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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428223/glutamatergic-mechanisms-involved-in-bladder-overactivity-and-pudendal-neuromodulation-in-cats
#1
Jamie Uy, Michelle Yu, Xuewen Jiang, Cameron Jones, Bing Shen, Jicheng Wang, James R Roppolo, William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
The involvement of ionotropic glutamate receptors in bladder overactivity and pudendal neuromodulation was determined in α-chloralose anesthetized cats by intravenously administering MK801 (a NMDA receptor antagonist) or CP465022 (an AMPA receptor antagonist). Infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) into the bladder produced bladder overactivity. In the first group of 5 cats, bladder capacity was significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 55.3±10.0% of saline control by AA irritation. Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) significantly (p<0...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400714/deletion-of-trpc6-attenuates-nmda-receptor-mediated-ca-2-entry-and-ca-2-induced-neurotoxicity-following-cerebral-ischemia-and-oxygen-glucose-deprivation
#2
Jin Chen, Zhaozhong Li, Jeffery T Hatcher, Qing-Hui Chen, Li Chen, Robert D Wurster, Sic L Chan, Zixi Cheng
Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels are permeable to Na(+) and Ca(2+) and are widely expressed in the brain. In this study, the role of TRPC6 was investigated following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We found that TRPC6 expression was increased in wild-type (WT) mice cortical neurons following I/R and in primary neurons with OGD, and that deletion of TRPC6 reduced the I/R-induced brain infarct in mice and the OGD- /neurotoxin-induced neuronal death. Using live-cell imaging to examine intracellular Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)] i ), we found that OGD induced a significant higher increase in glutamate-evoked Ca(2+) influx compared to untreated control and such an increase was reduced by TRPC6 deletion...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400257/phase-amplitude-coupled-persistent-theta-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-primary-motor-cortex-in%C3%A2-vitro
#3
Nicholas W Johnson, Mazhar Özkan, Adrian P Burgess, Emma J Prokic, Keith A Wafford, Michael J O'Neill, Stuart D Greenhill, Ian M Stanford, Gavin L Woodhall
In vivo, theta (4-7 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) neuronal network oscillations are known to coexist and display phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). However, in vitro, these oscillations have for many years been studied in isolation. Using an improved brain slice preparation technique we have, using co-application of carbachol (10 μM) and kainic acid (150 nM), elicited simultaneous theta (6.6 ± 0.1 Hz) and gamma (36.6 ± 0.4 Hz) oscillations in rodent primary motor cortex (M1). Each oscillation showed greatest power in layer V...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337131/changes-in-neuronal-oscillations-accompany-the-loss-of-hippocampal-ltp-that-occurs-in-an-animal-model-of-psychosis
#4
Alexander N Kalweit, Bezhad Amanpour-Gharaei, Jens Colitti-Klausnitzer, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
The first-episode of psychosis is followed by a transient time-window of ca. 60 days during which therapeutic interventions have a higher likelihood of being effective than interventions that are started with a greater latency. This suggests that, in the immediate time-period after first-episode psychosis, functional changes occur in the brain that render it increasingly resistant to intervention. The precise mechanistic nature of these changes is unclear, but at the cognitive level, sensory and hippocampus-based dysfunctions become increasingly manifest...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240305/increased-pkc-activity-and-altered-gsk3%C3%AE-nmdar-function-drive-behavior-cycling-in-hint1-deficient-mice-bipolarity-or-opposing-forces
#5
Javier Garzón-Niño, María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Elsa Cortés-Montero, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez
Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1(-/-) mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188886/propofol-inhibits-high-glucose-induced-pp2a-expression-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#6
Qichao Wu, Yanjun Zhao, Wenming Duan, Yi Liu, Xiangyuan Chen, Minmin Zhu
Perioperative hyperglycemia is a common clinical metabolic disorder. Hyperglycemia could induce endothelial apoptosis, dysfunction and inflammation, resulting in endothelial injury. Propofol is a widely used anesthetic drug in clinical settings. Our previous studies indicated that propofol, via inhibiting high glucose-induced PP2A expression, attenuated high glucose-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, thus improving endothelial apoptosis, dysfunction and inflammation. However, the mechanisms by which propofol attenuated high glucose-induced PP2A expression is still obscure...
