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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079540/il-18-contributes-to-bone-cancer-pain-by-regulating-glia-cells-and-neuron-interaction
#1
Su Liu, Yue-Peng Liu, You Lv, Jun-Li Yao, Dong-Mei Yue, Mao-Yin Zhang, Dun-Yi Qi, Gong-Jian Liu
BACKGROUND: Glia cells hyperactivity has been proposed to be responsible for chronic pain, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. IL-18, released from glial cells, has been reported to be involved in neuropathic pain. Here, we investigated the role of IL-18 in bone cancer pain. METHODS: Bone cancer pain was mimicked by injecting Walker-256 mammary gland carcinoma cells into the intramedullary space of the tibia in rats. Expression and location of IL-18 and IL-18 receptor were tested...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070712/l-serine-enhances-light-induced-circadian-phase-resetting-in-mice-and-humans
#2
Shinobu Yasuo, Ayaka Iwamoto, Sang-Il Lee, Shotaro Ochiai, Rina Hitachi, Satomi Shibata, Nobuo Uotsu, Chie Tarumizu, Sayuri Matsuoka, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Shigekazu Higuchi
Background: The circadian clock is modulated by the timing of ingestion or food composition, but the effects of specific nutrients are poorly understood.Objective: We aimed to identify the amino acids that modulate the circadian clock and reset the light-induced circadian phase in mice and humans.Methods: Male CBA/N mice were orally administered 1 of 20 l-amino acids, and the circadian and light-induced phase shifts of wheel-running activity were analyzed. Antagonists of several neurotransmitter pathways were injected before l-serine administration, and light-induced phase shifts were analyzed...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058353/fast-ca-2-responses-in-astrocyte-end-feet-and-neurovascular-coupling-in-mice
#3
Barbara Lykke Lind, Sanne Barsballe Jessen, Micael Lønstrup, Charlène Joséphine, Gilles Bonvento, Martin Lauritzen
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by the activity of neurons and astrocytes. Understanding how these cells control activity-dependent increases in CBF is crucial to interpreting functional neuroimaging signals. The relative importance of neurons and astrocytes is debated, as are the functional implications of fast Ca(2+) changes in astrocytes versus neurons. Here, we used two-photon microscopy to assess Ca(2+) changes in neuropil, astrocyte processes, and astrocyte end-feet in response to whisker pad stimulation in mice...
October 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050469/in-vivo-18-f-ge-179-brain-signal-does-not-show-nmda-specific-modulation-with-drug-challenges-in-rodents-and-nonhuman-primates
#4
Matthias Schoenberger, Frederick A Schroeder, Michael S Placzek, Randall L Carter, Bruce R Rosen, Jacob M Hooker, Christin Y Sander
As one of the major excitatory ion channels in the brain, NMDA receptors have been a leading research target for neuroscientists, physicians, medicinal chemists, and pharmaceutical companies for decades. Molecular imaging of NMDA receptors by means of positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]GE-179 quickly progressed to clinical PET studies, but a thorough understanding of its binding specificity has been missing and has thus limited signal interpretation. Here a preclinical study with [(18)F]GE-179 in rodents and nonhuman primates (NHPs) is presented in an attempt to characterize [(18)F]GE-179 signal specificity...
November 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037878/risperidone-ameliorates-cognitive-deficits-promotes-hippocampal-proliferation-and-enhances-notch-signaling-in-a-murine-model-of-schizophrenia
#5
Fen Xue, Yun-Chun Chen, Cui-Hong Zhou, Ying Wang, Min Cai, Wen-Jun Yan, Rui Wu, Hua-Ning Wang, Zheng-Wu Peng
Antipsychotic agents have been reported to promote hippocampal neurogenesis and improve cognitive deficits; yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these actions remain unclear. In the present study, we used a murine model of schizophrenia induced by 5-day intraperitoneal injection with the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist MK801 (0.3mg/kg/day) to assess cognitive behavioral deficits, changes in Notch signaling, and cellular proliferation in the hippocampus of adult male C57BL/6 mice after 2-week administration of risperidone (Rip, 0...
