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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325386/-the-protective-effect-of-the-activation-of-nmdar1-erk1-2-signal-pathway-induced-by-levodopa-on-visual-cortical-neurons-in-monocular-deprivation-rats
#1
X N Sun, H L Wang, G Qiao, J Tao, C Liu, X H Hao
Objective: To investigate the protection effects of the activation of NMDAR1(NMDA receptor 1)/ERK1/2 signal pathway on visual cortex nerve cells induced by levodopa in amblyopia rats. Methods: SD rats of SPF grade, were randomly divided into for groups of 9, group A. Control, B. MD group, C. L-levodopa(20 mg·kg(-1))+MD group, D. H-levodopa (80 mg·kg(-1))+MD group, E. H-levodopa+MD+MK801 group, F. H-levodopa+MD+PD98059 group, G. MD+MK801 group, H. MD+PD98059 group, I. MD+DMSO group. Amblyopia rats were made by suture of the right eye...
December 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315577/bidirectional-variation-in-glutamate-efflux-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-induced-by-selective-positive-and-negative-allosteric-mglur5-modulators
#2
Sarah N Isherwood, Trevor W Robbins, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
Dysregulation of prefrontal cortical glutamatergic signalling via NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in cognitive dysfunction and impaired inhibitory control in such neuropsychiatric disorders as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction. Although NMDA receptors functionally interact with metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), the consequence of this interaction for glutamate release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of positive and negative allosteric mGluR5 modulation on changes in extracellular glutamate efflux in the medial PFC (mPFC) induced by systemic administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (or MK801) in rats...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249806/cortical-high-gamma-network-oscillations-and-connectivity-a-translational-index-for-antipsychotics-to-normalize-aberrant-neurophysiological-activity
#3
A Ahnaou, H Huysmans, T Van de Casteele, W H I M Drinkenburg
Oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency range is a critical mechanism, which integrates neural networks within and across brain structures during cognitive processes. In schizophrenia, abnormalities in high gamma oscillations are ubiquitous and most likely reflect dysfunction in neuronal networks. In conscious rats, disturbed network oscillations associated with positive symptoms and cognitive deficits were modeled in different cortical areas by the dopaminergic agonist (amphetamine) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (PCP and MK801)...
December 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241309/involvement-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-activation-in-midkine-mediated-central-hypotensive-effects
#4
Ching-Huang Lin, Jun-Yen Pan, Jung-Jui Chang, Hsin-Hung Chen, Pei-Wen Cheng, Ching-Jiunn Tseng
The growth factor midkine has been implicated in various biologic and pathologic events. It has been shown that the peripheral influence of midkine on cardiovascular regulation is due to an influence on the renin-angiotensin system. The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) is the primary integrative center for cardiovascular control and other autonomic functions in the central nervous system. However, the signaling mechanisms involved in midkine-mediated cardiovascular effects in the NTS remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the renin-angiotensin system and/ or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-calmodulin-eNOS signaling pathways were both involved in midkine-mediated blood pressure (BP) regulation in the NTS of Wistar-Kyoto rats...
December 15, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200911/dual-control-of-the-vestibulosympathetic-reflex-following-hypotension-in-rats
#5
Sang Eon Park, Yuan-Zhe Jin, Byung Rim Park
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with symptoms including headache, dizziness, and syncope. The incidence of OH increases with age. Attenuation of the vestibulosympathetic reflex (VSR) is also associated with an increased incidence of OH. In order to understand the pathophysiology of OH, we investigated the physiological characteristics of the VSR in the disorder. We applied sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to conscious rats with sinoaortic denervation in order to induce hypotension. Expression of pERK in the intermediolateral cell column (IMC) of the T4~7 thoracic spinal regions, blood epinephrine levels, and blood pressure were evaluated following the administration of glutamate and/or SNP...
November 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164598/vitamin-c-modulates-glutamate-transport-and-nmda-receptor-function-in-the-retina
#6
Ivan Domith, Renato Socodato, Camila C Portugal, Andressa F Munis, Aline T Duarte-Silva, Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho
Vitamin C (in the reduced form ascorbate or in the oxidized form dehydroascorbate) is implicated in signaling events throughout the central nervous system (CNS). In the retina, a high-affinity transport system for ascorbate has been described and glutamatergic signaling has been reported to control ascorbate release. Here we investigated the modulatory role played by vitamin C upon glutamate uptake and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in cultured retinal cells or in intact retinal tissue using biochemical and imaging techniques...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158916/the-involvement-of-%C3%AE-catenin-cox-2-vegf-axis-in-nmda-caused-retinopathy
#7
Dan Ning, Wei Kevin Zhang, Han Tian, Xiao-Jun Li, Min Liu, Yu-Sang Li, He-Bin Tang
NMDA, a molecule that is capable of producing the loss of retinal ganglia cells (RGCs), has been widely studied; however, the detailed mechanism is not yet clarified. Previously, Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been suggested to be involved in the NMDA-induced retinopathy. In addition, previous investigations in our group demonstrated the presence of a Wnt/β-catenin/COX-2 axis in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs). Therefore, here in this paper, we tested whether there is an association of such axis with NMDA-induced RGC loss...