February 8, 2017: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181986/local-administration-of-thiamine-ameliorates-ongoing-pain-in-a-rat-model-of-second-degree-burn
#7
Kangkang Zhang, Yali Pei, Zhihao Gan, Xuetao Zhang, Ye Duan, Yuepeng Liu, Wei Liu
The objective of this study was to develop rat model of second-degree burn pain and test analgesic efficacy of local thiamine administration. Automatic temperature-controlled hot plate was set at 85 ± 0.1°C with a filter paper on the top. Rats were thrust on hot plate landing on plantar surface for 4 to 7 and 10 seconds, respectively. Burnt skin was observed. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson staining were used to monitor burn degree. Gait analysis detected change of locomotion. Allodynia and hyperalgesia in the burnt area were evaluated with von Frey test and Hargreaves Test, and ongoing pain was detected with conditional place preference test...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163142/fmri-study-of-the-role-of-glutamate-nmda-receptor-in-the-olfactory-adaptation-in-rats-insights-into-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-olfactory-adaptation
#8
Fuqiang Zhao, Xiaohai Wang, Hatim A Zariwala, Jason M Uslaner, Andrea K Houghton, Jeffrey L Evelhoch, Eric Hostetler, Christopher T Winkelmann, Catherine D G Hines
Olfactory adaptation, characterized by attenuation of response to repeated odor stimulations or continuous odor exposure, is an intrinsic feature of olfactory processing. Adaptation can be induced by either "synaptic depression" due to depletion of neurotransmitters, or "enhanced inhibition" onto principle neurons by local inhibitory interneurons in olfactory structures. It is not clear which mechanism plays a major role in olfactory adaptation. More importantly, molecular sources of enhanced inhibition have not been identified...
February 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161374/chronic-gabaergic-blockade-in-the-spinal-cord-in%C3%A2-vivo-induces-motor-alterations-and-neurodegeneration
#9
Uri Nimrod Ramírez-Jarquín, Ricardo Tapia
Inhibitory GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission in the spinal cord play a central role in the regulation of neuronal excitability, by maintaining a balance with the glutamate-mediated excitatory transmission. Glutamatergic agonists infusion in the spinal cord induce motor neuron death by excitotoxicity, leading to motor deficits and paralysis, but little is known on the effect of the blockade of inhibitory transmission. In this work we studied the effects of GABAergic and glycinergic blockade, by means of microdialysis perfusion (acute administration) and osmotic minipumps infusion (chronic administration) of GABA and glycine receptors antagonists directly in the lumbar spinal cord...
February 1, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066141/dehydroevodiamine%C3%A2-hcl-enhances-cognitive-function-in-memory-impaired-rat-models
#10
Ki Young Shin, Ka Young Kim, Yoo-Hun Suh
Progressive memory impairment such as that associated with depression, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) can interfere with daily life. In particular, AD, which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, prominently features a memory and learning impairment that is related to changes in acetylcholine and abnormal β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dehydroevodiamine·HCl (DHED) on cognitive improvement and the related mechanism in memory-impaired rat models, namely, a scopolamine-induced amnesia model and a Aβ1-42-infused model...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057557/anesthetics-inhibit-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase1-2-phosphorylation-via-nmda-receptor-phospholipase-c-and-protein-kinase-c-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#11
Gao Haiying, Han Mingjie, Zhang Lingyu, Wang Qingxiang, Wang Haisong, Zhang Bingxi
BACKGROUND: Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) has been implicated in learning and memory; however, whether intravenous anesthetics modulate ERK1/2 remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of several intravenous anesthetics on the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the hippocampus of adult mice. METHODS: Western blotting was used to examine cellular levels of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated ERK1/2 in mouse hippocampus slices, which were incubated with or without anesthetics including propofol, etomidate, ketamine and midazolam, a protein kinase C (PKC) activator or inhibitor, or phospholipase C (PLC) activator or inhibitor...
February 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057472/glutamatergic-modulation-of-noradrenaline-release-in-the-rat-median-preoptic-area
#12
Makoto Takahashi, Yasushi Hayashi, Junichi Tanaka
The present study was carried out to investigate whether glutamatergic receptor mechanisms modulate the release of noradrenaline (NA) in the region of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) using intracerebral microdialysis techniques in freely moving rats. Perfusion of N-methyl-d-asparatate (NMDA, 10 and 50μM) through the microdialysis probe significantly enhanced dialysate NA concentration in the region of the MnPO. Local perfusion of the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine (MK801, 10 and 50μM) did not change the basal release of NA in the MnPO area...
January 2, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986626/propofol-attenuates-pancreatic-cancer-malignant-potential-via-inhibition-of-nmda-receptor
#13
Xiangyuan Chen, Qichao Wu, Li You, Sisi Chen, Minmin Zhu, Changhong Miao
Propofol is a commonly used intravenous anesthetic, and could attenuate cancer cells malignant potential via inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression. However, the mechanism is still inclusive. In the present study, we mainly focus on the mechanism by which propofol down-regulated HIF-1α expression and malignant potential in pancreatic cancer cells. Human pancreatic cancer cells (Miapaca-2 and Panc-1) in vitro and murine pancreatic cancer cell (Panc02) in vivo were used to assess the effect of propofol on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and migration of pancreatic cancer cells...
