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vasodilation and exercise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721030/regular-physical-exercise-improves-cardiac-autonomic-and-muscle-vasodilatory-responses-to-isometric-exercise-in-healthy-elderly
#1
Adriana de Oliveira Sarmento, Amilton da Cruz Santos, Ivani Credidio Trombetta, Marciano Moacir Dantas, Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques, Leone Severino do Nascimento, Bruno Teixeira Barbosa, Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos, Maria do Amparo Andrade, Anna Myrna Jaguaribe-Lima, Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos
The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis) and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline) and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver)...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706000/absence-of-compensatory-vasodilation-with-perfusion-pressure-challenge-in-exercise-evidence-for-and-implications-of-the-non-compensator-phenotype
#2
Robert F Bentley, Jeremy J Walsh, Patrick J Drouin, Aleksandra Velickovic, Sarah J Kitner, Alyssa M Fenuta, Michael E Tschakovsky
Compromising oxygen delivery (O2D) during exercise requires compensatory vasodilatory and/or pressor responses to protect O2D : demand matching. The purpose of the study was to determine whether compensatory vasodilation is absent in some healthy, young individuals in the face of a sudden reduction in exercising forearm perfusion pressure, and whether this affects the exercise pressor response. 21 healthy, young males (21.6±2.0yrs) completed rhythmic forearm exercise at a work rate equivalent to 70% of their own maximal exercise vasodilation...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704259/systemic-blood-pressure-at-exercise-in-hypoxia-in-hypertensive-and-normotensive-patients
#3
Laurent Winkler, François J Lhuissier, Jean-Paul Richalet
OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to determine whether acute hypoxia exposure in laboratory conditions associated with exercise induces an increase in systemic blood pressure (BP) in normotensive and hypertensive patients, and whether hypertensive patients are more prone to develop severe acute mountain sickness (sAMS). Finally, to determine if BP changes at exercise in acute hypoxia in hypertensive patients are predictive factors for sAMS. METHODS: From 2012 to 2015, 852 normotensive and 106 hypertensive patients went through an acute hypoxia exercise test before a sojourn at high altitude...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685423/dorsiflexor-muscle-oxygenation-during-low-moderate-and-submaximal-sustained-isometric-contraction
#4
Adkham Paiziev, Martin Wolf, Fikrat Kerimov
Sustained isometric contractions of skeletal muscles produce intramuscular pressures that lead to blood flow restriction. Thus, we have the paradox of rising O2 demand due to muscle activity and at the same time reduced blood flow. The aim was to assess muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric low (30%), moderate (60%) and submaximal [90% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)] contraction of the dorsiflexor muscle. Experiments were conducted on the dominant (right) leg of 8 male students (age 19 ± 2 years, weight 75 ± 6 kg)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672774/combinatorial-therapy-of-exercise-preconditioning-and-nanocurcumin-formulation-supplementation-improves-cardiac-adaptation-under-hypobaric-hypoxia
#5
Sarita Nehra, Varun Bhardwaj, Anju Bansal, Deepika Saraswat
BACKGROUND: Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (cHH) mediated cardiac insufficiencies are associated with pathological damage. Sustained redox stress and work load are major causative agents of cardiac insufficiencies under cHH. Despite the advancements made in pharmacological (anti-oxidants, vasodilators) and non-pharmacological therapeutics (acclimatization strategies and schedules), only partial success has been achieved in improving cardiac acclimatization to cHH. This necessitates the need for potent combinatorial therapies to improve cardiac acclimatization at high altitudes...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667051/folic-acid-ingestion-improves-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow-during-graded-handgrip-and-plantar-flexion-exercise-in-aged-humans
#6
Steven A Romero, Daniel Gagnon, Amy N Adams, Gilbert Moralez, Ken Kouda, Manall F Jaffery, Matthew N Cramer, Craig G Crandall
Skeletal muscle blood flow is attenuated in aged humans performing dynamic exercise, which is due, in part, to impaired local vasodilatory mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that folic acid improves cutaneous vasodilation during localized and whole-body heating through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. However, it is unclear if folic acid improves vasodilation in other vascular beds during conditions of increased metabolism (i.e. exercise). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that folic acid ingestion improves skeletal muscle blood flow in aged adults performing graded handgrip and plantar flexion exercise via increased vascular conductance...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664576/exercise-versus-vasodilator-stress-limb-perfusion-imaging-for-the-assessment-of-peripheral-artery-disease
#7
Brian P Davidson, J Todd Belcik, Gregory Landry, Joel Linden, Jonathan R Lindner
PURPOSE: Our aim was to determine whether pharmacologic vasodilation is an alternative to exercise stress during limb perfusion imaging for peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS: Quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) perfusion imaging of the bilateral anterior thigh and calf was performed in nine control subjects and nine patients with moderate to severe PAD at rest and during vasodilator stress with dipyridamole. For those who were able, CEU of the calf was then performed during modest plantar flexion exercise (20 watts)...
