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Clostridium difficile

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150513/high-prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-large-phicd211-phicdif1296t-like-prophages-in-clostridioides-difficile
#1
Julian R Garneau, Ognjen Sekulovic, Bruno Dupuy, Olga Soutourina, Marc Monot, Louis-Charles Fortier
Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) is a pathogenic bacterium displaying great genetic diversity. A significant proportion of this diversity is due to the presence of integrated prophages. Here, we provide an in-depth analysis of phiCD211, also known as phiCDIF1296T, the largest phage identified in C. difficile so far, with a genome of 131-kbp. It shares morphological and genomic similarity with other large siphophages like phage 949 infecting Lactococcus lactis and phage c-st infecting Clostridium botulinum...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149279/impact-of-isolating-clostridium-difficile-carriers-on-the-burden-of-isolation-precautions-a-time-series-analysis
#2
Yasi Xiao, Bianka Paquet-Bolduc, Christophe Garenc, Philippe Gervais, Sylvie Trottier, Jean-François Roussy, Jean Longtin, Vivian G Loo, Yves Longtin
Background: The isolation of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile (CD) carriers may decrease the incidence of hospital-associated C. difficile infections (CDI), but its impact on isolation precaution needs is unknown. Methods: Time series analysis to investigate the impact of isolating CD carriers on the burden of isolation precautions from 2008 to 2016 in a Canadian hospital. To account for the changes in C. difficile infection control policies, the series was divided into three intervention periods...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149266/association-between-prior-antibiotic-therapy-and-subsequent-risk-of-community-acquired-infections-a-systematic-review
#3
Umer Malik, David Armstrong, Mark Ashworth, Alex Dregan, Veline L'Esperance, Lucy McDonnell, Mariam Molokhia, Patrick White
Background: Antibiotic use can have negative unintended consequences including disruption of the human microbiota, which is thought to protect against pathogen overgrowth. We conducted a systematic review to assess whether there is an association between exposure to antibiotics and subsequent risk of community-acquired infections. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science for studies published before 30 June 2017, examining the association between antibiotic use and subsequent community-acquired infection...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146947/the-semiquinone-swing-in-the-bifurcating-electron-transferring-flavoprotein-butyryl-coa-dehydrogenase-complex-from-clostridium-difficile
#4
Julius K Demmer, Nilanjan Pal Chowdhury, Thorsten Selmer, Ulrich Ermler, Wolfgang Buckel
The electron transferring flavoprotein/butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EtfAB/Bcd) catalyzes the reduction of one crotonyl-CoA and two ferredoxins by two NADH within a flavin-based electron-bifurcating process. Here we report on the X-ray structure of the Clostridium difficile (EtfAB/Bcd)4 complex in the dehydrogenase-conducting D-state, α-FAD (bound to domain II of EtfA) and δ-FAD (bound to Bcd) being 8 Å apart. Superimposing Acidaminococcus fermentans EtfAB onto C. difficile EtfAB/Bcd reveals a rotation of domain II of nearly 80°...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146177/clostridium-difficile-and-clostridium-sordellii-toxins-proinflammatory-versus-anti-inflammatory-response
#5
Michel R Popoff
Clostridium difficile and Clostridium sordellii produce related potent toxins (C. difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), C. sordellii lethal toxin (TcsL) and hemorrhagic toxin (TcsH)) which belong to the large clostridial glucosylating toxin (LCGT) family. TcsL is the main C. sordellii toxin as most of toxigenic C. sordellii strains only synthesize this toxin. Intestinal colonization by C. difficile subsequently to unbalanced microbiota is accompanied by release of toxins which induce local tissue destruction and severe inflammatory response...