2017: Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079540/il-18-contributes-to-bone-cancer-pain-by-regulating-glia-cells-and-neuron-interaction
#8
Su Liu, Yue-Peng Liu, You Lv, Jun-Li Yao, Dong-Mei Yue, Mao-Yin Zhang, Dun-Yi Qi, Gong-Jian Liu
BACKGROUND: Glia cells hyperactivity has been proposed to be responsible for chronic pain, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. IL-18, released from glial cells, has been reported to be involved in neuropathic pain. Here, we investigated the role of IL-18 in bone cancer pain. METHODS: Bone cancer pain was mimicked by injecting Walker-256 mammary gland carcinoma cells into the intramedullary space of the tibia in rats. Expression and location of IL-18 and IL-18 receptor were tested...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070712/l-serine-enhances-light-induced-circadian-phase-resetting-in-mice-and-humans
#9
Shinobu Yasuo, Ayaka Iwamoto, Sang-Il Lee, Shotaro Ochiai, Rina Hitachi, Satomi Shibata, Nobuo Uotsu, Chie Tarumizu, Sayuri Matsuoka, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Shigekazu Higuchi
Background: The circadian clock is modulated by the timing of ingestion or food composition, but the effects of specific nutrients are poorly understood.Objective: We aimed to identify the amino acids that modulate the circadian clock and reset the light-induced circadian phase in mice and humans.Methods: Male CBA/N mice were orally administered 1 of 20 l-amino acids, and the circadian and light-induced phase shifts of wheel-running activity were analyzed. Antagonists of several neurotransmitter pathways were injected before l-serine administration, and light-induced phase shifts were analyzed...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058353/fast-ca-2-responses-in-astrocyte-end-feet-and-neurovascular-coupling-in-mice
#10
Barbara Lykke Lind, Sanne Barsballe Jessen, Micael Lønstrup, Charlène Joséphine, Gilles Bonvento, Martin Lauritzen
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by the activity of neurons and astrocytes. Understanding how these cells control activity-dependent increases in CBF is crucial to interpreting functional neuroimaging signals. The relative importance of neurons and astrocytes is debated, as are the functional implications of fast Ca(2+) changes in astrocytes versus neurons. Here, we used two-photon microscopy to assess Ca(2+) changes in neuropil, astrocyte processes, and astrocyte end-feet in response to whisker pad stimulation in mice...
October 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050469/in-vivo-18-f-ge-179-brain-signal-does-not-show-nmda-specific-modulation-with-drug-challenges-in-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#11
Matthias Schoenberger, Frederick A Schroeder, Michael S Placzek, Randall L Carter, Bruce R Rosen, Jacob M Hooker, Christin Y Sander
As one of the major excitatory ion channels in the brain, NMDA receptors have been a leading research target for neuroscientists, physicians, medicinal chemists, and pharmaceutical companies for decades. Molecular imaging of NMDA receptors by means of positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]GE-179 quickly progressed to clinical PET studies, but a thorough understanding of its binding specificity has been missing and has thus limited signal interpretation. Here a preclinical study with [(18)F]GE-179 in rodents and nonhuman primates (NHPs) is presented in an attempt to characterize [(18)F]GE-179 signal specificity...
November 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037878/risperidone-ameliorates-cognitive-deficits-promotes-hippocampal-proliferation-and-enhances-notch-signaling-in-a-murine-model-of-schizophrenia
#12
Fen Xue, Yun-Chun Chen, Cui-Hong Zhou, Ying Wang, Min Cai, Wen-Jun Yan, Rui Wu, Hua-Ning Wang, Zheng-Wu Peng
Antipsychotic agents have been reported to promote hippocampal neurogenesis and improve cognitive deficits; yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. In the present study, we used a murine model of schizophrenia induced by 5-day intraperitoneal injection with the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist MK801 (0.3mg/kg/day) to assess cognitive behavioral deficits, changes in Notch signaling, and cellular proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male C57BL/6 mice after 2-week administration of risperidone (Rip, 0...
October 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817786/propofol-attenuates-bv2-microglia-inflammation-via-nmda-receptor-inhibition
#13
Qichao Wu, Yanjun Zhao, Xiangyuan Chen, Minmin Zhu, Changhong Miao
Activated microglia, involved in the occurrence and improvement of sepsis-associated encephalopathy, can induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes, resulting in inflammation-mediated neuronal cell death. It was reported that propofol could inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes expression in BV2 and primary microglial cells. However, the underlying mechanism is not well known. In the present study, we investigated whether and how propofol inhibited LPS-induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes in BV2 cells...