June 29, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635124/regular-aerobic-exercise-reduces-endothelin-1-mediated-vasoconstrictor-tone-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#8
Caitlin A Dow, Brian L Stauffer, Danielle L Brunjes, Jared J Greiner, Christopher A DeSouza
What is the central question of this study? Does aerobic exercise training reduce endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight/obese adults? And, if so, does lower ET-1 vasoconstriction underlie the exercise-related enhancement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults? What is the main finding and its importance? Regular aerobic exercise reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in previously sedentary overweight/obese adults, independent of weight loss. Decreased ET-1 vasoconstriction is an important mechanism underlying the aerobic exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in overweight/obese adults...
June 20, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596298/sex-differences-in-pulmonary-vascular-control-focus-on-the-nitric-oxide-pathway
#9
Daphne P M de Wijs-Meijler, A H Jan Danser, Irwin K M Reiss, Dirk J Duncker, Daphne Merkus
Although the incidence of pulmonary hypertension is higher in females, the severity and prognosis of pulmonary vascular disease in both neonates and adults have been shown to be worse in male subjects. Studies of sex differences in pulmonary hypertension have mainly focused on the role of sex hormones. However, the contribution of sex differences in terms of vascular signaling pathways regulating pulmonary vascular function remains incompletely understood. Consequently, we investigated pulmonary vascular function of male and female swine in vivo, both at rest and during exercise, and in isolated small pulmonary arteries in vitro, with a particular focus on the NO-cGMP-PDE5 pathway...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596274/dietary-nitrate-restores-compensatory-vasodilation-and-exercise-capacity-in-response-to-a-compromise-in-oxygen-delivery-in-the-non-compensator-phenotype
#10
Robert F Bentley, Jeremy J Walsh, Patrick J Drouin, Aleksandra Velickovic, Sarah J Kitner, Alyssa M Fenuta, Michael E Tschakovsky
Recently dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise capacity in healthy individuals through a potential nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. Nitric oxide has been shown to play an important role in compensatory vasodilation during exercise under hypoperfusion. Previously we established that certain individuals lack a vasodilation response when perfusion pressure reductions compromise exercising muscle blood flow. Whether this lack of compensatory vasodilation in healthy young individuals can be restored with dietary nitrate supplementation is unknown...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591344/aerobic-swim-training-restores-aortic-endothelial-function-by-decreasing-superoxide-levels-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#11
Camila P Jordão, Tiago Fernandes, Leonardo Yuji Tanaka, Luiz R Grassmann Bechara, Luis Gustavo Oliveira de Sousa, Edilamar M Oliveira, Paulo Rizzo Ramires
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether aerobic training decreases superoxide levels, increases nitric oxide levels, and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) were distributed into 2 groups: sedentary (SHRsd and WKYsd, n=10 each) and swimming-trained (SHRtr, n=10 and WKYtr, n=10, respectively). The trained group participated in training sessions 5 days/week for 1 h/day with an additional work load of 4% of the animal's body weight...
May 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590059/sympatholytic-effect-of-intravascular-atp-is-independent-of-nitric-oxide-prostaglandins-na-k-atpase-and-kir-channels-in-humans
#12
Christopher M Hearon, Jennifer C Richards, Mathew L Racine, Gary J Luckasen, Dennis G Larson, Michael J Joyner, Frank A Dinenno
Exercise and intravascular ATP elicit vasodilatation that is dependent on activation of inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR ) channels, with a modest reliance on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis.  Both exercise and intravascular ATP attenuate sympathetic α-adrenergic vasoconstriction (sympatholysis). However, KIR channels, NO, PGs and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase activity are not obligatory to observe sympatholysis during exercise. To further determine similarities between exercise and intravascular ATP, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of KIR channels, NO and PG synthesis, and Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase, would not alter the ability of ATP to blunt α1 -adrenergic vasoconstriction...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513179/consumption-of-watermelon-juice-enriched-in-l-citrulline-and-pomegranate-ellagitannins-enhanced-metabolism-during-physical-exercise
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ascensión Martínez-Sánchez, Fernando Alacid, Jacobo A Rubio-Arias, Bárbara Fernández-Lobato, Domingo J Ramos-Campo, Encarna Aguayo
l-Citrulline is a nonessential amino acid precursor of arginine and indirectly a precursor of nitric oxide (NO), which is a vasodilator and increases mitochondrial respiration. On the other hand, the antioxidant pomegranate ellagitannins are precursors of urolithin A, which has been associated with mitophagy and increased muscle function. To elucidate if a single dose of watermelon enrichment with these compounds could have a positive effect after high-intensity exercise (eight sets of eight repetitions of half-squat exercise), a double-blind randomized crossover in vivo study was performed in healthy male subjects (n = 19)...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509889/the-role-of-nitrates-in-the-management-of-stable-ischemic-heart-disease-a-review-of-the-current-evidence-and-guidelines
#14
Mehul A Pragani, Karan P Desai, Doralisa Morrone, Mandeep S Sidhu, William E Boden
Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States and can result in significant morbidity. In particular, stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) is a condition that affects nearly 9 million individuals in the United States alone, with substantial annual health care costs related to recurrent medical visits and chronic disease management. Nitrates form a cornerstone of SIHD management by reducing myocardial oxygen consumption and increasing exercise capacity by several mechanisms, including increasing epicardial blood flow through vasodilation and decreased vascular resistance, blunting coronary steal, and reducing preload...