November 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144257/clostridium-difficile-infection-and-commonly-used-pediatric-medications
#6
Larry K Kociolek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144223/no-touch-disinfection-methods-to-decrease-multidrug-resistant-organism-infections-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Alexandre R Marra, Marin L Schweizer, Michael B Edmond
BACKGROUND Recent studies have shown that using no-touch disinfection technologies (ie, ultraviolet light [UVL] or hydrogen peroxide vapor [HPV] systems) can limit the transmission of nosocomial pathogens and prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). To investigate these findings further, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the impact of no-touch disinfection methods to decrease HAIs. METHODS We searched PubMed, CINAHL, CDSR, DARE and EMBASE through April 2017 for studies evaluating no-touch disinfection technology and the nosocomial infection rates for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and other multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143704/identification-of-clostridium-difficile-reservoirs-in-the-patient-environment-and-efficacy-of-aerial-hydrogen-peroxide-decontamination
#8
Samuel Yui, Shanom Ali, Monika Muzslay, Annette Jeanes, A Peter R Wilson
OBJECTIVE To identify, using a novel enhanced method of recovery, environmental sites where spores of Clostridium difficile persist despite cleaning and hydrogen peroxide aerial decontamination. DESIGN Cohort study. SETTING Tertiary referral center teaching hospital. METHODS In total, 16 sites representing high-frequency contact or difficult-to-clean surfaces in a single-isolation room or bed area in patient bed bays were sampled before and after terminal or hydrogen peroxide disinfection using a sponge swab...
November 16, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140453/faecal-transplantation-for-ibd-management-pitfalls-and-promises
#9
M N Quraishi, T Critchlow, N Bhala, N Sharma, T Iqbal
Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an area of active current research, having been stimulated by the remarkable efficacy of FMT in treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Sources of data: This review is based on data from numerous case series on FMT in IBD since 1989 and results of four RCTs in ulcerative colitis (UC); three fully published. Areas of agreement: Early signals of short to medium-term efficacy of FMT for UC are promising...
November 13, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140433/il-27-il-27receptor-signaling-provides-protection-in-clostridium-difficile-induced-colitis
#10
Lifang Wang, Ju Cao, Congya Li, Zhang Liping
Background: Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of nosocomial infection. The role of cytokine IL-27 in the immunopathology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains unknown. Methods: The production of IL-27 was determined in human and murine CDI. Furthermore, wild-type (WT) and IL-27 receptor-deficient (WSX-1 -/-) mice were treated with an antibiotic mixture and infected with C.difficile to investigate the effects of IL-27 on host response to CDI. Results: IL-27 production was elevated during CDI in humans and mice...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139189/clostridium-difficile-infection-in-hospitalized-octogenarian-patients
#11
Anca Trifan, Irina Girleanu, Carol Stanciu, Egidia Miftode, Camelia Cojocariu, Ana-Maria Singeap, Catalin Sfarti, Stefan Chiriac, Tudor Cuciureanu, Oana Stoica
AIM: To evaluate the risk factors and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized octogenarian patients. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of risk factors and outcome of C. difficile infection in hospitalized octogenarians was carried out at two academic centers in Romania from January 2014 to September 2016. Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics; antibiotics and proton pump inhibitors use in-hospital and 2 months before admission; comorbidities; length of hospital stay; treatment; and outcome were carefully collected from the patients' medical charts and compared with those from octogenarians hospitalized during the same period...
November 15, 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136420/assessment-of-environmental-contamination-with-pathogenic-bacteria-at-a-hospital-laundry-facility
#12
Karen E Michael, David No, William E Daniell, Noah S Seixas, Marilyn C Roberts
Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136200/prodoric2-the-bacterial-gene-regulation-database-in-2018
#13
Denitsa Eckweiler, Christian-Alexander Dudek, Juliane Hartlich, David Brötje, Dieter Jahn
Bacteria adapt to changes in their environment via differential gene expression mediated by DNA binding transcriptional regulators. The PRODORIC2 database hosts one of the largest collections of DNA binding sites for prokaryotic transcription factors. It is the result of the thoroughly redesigned PRODORIC database. PRODORIC2 is more intuitive and user-friendly. Besides significant technical improvements, the new update offers more than 1000 new transcription factor binding sites and 110 new position weight matrices for genome-wide pattern searches with the Virtual Footprint tool...
