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Clostridium difficile

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734905/-recovery-from-episodes-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-following-the-implementation-of-a-consensus-document
#1
M José González-Abad, Mercedes Alonso Sanz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733230/clostridium-perfringens-and-c-difficile-in-parvovirus-positive-dogs
#2
Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Fernanda Alves Dorella, Henrique Cesar Pereira Figueiredo, Érica Azevedo Costa, Vanessa Pelicia, Bruna Letícia Devidé Ribeiro, Marcio Garcia Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Paes, Jane Megid, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato
The aim of this study was to investigate Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in 82 diarrheic dogs positive for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV). Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A was isolated from three (3.6%) dogs. One (1.2%) strain was also positive for NetE- and NetF-encoding genes, which are commonly associated with diarrhea in dogs. Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated from one animal (1.2%), which was also positive for A/B toxins. The present study identified C. difficile and C. perfringens infection in CPV-positive dogs...
July 18, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730697/impact-of-simultaneous-glutamate-dehydrogenase-gdh-and-toxin-a-b-rapid-immunoassay-on-clostridium-difficile-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-hospitalized-patients-with-antibiotic-associated-diarrhea-in-a-university-hospital-of-brazil
#3
Guilherme Grossi Lopes Cançado, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Amanda Pontes Nader, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Eduardo Garcia Vilela
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of health care-associated infection, but disagreement between diagnostic tests is an ongoing barrier to clinical decision making. Conventional enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for toxin detection is currently the most frequently used technique for CDI diagnosis, but its low sensitivity makes the development of an alternative strategy necessary for improving the diagnosis in developing countries. METHODS: Between years 2011 and 2015, 154 stool samples from patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea were examined by toxigenic culture (TC) and EIA for the diagnosis of CDI...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730660/bezlotoxumab-a-novel-agent-for-the-prevention-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#4
Wesley D Kufel, Aaron S Devanathan, Ashley H Marx, David J Weber, Lindsay M Daniels
Over the last decade, the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have significantly increased, leading to a rise in CDI-associated hospitalizations, health care costs, and mortality. Although treatment options exist for CDI, recurrence is frequent following treatment. Furthermore, patients with at least one CDI recurrence are at an increased risk of developing additional recurrences. A novel approach to the prevention of recurrent CDI is the use of monoclonal antibodies directed against the toxins responsible for CDI as an adjunct to antibiotic treatment...
July 21, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730135/clinical-characteristics-and-ultrasonographic-findings-of-acute-bacterial-enterocolitis-in-children
#5
Peter Chun, Taek Jin Lim, Eun Ha Hwang, Sang Wook Mun, Yeoun Joo Lee, Jae Hong Park
PURPOSE: This study clarified the bacterial pathogens currently causing acute infectious enterocolitis (AIE) in children and evaluated the clinical characteristics and ultrasonographic findings according to the different pathogens. METHODS: Medical records regarding age, sex, clinical symptoms, laboratory data, identified enteropathogens, ultrasonographic findings, treatment, and outcome of 34 patients who were diagnosed with AIE via stool examination using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or culture, were retrospectively reviewed...
June 2017: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729205/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-in-israel
#6
Linda Tkhawkho, Orna Nitzan, Nina Pastukh, Diana Brodsky, Karen Jackson, Avi Peretz
OBJECTIVES: An increase of Clostridium difficile isolates with reduced susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents has been observed, including isolates that are non-susceptible to antibiotics that are routinely used for treatment of C. difficile, such as vancomycin and metronidazole. We determined the susceptibility rates of C. difficile isolates from hospitals in northern Israel to various antibiotics including tigecycline, which was not previously reported from Israel. METHODS: A total of 81 stool samples were collected from three hospitals in northern Israel from patients with C...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728905/perceptions-of-clostridium-difficile-infections-among-infection-control-professionals-in-taiwan
#7