October 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817786/propofol-attenuates-bv2-microglia-inflammation-via-nmda-receptor-inhibition
#6
Qichao Wu, Yanjun Zhao, Xiangyuan Chen, Minmin Zhu, Changhong Miao
Activated microglia, involved in the occurrence and improvement of sepsis-associated encephalopathy, can induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes, resulting in inflammation-mediated neuronal cell death. It was reported that propofol could inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes expression in BV2 and primary microglial cells. However, the underlying mechanism is not well known. In the present study, we investigated whether and how propofol inhibited LPS-induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes in BV2 cells...
August 17, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728911/effects-of-riluzole-on-spinal-seizure-like-activity-in-the-brainstem-spinal-cord-preparation-of-newborn-rat
#7
Shih Tien Lin, Masayuki Ohbayashi, Toshinori Yamamoto, Hiroshi Onimaru, Mari Kogo
Riluzole blocks persistent Na(+) current, inhibits generation of neuronal bursts and decreases glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. In previous studies of respiratory activity, riluzole suppressed inspiratory-related burst generation activity in rat slice or en bloc preparations. We examined riluzole's effects on inspiratory burst generation and drug-induced seizure-like activity in newborn rat en bloc preparations. Medulla-spinal cord preparations from postnatal day 0-3 Wistar rats were isolated under deep isoflurane anesthesia and were superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid equilibrated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2, pH 7...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688912/inhibition-of-the-kynurenine-pathway-protects-against-reactive-microglial-associated-reductions-in-the-complexity-of-primary-cortical-neurons
#8
Katherine O'Farrell, Eimear Fagan, Thomas J Connor, Andrew Harkin
Brain glia possess the rate limiting enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) which catalyses the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Microglia also express kynurenine monooxygenase (KMO) and kynureninase (KYNU) which lead to the production of the free radical producing metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine and 3-hydroxyanthranillic acid respectively and subsequently production of the NMDA receptor agonist quinolinic acid. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of IFNγ-stimulated kynurenine pathway (KP) induction in microglia on neurite outgrowth and complexity, and to determine whether alterations could be abrogated using pharmacological inhibitors of the KP...
September 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676240/local-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-evokes-generalized-effects-on-gamma-and-high-frequency-oscillations-and-behavior
#9
Jaime Lee, Matthew R Hudson, Terence J O'Brien, Jess Nithianantharajah, Nigel C Jones
The NMDA receptor (NMDAr) hypofunction theory of schizophrenia suggests that aberrant signaling through NMDAr underlies the pathophysiology of this disease. This is commonly modeled in rodents via treatment with NMDAr antagonists, which causes a range of behavioral effects that represent endophenotypes related to schizophrenia. These drugs also disrupt high-frequency neural oscillations within the brain, also potentially relevant to disease. We studied the effect of localized NMDAr hypofunction on the generation of neural oscillations occurring both locally and in distant brain regions, and on behaviors routinely used as endophenotypes to model psychosis in rodents...
July 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566250/local-somatodendritic-translation-and-hyperphosphorylation-of-tau-protein-triggered-by-ampa-and-nmda-receptor-stimulation
#10
Shunsuke Kobayashi, Toru Tanaka, Yoshiyuki Soeda, Osborne F X Almeida, Akihiko Takashima
Tau is a major component of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) that represent a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although generally considered an axonal protein, Tau is found in the somato-dendritic compartment of degenerating neurons and this redistribution is thought to be a trigger of neurodegeneration in AD. Here, we show the presence of tau mRNA in a dendritic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that includes Ca2(+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)IIα mRNA and that is translated locally in response to glutamate stimulation...
