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Clostridium difficile

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346844/inactivation-of-i-clostridium-difficile-i-spore-outgrowth-by-synergistic-effects-of-nisin-and-lysozyme
#1
Changhoon Chai, Kyung-Soo Lee, Goo-Sang Imm, Young Soon Kim, Se-Wook Oh
Inactivating <i>Clostridium difficile</i> spores is difficult, as they are resistant to heat, chemicals, and antimicrobials. However, this note describes inactivation of <i>C. difficile</i> spore outgrowth by incubation in a solution containing a germinant (1% w/v sodium taurocholate), co-germinants (1% w/v tryptose and 1% w/v NaCl), and natural antimicrobials (20 nM nisin and 0.2 mM lysozyme). <i>C. difficile</i> spores were resistant to nisin and lysozyme but became susceptible during germination and outgrowth triggered and promoted by sodium taurocholate, tryptose, and NaCl...
March 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346596/withholding-proton-pump-inhibitors-to-prevent-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-time-for-a-randomized-trial
#2
Scott R Bauer, Patrick O'Malley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346595/association-of-gastric-acid-suppression-with-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Raseen Tariq, Siddharth Singh, Arjun Gupta, Darrell S Pardi, Sahil Khanna
Importance: Gastric acid suppression has been associated with an increased risk of primary Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but the risk of recurrent CDI in patients taking gastric acid suppressant medications is unclear. Objective: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between gastric acid suppressants and recurrent CDI. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register, the Cochrane Database, and Web of Science were searched from January 1, 1995, to September 30, 2015, for studies assessing the association between gastric acid suppressant exposure and recurrent CDI...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346491/a-genetic-switch-controls-the-production-of-flagella-and-toxins-in-clostridium-difficile
#4
Brandon R Anjuwon-Foster, Rita Tamayo
In the human intestinal pathogen Clostridium difficile, flagella promote adherence to intestinal epithelial cells. Flagellar gene expression also indirectly impacts production of the glucosylating toxins, which are essential to diarrheal disease development. Thus, factors that regulate the expression of the flgB operon will likely impact toxin production in addition to flagellar motility. Here, we report the identification a "flagellar switch" that controls the phase variable production of flagella and glucosylating toxins...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346281/recognition-and-management-of-clostridium-difficile-in-older-adults
#5
Anna Wentz Sams, Laurie Kennedy-Malone
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is increasing in the outpatient setting, and older adults are at a higher risk for contracting CDI and experiencing poor outcomes. NPs may see this infection in the primary care setting. This article focuses on the presentation, treatment, and clinical practice implications for CDI in community-dwelling older adults.
March 24, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345530/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-methods-of-treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infections-and-other-diseases
#6
Klaudia Juszczuk, Katarzyna Grudlewska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek
Clostridium difficile is a serious epidemiological problem and particularly dangerous microorganism causing hospital infections. Currently, the treatment of C. difficile infections is the use of metronidazole or vancomycin. However, in some patients, recurrent infection difficult to treat occurs. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a new method used to treat the recurrent CDI. FMT consists in the infusion of the fecal suspension from a healthy donor into the gastrointestinal tract of a patient with CDI to restore the natural intestinal microflora...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343455/reducing-clostridium-difficile-in-the-inpatient-setting-a-systematic-review-of-the-adherence-to-and-effectiveness-of-c-difficile-prevention-bundles
#7
Anna K Barker, Caitlyn Ngam, Jackson S Musuuza, Valerie M Vaughn, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common infectious cause of nosocomial diarrhea, and its prevention is an urgent public health priority. However, reduction of CDI is challenging because of its complex pathogenesis, large reservoirs of colonized patients, and the persistence of infectious spores. The literature lacks high-quality evidence for evaluating interventions, and many hospitals have implemented bundled interventions to reduce CDI with variable results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review to examine the components of CDI bundles, their implementation processes, and their impact on CDI rates...