January 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881877/exercise-training-attenuates-renovascular-hypertension-partly-via-ras-ros-glutamate-pathway-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus
#14
Yan Zhang, Xiao-Jing Yu, Wen-Sheng Chen, Hong-Li Gao, Kai-Li Liu, Xiao-Lian Shi, Xiao-Yan Fan, Lin-Lin Jia, Wei Cui, Guo-Qing Zhu, Jin-Jun Liu, Yu-Ming Kang
Exercise training (ExT) has been reported to benefit hypertension; however, the exact mechanisms involved are unclear. We hypothesized that ExT attenuates hypertension, in part, through the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutamate in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats were assigned to sedentary (Sed) or treadmill running groups for eight weeks. Dizocilpine (MK801), a glutamate receptor blocker, or losartan (Los), an angiotensin II type1 receptor (AT1-R) blocker, were microinjected into the PVN at the end of the experiment...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815216/pharmacological-evidence-that-a-failure-to-recruit-nmda-receptors-contributes-to-impaired-fear-extinction-retention-in-adolescent-rats
#15
Kathryn D Baker, Rick Richardson
Adolescents, both humans and rodents, exhibit a marked impairment in extinction of fear relative to younger and older groups which could be caused by a failure to efficiently recruit NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in adolescence. It is well-established that systemic administration of NMDAR antagonists (e.g., MK801) before extinction training impairs the retention of extinction in adult and juvenile rodents, but it is unknown whether this is also the case for adolescents. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effect of pharmacologically manipulating the NMDAR on extinction retention in adolescent rats...
November 1, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797140/repeated-administration-of-5-hydroxytryptamine-2c-agonist-mk212-produces-a-sensitization-effect-of-antipsychotic-activity
#16
Weihai Chen, Xiaqing Wang, Minmin Yan, Yan Wang, Shixue Xie, Hong Li, Ming Li
5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C (5-HT2C ) receptor agonists have been suggested to possess an antipsychotic activity in several acute preclinical tests of antipsychotic drugs with low extra-pyramidal side effect liability. However, little is known about the long-term effect associated with chronic use of 5-HT2C receptor agonists. The present study examined whether repeated activation of 5-HT2C receptor with a highly selective 5-HT2C receptor agonist MK212 would induce a long-term change in its antipsychotic-like activity (either a sensitization or tolerance) in the conditioned avoidance response and MK801-induced hyperlocomotion tests...
October 31, 2016: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796746/a-neuroprotective-effect-of-the-glutamate-receptor-antagonist-mk801-on-long-term-cognitive-and-behavioral-outcomes-secondary-to-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#17
Aline Silva de Miranda, Fátima Brant, Luciene Bruno Vieira, Natália Pessoa Rocha, Érica Leandro Marciano Vieira, Gustavo Henrique Souza Rezende, Pollyana Maria de Oliveira Pimentel, Marcio F D Moraes, Fabíola Mara Ribeiro, Richard M Ransohoff, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Fabiana Simão Machado, Milene Alvarenga Rachid, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection, which can result in long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits despite successful anti-malarial therapy. Due to the substantial social and economic burden of CM, the development of adjuvant therapies is a scientific goal of highest priority. Apart from vascular and immune responses, changes in glutamate system have been reported in CM pathogenesis suggesting a potential therapeutic target. Based on that, we hypothesized that interventions in the glutamatergic system induced by blockage of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors could attenuate experimental CM long-term cognitive and behavioral outcomes...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689348/neither-nefopam-nor-acetaminophen-can-be-used-as-postoperative-analgesics-in-a-rat-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#18
Maud Pétrault, Sophie Gautier, Vincent Bérézowski, Thavarak Ouk, Michèle Bastide, Olivier Pétrault, Régis Bordet
Analgesics such as opioid agonists are usually not given during the postoperative phase of experimental stroke because they are susceptible to interfere with the evaluation of neuroprotective therapies. Here, we investigate the potential of acetaminophen and nefopam, two nonopioid analgesic drugs, to exert an analgesic effect without inducing neuroprotection in a murine model of ischemic stroke. We demonstrate that acetaminophen (200 mg/kg, PO) induces a significant decrease in the infarct volume, particularly in the cortex (VEHICLE: 200...
September 30, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659492/cb1-receptor-activation-in-the-rat-paraventricular-nucleus-induces-bi-directional-cardiovascular-effects-via-modification-of-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-neurotransmission
#19
Emilia Grzęda, Eberhard Schlicker, Marek Toczek, Iwona Zalewska, Marta Baranowska-Kuczko, Barbara Malinowska
We have shown previously that the cannabinoid receptor agonist CP55940 microinjected into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of urethane-anaesthetized rats induces depressor and pressor cardiovascular effects in the absence and presence of the CB1 antagonist AM251, respectively. The aim of our study was to examine whether the hypotension and/or hypertension induced by CP55940 given into the PVN results from its influence on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. CP55940 was microinjected into the PVN of urethane-anaesthetized rats twice (S1 and S2, 20 min apart)...
January 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575648/colonic-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-contributes-to-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Qingqing Qi, Feixue Chen, Wenxue Zhang, Peng Wang, Yanqing Li, Xiuli Zuo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in brain, spinal cord and enteric nervous system is involved in visceral hypersensitivity. This study aimed to reveal the functional expression of NMDAR on mucosal cells in colon and to investigate the downstream signal pathway from colonic NMDAR activation to visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: The expression of mucosal NMDAR in IBS patients and healthy controls was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blot, and correlated with abdominal pain/discomfort scores quantified by a validated questionnaire...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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