Yuan-Pin Hung, Jen-Chieh Lee, Hsiao-Ju Lin, Chun-Wei Chiu, Jia-Ling Wu, Hsiao-Chieh Liu, I-Hsiu Huang, Pei-Jane Tsai, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND: High Clostridium difficile colonization and infection rates among hospitalized patients had been noted in Taiwan. Nevertheless, the cognition about clinical diagnosis and management of CDI among infection control professionals in Taiwan is not clear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 24-item survey questionnaire about the diagnosis, therapy, or infection control policies toward CDI was distributed in the annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of Taiwan (IDST) in October 2015 and Infectious Control Society of Taiwan (ICST) in April 2016...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721981/detection-of-clostridium-difficile-antigen-and-toxin-in-stool-specimens-comparison-of-the-c-difficile-quik-chek-complete-enzyme-immunoassay-and-genexpert-c-difficile-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay
#8
Abiola C Senok, Kamel M Aldosari, Rayan A Alowaisheq, Othman A Abid, Khalid A Alsuhaibani, Mohammad A Khan, Ali M Somily
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Accurate and rapid laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) remains a significant challenge. A two-step algorithm for detection of toxigenic C. difficile in stool based on initial screening for glutamate dehydrogenase assay followed by confirmation by toxin A+B detection using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or molecular assay has been proposed. We aimed to evaluate the C. difficile Quik Chek Complete® (QCC-EIA) versus the GeneXpert® C. difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in this two-step algorithm...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716810/clinicians-should-assess-the-benefits-and-risks-of-using-bezlotoxumab-for-reducing-the-risk-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#9
Habiba Hassouna, Abhishek Deshpande
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Evidence-based Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714381/gemcitabine-associated-pseudocellulitis-a-missed-diagnosis
#10
Dalvir Gill, Josh Schrader, Matthew Kelly, Fidel Martinez, Wajihuddin Syed, Jonathan Wright
We report a case of a 51-year-old male with past medical history significant for cholangiocarcinoma presented with two weeks of worsening bilateral lower extremity swelling and erythema. Patient has been on active chemotherapy for his cholangiocarcinoma with Gemcitabine weekly infusions. Physical exam was significant for bilaterally petechial rash coalescing into ecchymoses over the dorsum of the feet, sparing soles and toes, which dissipated into thinning petechiae more proximally. On labs he did not have any leukocytosis, his platelet count was 50 × 10(3)/µL and basic metabolic panel was benign...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712548/excess-mortality-between-2007-and-2014-among-patients-with-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-french-health-insurance-database-analysis
#11
F Barbut, S Bouée, L Longepierre, M Goldberg, C Bensoussan, L Levy-Bachelot
BACKGROUND: The impact of CDI (Clostridium difficile infections) on mortality is controversial. AIM: To assess excess mortality due to CDI in France. METHOD: Two cohorts of patients with CDI and a cohort of matched controls were extracted from a 1% representative sample of subjects covered by the general health insurance system in France (EGB database, 660,000 patients). The CDI patients were hospitalized with CDI as a principal diagnosis (PD) or an associated diagnosis (AD) between 2007 and 2014, but not in 2006...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712463/vaccines-in-development-for-the-primary-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection
#12
Laurel M Legenza, Susanne G Barnett, Warren E Rose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709901/multicenter-collaboration-study-on-the-%C3%AE-lactam-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-japan-the-65th-anniversary-public-interest-purpose-project-of-the-japanese-society-of-chemotherapy
#13
Yoshikazu Ishii, Kotaro Aoki, Kazuhiro Tateda, Hiroshi Kiyota
This study was conducted using the same method of the "1-day multicenter collaborative research for Clostridium difficile infectious". This surveillance study was performed by 38 participating medical facilities across Japan. Of the 268 fecal specimens collected in this study, 5 (1.9%) carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were judged carbapenem resistant by the criteria of the Infectious Disease Act, Japan (2 mg/L or more and 64 mg/L or more MICs for imipenem and cefmetazole, respectively). However, no isolate was shown to have a meropenem MIC of 2 mg/L or more...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708379/chemical-genomics-structure-elucidation-and-in-vivo-studies-of-the-marine-derived-anticlostridial-ecteinamycin
#14
Thomas P Wyche, René F Ramos Alvarenga, Jeff S Piotrowski, Megan N Duster, Simone R Warrack, Gabriel Cornilescu, Travis J De Wolfe, Yanpeng Hou, Doug R Braun, Gregory A Ellis, Scott W Simpkins, Justin Nelson, Chad L Myers, James Steele, Hirotada Mori, Nasia Safdar, John L Markley, Scott Raymond Rajski, Tim S Bugni
A polyether antibiotic, ecteinamycin (1) was isolated from a marine Actinomadura sp., cultivated from the ascidian Ectein-ascidia turbinata. 13C-enrichment, high resolution NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling enabled elucidation of the structure of 1 which was validated on the basis of comparisons with its recently reported crystal structure. Importantly, ec-teinamycin demonstrated potent activity against the toxigenic strain of Clostridium difficile NAP1/B1/027 (MIC = 59 ng/μL), as well as other toxigenic and non-toxigenic C...