2017: Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493475/change-of-left-ventricular-rigid-body-rotation-during-dipyridamole-induced-vasodilation-a-case-from-the-three-dimensional-speckle-tracking-echocardiographic-magyar-stress-study
#15
Attila Nemes, Gyula Szántó, Péter Domsik, Árpád Kormányos, Anita Kalapos, Nóra Ambrus, Tamás Forster
A patient with previous coronary stenting presented with stable angina and positive exercise treadmill test. Echocardiography with three-dimensional speckle-tracking demonstrated left ventricular rigid body rotation (near absence of left ventricular twist), whose characteristics changed dramatically during dipyridamole-induced vasodilatation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2017.
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492794/exploring-vascular-function-biomarkers-implications-for-rehabilitation
#16
Shane A Phillips, Daniela Kuguimoto Andaku, Renata Gonçalves Mendes, Flávia Rossi Caruso, Ramona Cabiddu, Rodrigo Boemo Jaenisch, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
The endothelium plays an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis and regulating blood vessel function. Endothelial function is considered an independent predictor for risk of future cardiovascular events in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular patients, as well as a predictor for postoperative complications in cardiovascular surgery patients. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation by high-resolution ultrasound is widely used to evaluate endothelium-dependent vasodilation, which is mainly mediated by nitric oxide release...
March 2017: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490452/role-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-in-control-of-peripheral-vascular-conductance-during-muscle-metaboreflex-activation
#17
Danielle Senador, Jasdeep Kaur, Alberto Alvarez, Hanna W Hanna, Abhinav C Krishnan, Yasir H Altamimi, Donal S O'Leary
The muscle metaboreflex is a powerful pressor reflex induced by the activation of chemically sensitive muscle afferents as a result of metabolite accumulation. During submaximal dynamic exercise, the rise in arterial pressure is primarily due to increases in cardiac output, since there is little systemic vasoconstriction. Indeed, in normal animals, we have often shown a small, but significant, peripheral vasodilation during metaboreflex activation, which is mediated, at least in part, by release of epinephrine and activation of vascular β2-receptors...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483859/wearing-graduated-compression-stockings-augments-cutaneous-vasodilation-but-not-sweating-during-exercise-in-the-heat
#18
Naoto Fujii, Toshiya Nikawa, Bun Tsuji, Glen P Kenny, Narihiko Kondo, Takeshi Nishiyasu
The activation of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating are essential to the regulation of core temperature during exercise in the heat. We assessed the effect of graduated compression induced by wearing stockings on cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during exercise in the heat (30°C). On two separate occasions, nine young males exercised for 45 min or until core temperature reached ~1.5°C above baseline resting while wearing either (1) stockings causing graduated compression (graduate compression stockings, GCS), or (2) loose-fitting stockings without compression (Control)...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476923/acute-beetroot-juice-supplementation-on-sympathetic-nerve-activity-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-proof-of-concept-study
#19
Karambir Notay, Anthony V Incognito, Philip J Millar
Acute dietary nitrate ([Formula: see text]) supplementation reduces resting blood pressure in healthy normotensives. This response has been attributed to increased nitric oxide bioavailability and peripheral vasodilation, although nitric oxide also tonically inhibits central sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that acute dietary [Formula: see text] supplementation using beetroot (BR) juice would reduce blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest and during exercise. Fourteen participants (7 men and 7 women, age: 25 ± 10 yr) underwent blood pressure and MSNA measurements before and after (165-180 min) ingestion of 70ml high-[Formula: see text] (~6...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458514/riociguat-a-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-stimulator-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#20
REVIEW
Tian-Yu Lian, Xin Jiang, Zhi-Cheng Jing
Despite advances in treatments and improved survival, patients with pulmonary hypertension still experience poor exercise and functional capacity, which has a significant detrimental impact on their quality of life. The nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) pathway has been shown to play an important role in cardiovascular physiology, especially in vasodilation and pulmonary vascular tone. The oral sGC stimulator riociguat has a dual mode of action on the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway: direct stimulation of sGC independent of NO and indirect simulation via sensitization of sGC to endogenous NO...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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