Three-month old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n=50) were divided into four groups: sham (SH), sham plus swimming training (SSW), ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized plus swimming training (OSW)...
January 16, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089456/protective-effects-of-exercise-training-on-endothelial-dysfunction-induced-by-total-sleep-deprivation-in-healthy-subjects
#20
Fabien Sauvet, Pierrick J Arnal, Pierre Emmanuel Tardo-Dino, Catherine Drogou, Pascal Van Beers, Clément Bougard, Arnaud Rabat, Garance Dispersyn, Alexandra Malgoyre, Damien Leger, Danielle Gomez-Merino, Mounir Chennaoui
BACKGROUND: Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. AIMS: To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. METHODS: 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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