July 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707337/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-efficacy-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-and-refractory-clostridium-difficile-infection
#15
REVIEW
M N Quraishi, M Widlak, N Bhala, D Moore, M Price, N Sharma, T H Iqbal
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the commonest nosocomial cause of diarrhoea. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an approved treatment for recurrent or refractory CDI but there is uncertainty about its use. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of FMT in treating recurrent and refractory CDI and investigate outcomes from modes of delivery and preparation. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, trial registers and conference proceedings were searched...
July 14, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707191/clostridium-difficile-colitis-and-colonoscopy-pediatric-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Randolph McConnie, Arthur Kastl
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Review tests available for detection of Clostridium difficile (C. Diff) induced disease, including when such tests should be done in children and how they should be interpreted. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple tests are available for detecting disease due to C. diff. These include colonoscopy and stool analysis. Colonoscopy with biopsy is the most sensitive test for detecting the presence of colitis. The toxins produced by the C. diff. (toxin A, toxin B, and binary toxin) are the agents that cause injury and disease...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705932/use-of-a-neutralizing-antibody-helps-identify-structural-features-critical-for-binding-of-clostridium-difficile-toxin-tcda-to-the-host-cell-surface
#17
Heather K Kroh, Ramyavardhanee Chandrasekaran, Kim Rosenthal, Rob Woods, Xiaofang Jin, Melanie D Ohi, Andrew C Nyborg, G Jonah Rainey, Paul Warrener, Benjamin W Spiller, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile is a clinically significant pathogen that causes mild-to-severe (and often recurrent) colon infections. Disease symptoms stem from the activities of two large, multi-domain toxins known as TcdA and TcdB. The toxins can bind, enter, and perturb host cell function through a multi-step mechanism of receptor binding, endocytosis, pore formation, autoproteolysis, and glucosyltransferase-mediated modification of host substrates. Monoclonal antibodies that neutralize toxin activity provide a survival benefit in preclinical animal models and prevent recurrent infections in human clinical trials...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705583/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-colonization-by-clostridium-difficile-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-rehabilitation-clinics-in-germany
#18
Mardjan Arvand, Claudia Ruscher, Gudrun Bettge-Weller, Markus Goltz, Yvonne Pfeifer
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation clinics may vary widely in terms of type of care provided, duration of hospital stay, and case severity. Only few data are available on prevalence of Clostridium difficile or extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) colonization in rehabilitation clinics in Germany. AIM: This study investigated the frequency of intestinal colonization by these pathogens among patients in rehabilitation clinics of different specialization...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704538/intestinal-calcium-and-bile-salts-facilitate-germination-of-clostridium-difficile-spores
#19
Travis J Kochan, Madeline J Somers, Alyssa M Kaiser, Michelle S Shoshiev, Ada K Hagan, Jessica L Hastie, Nicole P Giordano, Ashley D Smith, Alyxandria M Schubert, Paul E Carlson, Philip C Hanna
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is an anaerobic gram-positive pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial infection globally. C. difficile infection (CDI) typically occurs after ingestion of infectious spores by a patient that has been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. While CDI is a toxin-mediated disease, transmission and pathogenesis are dependent on the ability to produce viable spores. These spores must become metabolically active (germinate) in order to cause disease. C. difficile spore germination occurs when spores encounter bile salts and other co-germinants within the small intestine, however, the germination signaling cascade is unclear...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698756/treatment-of-decubitis-ulcer-stage-iv-in-the-patient-with-polytrauma-and-vertical-share-pelvic-fracture-diagnosed-entherocollitis-and-deep-wound-infection-with-clostridium-difficile-with-combined-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-npwt-and-faecal-management-system
#20
Slavcho Stojmenski, Igor Merdzanovski, Andrej Gavrilovski, Sofija Pejkova, Gjorge Dzokic, Smilja Tudzarova
AIM: The aim of this paper was to present a case with the successful treatment of decubitis ulcer stage IV in the patient with polytrauma and vertical share pelvic fracture and diagnosed entherocollitis combined with deep wound infection with Clostridium difficile treated with combined Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) and faecal management system. CASE REPORT: Patient D.S.1967 treated on Traumatology Clinic after tentamen suicide on 9.2.2015 with diagnosis: brain contusion; contusion of thoracal space; vertical share pelvic fracture; open fracture type II of the right calcaneus; fracture of the left calcaneus; fracture on the typical place of the left radius; fracture of the right radius with dislocation...
June 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
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