June 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546314/chronic-stress-induced-behavioral-changes-associated-with-subregion-selective-serotonin-cell-death-in-the-dorsal-raphe
#11
Reka Natarajan, Laura Forrester, Nicolas L Chiaia, Bryan K Yamamoto
The current study examined the neurochemical mechanisms and neuroanatomical changes underlying coexisting behavioral effects associated with chronic-stress-induced alterations in serotonin (5HT) neurons. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) to adult male rats produced depression-like changes with cognitive dysfunction and selective cell death in the interfascicular nucleus of the dorsal raphe (DRif), resulting in decreased 5HTergic innervation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Twenty-one days of CUS decreased basal plasma levels of corticosterone and produced a shorter latency to immobility and longer durations of immobility in the force-swim test that persisted for 1 month after CUS...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522210/novel-trigeminal-slice-preparation-method-for-studying-mechanisms-of-nociception-transmission
#12
Mikiko Hirahara, Naoshi Fujiwara, Kenji Seo
BACKGROUND: The trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) plays a critical role in transmission and modulation of nociceptive afferent inputs, and exhibits a similar layer construction to the spinal dorsal horn. However, afferent inputs enter the brainstem and project to a separately located nucleus. It has previously been difficult to record responses of the Vc to afferent fiber activation in a brainstem slice preparation. The aim of the present study was to establish a novel brainstem slice preparation method to study trigeminal nociceptive transmission mechanisms...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495142/n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-mediated-calcium-overload-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-are-involved-in-interleukin-1beta-induced-neuronal-apoptosis-in-rat-hippocampus
#13
Yilong Dong, Allan V Kalueff, Cai Song
Increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and its gene expression are implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). IL-1β activates microglia and stimulates glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NMDA receptor expression, thereby disturbing intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Ca(2+) disequilibrium, in turn, may trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, contributing to overall excitotoxicity and neuronal death that evoke AD. However, it is unclear whether IL-1β-induced neuronal apoptosis is mediated by the glutamatergic system, ER stress and/or Ca(2+) dysfunction...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488113/fermented-citrus-reticulata-ponkan-fruit-squeezed-draff-that-contains-a-large-amount-of-4-demethylnobiletin-prevents-mk801-induced-memory-impairment
#14
Ichiro Kawahata, Tatsuya Suzuki, Evelyn Gutiérrez Rico, Shuichi Kusano, Hiroshi Tamura, Yoshihiro Mimaki, Tohru Yamakuni
A previous study reported biotransformation of a citrus peel polymethoxyflavone, nobiletin, by Aspergillus enabling production of 4'-demethylnobiletin, and the product's antimutagenic activity. However, the effects of fermented citrus peel on the basal forebrain-hippocampal system remain unidentified. Citrus reticulata (ponkan) fruit squeezed draffs are generated as mass waste in beverage factories. In this study using PC12D cells and cultured central nervous system neurons, we therefore examined whether Aspergillus kawachii-fermented citrus fruit squeezed draff could affect cAMP response element (CRE)- and choline acetyltransferase gene (ChAT) promoter region-mediated transcriptional activities relevant to memory formation and cholinergic function...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466069/early-social-isolation-stress-and-perinatal-nmda-receptor-antagonist-treatment-induce-changes-in-the-structure-and-neurochemistry-of-inhibitory-neurons-of-the-adult-amygdala-and-prefrontal-cortex
#15
Esther Castillo-Gómez, Marta Pérez-Rando, María Bellés, Javier Gilabert-Juan, José Vicente Llorens, Héctor Carceller, Clara Bueno-Fernández, Clara García-Mompó, Beatriz Ripoll-Martínez, Yasmina Curto, Noelia Sebastiá-Ortega, María Dolores Moltó, Julio Sanjuan, Juan Nacher
The exposure to aversive experiences during early life influences brain development and leads to altered behavior. Moreover, the combination of these experiences with subtle alterations in neurodevelopment may contribute to the emergence of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Recent hypotheses suggest that imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission, especially in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, may underlie their etiopathology. In order to understand better the neurobiological bases of these alterations, we studied the impact of altered neurodevelopment and chronic early-life stress on these two brain regions...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452419/neurosteroid-sensitive-%C3%AE-gabaa-receptors-a-role-in-epileptogenesis
#16
Suchitra Joshi, Karthik Rajasekaran, John Williamson, Jaideep Kapur
OBJECTIVE: We determined the role of the neurosteroid-sensitive δ subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (δ-GABARs) in epileptogenesis. METHODS: Status epilepticus (SE) was induced via lithium pilocarpine in adult rats, and seizures were assessed by continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring. Finasteride was administered to inhibit neurosteroid synthesis. The total and surface protein expression of hippocampal δ, α4, and γ2 GABAR subunits was studied using biotinylation assays and Western blotting...