March 27, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341262/pulsed-xenon-ultraviolet-light-disinfection-in-a-burn-unit-impact-on-environmental-bioburden-multidrug-resistant-organism-acquisition-and-healthcare-associated-infections
#8
Caroline Green, Jeremy C Pamplin, Kristine N Chafin, Clinton K Murray, Heather C Yun
Portable pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection (PPX-UVD) may reduce healthcare associated infections (HAI). There is limited data to inform use in burn intensive care units (BICU), where multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), especially gram negative rods (GNR), commonly cause disease. We evaluated PPX-UVD effects on environmental bioburden and rates of HAI and MDRO acquisition in a BICU. PPX-UVD was used for 3 months after standard cleaning of patient and operating rooms (ORs). Settle and touch plates in patient rooms and ORs were obtained after standard cleaning, pre-and post-PPX-UVD...
March 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340959/molecular-detection-of-clostridium-difficile-on-inert-surfaces-from-a-costa-rican-hospital-during-and-after-an-outbreak
#9
Luisa Morales, César Rodríguez, María Del Mar Gamboa-Coronado
BACKGROUND: Hospital transmission of Clostridium difficile is fostered by contamination of surfaces and medical equipment with spores highly resistant to disinfectants and regular cleaning procedures. Despite the outbreaks and fatalities that C difficile causes, its epidemiology has not been studied in hospitals from middle- and low-income countries. To tackle this knowledge gap, the detection frequency of C difficile DNA on inert surfaces of a major Costa Rican hospital during and after an outbreak was compared...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339307/testing-for-clostridium-difficile-in-patients-with-cancer
#10
Arjun Gupta, Sahil Khanna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337044/clostridium-difficile-infections-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Michael Chieng
Case report of a 23-year-old male presenting with a severe flare of Crohn's disease, exacerbated by community-acquired infection with Clostridium difficile. This case outlines the association between C. difficile infection and inflammatory bowel disease, as both a mimic and a precipitant of flares. The discussion concerns the latest literature consensus on assessment and management of Clostridium difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
March 24, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336757/development-of-a-bedside-scoring-system-for-predicting-a-first-recurrence-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea
#12
Velliyur Viswesh, Ana L Hincapie, Marie Yu, Linda Khatchatourian, Michael A Nowak
PURPOSE: A scoring system for identifying patients at high or low risk for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is described. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data on adults with CDAD admitted to a 3-hospital system from 2009 to 2014. The primary endpoint was the rate of recurrent CDAD within 60 days of clinical cure of CDAD. Risk factors for CDAD recurrence were identified, and a risk prediction tool was developed using multivariate logistic regression...
April 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335725/surface-layer-proteins-from-virulent-clostridium-difficile-ribotypes-exhibit-signatures-of-positive-selection-with-consequences-for-innate-immune-response
#13
Mark Lynch, Thomas A Walsh, Izabela Marszalowska, Andrew E Webb, Micheál MacAogain, Thomas R Rogers, Henry Windle, Dermot Kelleher, Mary J O'Connell, Christine E Loscher
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen prevalent in hospitals worldwide and increasingly common in the community. Sequence differences have been shown to be present in the Surface Layer Proteins (SLPs) from different C. difficile ribotypes (RT) however whether these differences influence severity of infection is still not clear. RESULTS: We used a molecular evolutionary approach to analyse SLPs from twenty-six C. difficile RTs representing different slpA sequences...