November 9, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134299/fecal-transplantation-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-elderly-and-debilitated-patients
#14
Tali Friedman-Korn, Dan Meir Livovsky, Nitsan Maharshak, Nathaniel Aviv Cohen, Kalman Paz, Ariella Bar-Gil Shitrit, Eran Goldin, Benjamin Koslowsky
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new technique recently introduced to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Little is known about the efficacy and risks of FMT in elderly and ill patients. AIM: To investigate FMT efficacy in ill and elderly patients compared to conventional treatment. METHODS: The study comprised two groups of patients between 2012 and 2016 with recurrent CDI at two medical centers in Israel...
November 13, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132520/gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#15
REVIEW
Rick Kellerman, Thomas Kintanar
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a gastrointestinal motility disorder that results from the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus or oral cavity resulting in symptoms or complications. The typical symptoms of GERD are heartburn and regurgitation of gastric contents into the oropharynx. GERD affects quality of life and may cause erosive esophagitis, esophageal strictures, and Barrett esophagus, a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma. GERD is a clinical diagnosis and is most effectively treated with proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs)...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132405/identifying-predictive-features-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-recurrence-before-during-and-after-primary-antibiotic-treatment
#16
Sepideh Pakpour, Amit Bhanvadia, Roger Zhu, Abhimanyu Amarnani, Sean M Gibbons, Thomas Gurry, Eric J Alm, Laura A Martello
BACKGROUND: Colonization by the pathogen Clostridium difficile often occurs in the background of a disrupted microbial community. Identifying specific organisms conferring resistance to invasion by C. difficile is desirable because diagnostic and therapeutic strategies based on the human microbiota have the potential to provide more precision to the management and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and its recurrence. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study of adult patients diagnosed with their first CDI...
November 13, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130220/-current-research-progress-and-thinking-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-disorders
#17
Ning Li, Hongliang Tian
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), also known as fecal bacteriotherapy or fecal infusion, consists of injection of a liquid filtrate of feces from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a recipient individual. FMT has been proposed as a therapeutic approach for functional diseases of the gastrointestinal tract by reestablishment of a wide diversity of intestinal flora. Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) treatment guideline from American Gastroenterology Association (AGA) recommends that FMT can be used as the treatment protocols of relapse CDI...
October 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128476/increased-systemic-antibiotic-use-and-clostridium-difficile-infection-among-outpatients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#18
George F Longstreth, Qiaoling Chen, Carrie Wong, Janis F Yao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128345/infectious-gastroenteritis-and-the-need-for-strict-contact-precaution-procedures-in-adults-presenting-in-the-emergency-department-a-danish-register-based-study
#19
Florence Skyum, Vibeke Andersen, Ming Chen, Court Pedersen, Christian Backer Mogensen
BACKGROUND: Acute infectious gastroenteritis requires contact precautions to prevent spreading. On acute admission the cause of diarrhoea is unknown, so the decision of whom to isolate has to be made on clinical information with a risk of inexpedient use of contact precautions. AIM: The aims of the study were to investigate how often gastroenteritis occurs, and thus the isolation indication has to be assessed, in Danish emergency departments, and how often patients have to remain on contact precaution according to the results of the faecal samples...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126751/shift-to-community-onset-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-the-national-veterans-health-administration-2003-2014
#20
Kelly R Reveles, Mary Jo V Pugh, Kenneth A Lawson, Eric M Mortensen, Jim M Koeller, Jacqueline R Argamany, Christopher R Frei
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) occurs frequently in inpatient settings; however, community-onset cases have been reported more frequently in recent years. This study evaluated hospital-onset and community-onset CDI in the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) population over a 12-year period. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of all adult VHA beneficiaries with CDI between October 1, 2002, and September 30, 2014. Data were obtained from the Veterans Affairs Informatics and Computing Infrastructure...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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