March 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451387/risperidone-reverses-the-spatial-object-recognition-impairment-and-hippocampal-bdnf-trkb-signalling-system-alterations-induced-by-acute-mk-801-treatment
#17
Guangdong Chen, Xiaodong Lin, Gongying Li, Diego Jiang, Zhiruo Lib, Ronghuan Jiang, Chuanjun Zhuo
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a commonly-used atypical antipsychotic, risperidone, on alterations in spatial learning and in the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) signalling system caused by acute dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) treatment. In experiment 1, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to acute treatment of either low-dose MK801 (0.1 mg/kg) or normal saline (vehicle) were tested for spatial object recognition and hippocampal expression levels of BDNF, TrkB and the phophorylation of TrkB (p-TrkB)...
March 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428223/glutamatergic-mechanisms-involved-in-bladder-overactivity-and-pudendal-neuromodulation-in-cats
#18
Jamie Uy, Michelle Yu, Xuewen Jiang, Cameron Jones, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
The involvement of ionotropic glutamate receptors in bladder overactivity and pudendal neuromodulation was determined in α-chloralose anesthetized cats by intravenously administering MK801 (a NMDA receptor antagonist) or CP465022 (an AMPA receptor antagonist). Infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) into the bladder produced bladder overactivity. In the first group of 5 cats, bladder capacity was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to 55.3±10.0% of saline control by AA irritation. Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) significantly (P < 0...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400714/deletion-of-trpc6-attenuates-nmda-receptor-mediated-ca-2-entry-and-ca-2-induced-neurotoxicity-following-cerebral-ischemia-and-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#19
Jin Chen, Zhaozhong Li, Jeffery T Hatcher, Qing-Hui Chen, Li Chen, Robert D Wurster, Sic L Chan, Zixi Cheng
Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels are permeable to Na(+) and Ca(2+) and are widely expressed in the brain. In this study, the role of TRPC6 was investigated following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We found that TRPC6 expression was increased in wild-type (WT) mice cortical neurons following I/R and in primary neurons with OGD, and that deletion of TRPC6 reduced the I/R-induced brain infarct in mice and the OGD- /neurotoxin-induced neuronal death. Using live-cell imaging to examine intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)] i ), we found that OGD induced a significant higher increase in glutamate-evoked Ca(2+) influx compared to untreated control and such an increase was reduced by TRPC6 deletion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400257/phase-amplitude-coupled-persistent-theta-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-in%C3%A2-vitro
#20
Nicholas W Johnson, Mazhar Özkan, Adrian P Burgess, Emma J Prokic, Keith A Wafford, Michael J O'Neill, Stuart D Greenhill, Ian M Stanford, Gavin L Woodhall
In vivo, theta (4-7 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) neuronal network oscillations are known to coexist and display phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). However, in vitro, these oscillations have for many years been studied in isolation. Using an improved brain slice preparation technique we have, using co-application of carbachol (10 μM) and kainic acid (150 nM), elicited simultaneous theta (6.6 ± 0.1 Hz) and gamma (36.6 ± 0.4 Hz) oscillations in rodent primary motor cortex (M1). Each oscillation showed greatest power in layer V...
June 2017: Neuropharmacology
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