March 23, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333608/morbidity-in-pregnant-women-associated-with-unverified-penicillin-allergies-antibiotic-use-and-group-b-streptococcus-infections
#14
Shilpa H Desai, Michael S Kaplan, Qiaoling Chen, Eric M Macy
CONTEXT: The morbidity potentially associated with unverified penicillin allergy in pregnant women, with and without group B streptococcus (GBS) infections, is unknown. Penicillin allergy testing is safe during pregnancy but is done infrequently. OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity associated with antibiotic use in a large cohort of pregnant women, with and without an unverified history of penicillin allergy, and with and without GBS. DESIGN: Retrospective...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333302/outcomes-of-multisite-antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-implementation-with-a-shared-clinical-decision-support-system
#15
Stuart E Bond, Adriana J Chubaty, Suman Adhikari, Spiros Miyakis, Craig S Boutlis, Wilfred W Yeo, Marijka J Batterham, Cara Dickson, Brendan J McMullan, Mona Mostaghim, Samantha Li-Yan Hui, Kate R Clezy, Pamela Konecny
Background: Studies evaluating antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) supported by computerized clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) have predominantly been conducted in single site metropolitan hospitals. Objectives: To examine outcomes of multisite ASP implementation supported by a centrally deployed CDSS. Methods: An interrupted time series study was conducted across five hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, from 2010 to 2014...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332614/corrigendum-clostridium-difficile-infection-worsen-outcome-of-hospitalized-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Ting Zhang, Qian-Yun Lin, Jia-Xi Fei, Yan Zhang, Min-Yi Lin, Shuang-Hong Jiang, Pu Wang, Ye Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332133/molecular-typing-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-to-six-antimicrobials-of-clostridium-difficile-isolates-from-three-czech-hospitals-in-eastern-bohemia-in-2011-2012
#17
V Beran, E J Kuijper, C Harmanus, I M Sanders, S M van Dorp, C W Knetsch, J Janeckova, A Seidelova, L Barekova, J Tvrdik, D Chmelar, I Ciznar
In 2011-2012, a survey was performed in three regional hospitals in the Czech Republic to determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) and to characterize bacterial isolates. C. difficile isolates were characterized by PCR ribotyping, toxin genes detection, multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to fidaxomicin, vancomycin, metronidazole, clindamycin, LFF571, and moxifloxacin using agar dilution method. The incidence of CDI in three studied hospitals was 145, 146, and 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2011 and 177, 258, and 67 cases per 100,000 inhabitants in 2012...
March 22, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331803/ivig-a-cure-to-severe-refractory-nap-1-clostridium-difficile-colitis-a-case-of-successful-treatment-of-severe-infection-which-failed-standard-therapy-including-fecal-microbiota-transplants-and-fidaxomicin
#18
Kelley Coffman, Xian Jie Cindy Chen, Charles Okamura, Eddie Louie
The mainstay treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) is antimicrobials with growing support for fecal microbiota transplants. We report the first case of an elderly man with severe refractory NAP-1 pseudomembranous CDI who failed all medical therapy and two fecal transplants with response only seen after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin.
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330512/evaluating-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-stem-cell-transplant-recipients-a-national-study
#19
Nishi N Shah, William McClellan, Christopher R Flowers, Sagar Lonial, Hannah Khoury, Edmund K Waller, Amelia Langston, Ajay K Nooka
OBJECTIVE Large-scale studies evaluating risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), a leading cause of infectious diarrhea among patients undergoing stem cell transplantation (SCT), are lacking. We have evaluated risk factors for CDI among both autologous SCT (auto-SCT), and allogeneic SCT (allo-SCT) recipients using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database provided by the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). METHODS We used patient data obtained from the NIS database for all adult patients admitted for auto- and allo-SCTs from January 2001 to December 2010...
March 23, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329238/practice-patterns-and-outcomes-associated-with-procalcitonin-use-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis
#20
David C Chu, Anuj B Mehta, Allan J Walkey
Background: Randomized trials support use of procalcitonin-based algorithms to decrease duration of antibiotics for critically ill patients with sepsis. However, current utilization of procalcitonin and associated outcomes in "real world" clinical settings is unclear. We sought to determine procalcitonin utilization in critically ill patients with sepsis in the United States and to examine associations between procalcitonin use and clinical outcomes. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of approximately 20% of patients hospitalized in US Intensive Care Units with sepsis...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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