August 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728911/effects-of-riluzole-on-spinal-seizure-like-activity-in-the-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-of-newborn-rat
#14
Shih Tien Lin, Masayuki Ohbayashi, Toshinori Yamamoto, Hiroshi Onimaru, Mari Kogo
Riluzole blocks persistent Na(+) current, inhibits generation of neuronal bursts and decreases glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In previous studies of respiratory activity, riluzole suppressed inspiratory-related burst generation activity in rat slice or en bloc preparations. We examined riluzole's effects on inspiratory burst generation and drug-induced seizure-like activity in newborn rat en bloc preparations. Medulla-spinal cord preparations from postnatal day 0-3 Wistar rats were isolated under deep isoflurane anesthesia and were superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, pH 7...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688912/inhibition-of-the-kynurenine-pathway-protects-against-reactive-microglial-associated-reductions-in-the-complexity-of-primary-cortical-neurons
#15
Katherine O'Farrell, Eimear Fagan, Thomas J Connor, Andrew Harkin
Brain glia possess the rate limiting enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) which catalyses the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Microglia also express kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) and kynureninase (KYNU) which lead to the production of the free radical producing metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid respectively and subsequently production of the NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of IFNγ-stimulated kynurenine pathway (KP) induction in microglia on neurite outgrowth and complexity, and to determine whether alterations could be abrogated using pharmacological inhibitors of the KP...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676240/local-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-evokes-generalized-effects-on-gamma-and-high-frequency-oscillations-and-behavior
#16
Jaime Lee, Matthew R Hudson, Terence J O'Brien, Jess Nithianantharajah, Nigel C Jones
The NMDA receptor (NMDAr) hypofunction theory of schizophrenia suggests that aberrant signaling through NMDAr underlies the pathophysiology of this disease. This is commonly modeled in rodents via treatment with NMDAr antagonists, which causes a range of behavioral effects that represent endophenotypes related to schizophrenia. These drugs also disrupt high-frequency neural oscillations within the brain, also potentially relevant to disease. We studied the effect of localized NMDAr hypofunction on the generation of neural oscillations occurring both locally and in distant brain regions, and on behaviors routinely used as endophenotypes to model psychosis in rodents...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566250/local-somatodendritic-translation-and-hyperphosphorylation-of-tau-protein-triggered-by-ampa-and-nmda-receptor-stimulation
#17
Shunsuke Kobayashi, Toru Tanaka, Yoshiyuki Soeda, Osborne F X Almeida, Akihiko Takashima
Tau is a major component of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) that represent a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although generally considered an axonal protein, Tau is found in the somato-dendritic compartment of degenerating neurons and this redistribution is thought to be a trigger of neurodegeneration in AD. Here, we show the presence of tau mRNA in a dendritic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that includes Ca2(+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)IIα mRNA and that is translated locally in response to glutamate stimulation...
June 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546314/chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-changes-associated-with-subregion-selective-serotonin-cell-death-in-the-dorsal-raphe
#18
Reka Natarajan, Laura Forrester, Nicolas L Chiaia, Bryan K Yamamoto
The current study examined the neurochemical mechanisms and neuroanatomical changes underlying coexisting behavioral effects associated with chronic-stress-induced alterations in serotonin (5HT) neurons. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to adult male rats produced depression-like changes with cognitive dysfunction and selective cell death in the interfascicular nucleus of the dorsal raphe (DRif), resulting in decreased 5HTergic innervation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Twenty-one days of CUS decreased basal plasma levels of corticosterone and produced a shorter latency to immobility and longer durations of immobility in the force-swim test that persisted for 1 month after CUS...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522210/novel-trigeminal-slice-preparation-method-for-studying-mechanisms-of-nociception-transmission
#19
Mikiko Hirahara, Naoshi Fujiwara, Kenji Seo
BACKGROUND: The trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) plays a critical role in transmission and modulation of nociceptive afferent inputs, and exhibits a similar layer construction to the spinal dorsal horn. However, afferent inputs enter the brainstem and project to a separately located nucleus. It has previously been difficult to record responses of the Vc to afferent fiber activation in a brainstem slice preparation. The aim of the present study was to establish a novel brainstem slice preparation method to study trigeminal nociceptive transmission mechanisms...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495142/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-mediated-calcium-overload-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-are-involved-in-interleukin-1beta-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-in-rat-hippocampus
#20
Yilong Dong, Allan V Kalueff, Cai Song
Increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and its gene expression are implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). IL-1β activates microglia and stimulates glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NMDA receptor expression, thereby disturbing intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Ca(2+) disequilibrium, in turn, may trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, contributing to overall excitotoxicity and neuronal death that evoke AD. However, it is unclear whether IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis is mediated by the glutamatergic system, ER stress and/or Ca(2+) dysfunction...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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