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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608176/preparations-and-protocols-for-whole-cell-patch-clamp-recording-of-xenopus-laevis-tectal-neurons
#1
Zhenyu Liu, Katelynne B Donnelly, Kara G Pratt
The Xenopus tadpole retinotectal circuit, comprised of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the eye which form synapses directly onto neurons in the optic tectum, is a popular model to study how neural circuits self-assemble. The ability to carry out whole cell patch clamp recordings from tectal neurons and to record RGC-evoked responses, either in vivo or using a whole brain preparation, has generated a large body of high-resolution data about the mechanisms underlying normal, and abnormal, circuit formation and function...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608159/two-photon-calcium-imaging-in-neuronal-dendrites-in-brain-slices
#2
Olivier Camiré, Lisa Topolnik
Calcium (Ca2+ ) imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of intracellular Ca2+ signals in neuronal dendrites. Ca2+ fluctuations can occur through a variety of membrane and intracellular mechanisms and play a crucial role in the induction of synaptic plasticity and regulation of dendritic excitability. Hence, the ability to record different types of Ca2+ signals in dendritic branches is valuable for groups studying how dendrites integrate information. The advent of two-photon microscopy has made such studies significantly easier by solving the problems inherent to imaging in live tissue, such as light scattering and photodamage...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588195/simultaneous-profiling-of-activity-patterns-in-multiple-neuronal-subclasses
#3
R Ryley Parrish, John Grady, Neela K Codadu, Andrew J Trevelyan, Claudia Racca
BACKGROUND: Neuronal networks typically comprise heterogeneous populations of neurons. A core objective when seeking to understand such networks, therefore, is to identify what roles these different neuronal classes play. Acquiring single cell electrophysiology data for multiple cell classes can prove to be a large and daunting task. Alternatively, Ca2+ network imaging provides activity profiles of large numbers of neurons simultaneously, but without distinguishing between cell classes...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578411/dendritic-spikes-in-hippocampal-granule-cells-are-necessary-for-long-term-potentiation-at-the-perforant-path-synapse
#4
Sooyun Kim, Yoonsub Kim, Suk-Ho Lee, Won-Kyung Ho
Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic responses is essential for hippocampal memory function. Perforant-path (PP) synapses on hippocampal granule cells (GCs) contribute to the formation of associative memories, which are considered the cellular correlates of memory engrams. However, the mechanisms of LTP at these synapses are not well understood. Due to sparse firing activity and the voltage attenuation in their dendrites, it remains unclear how associative LTP at distal synapses occurs. Here we show that NMDA receptor-dependent LTP can be induced at PP-GC synapses without backpropagating action potentials (bAPs) in acute rat brain slices...
March 26, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576117/a-neurosteroid-analogue-with-t-type-calcium-channel-blocking-properties-is-an-effective-hypnotic-but-is-not-harmful-to-neonatal-rat-brain
#5
N Atluri, S M Joksimovic, A Oklopcic, D Milanovic, J Klawitter, P Eggan, K Krishnan, D F Covey, S M Todorovic, V Jevtovic-Todorovic
BACKGROUND: More than 4 million children are exposed annually to sedatives and general anaesthetics (GAs) in the USA alone. Recent data suggest that common GAs can be detrimental to brain development causing neurodegeneration and long-term cognitive impairments. Challenged by a recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning about potentially neurotoxic effects of GAs in children, there is an urgent need to develop safer GAs. METHODS: Postnatal Day 7 (P7) rat pups of both sexes were exposed to six (repeated every 2 h) injections of equipotent hypnotic doses of ketamine or the neuroactive steroid (3β,5β,17β)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile (3β-OH) for 12 h...
April 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574880/cannabidiol-exerts-antiepileptic-effects-by-restoring-hippocampal-interneuron-functions-in-a-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-model
#6
Archie A Khan, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Ayatakin Khalil, Matthew C Walker, Afia B Ali
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), shows promising results as an effective potential antiepileptic drug in some forms of refractory epilepsy. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms by which CBD exerts its anti-seizure effects, we investigated the effects of CBD at synaptic connections, and the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and two major inhibitory interneurons: fast spiking, parvalbumin -expressing (PV) and adapting, cholecystokinin-expressing (CCK) interneurons...
March 25, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560791/sensitization-of-p2x3-receptors-in-insular-cortex-contributes-to-visceral-pain-of-adult-rats-with-neonatal-maternal-deprivation
#7
Ping-An Zhang, Hong-Yan Zhu, Qi-Ya Xu, Wan-Jie Du, Shufen Hu, Guang-Yin Xu
Aims Insular cortex is a brain region critical for processing of the sensation. Purinergic receptors are involved in the formation of chronic pain. The aim of the present study was to explore the role and mechanism of P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) in insular cortex in chronic visceral pain. Methods Chronic visceral pain in adult rats was induced by neonatal maternal deprivation and measured by detecting the threshold of colorectal distension. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques were used to detect the expression and distribution of P2X3Rs...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553547/preparation-of-acute-brain-slices-using-an-optimized-n-methyl-d-glucamine-protective-recovery-method
#8
Jonathan T Ting, Brian R Lee, Peter Chong, Gilberto Soler-Llavina, Charles Cobbs, Christof Koch, Hongkui Zeng, Ed Lein
This protocol is a practical guide to the N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG) protective recovery method of brain slice preparation. Numerous recent studies have validated the utility of this method for enhancing neuronal preservation and overall brain slice viability. The implementation of this technique by early adopters has facilitated detailed investigations into brain function using diverse experimental applications and spanning a wide range of animal ages, brain regions, and cell types. Steps are outlined for carrying out the protective recovery brain slice technique using an optimized NMDG artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) media formulation and enhanced procedure to reliably obtain healthy brain slices for patch clamp electrophysiology...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552595/obtaining-acute-brain-slices
#9
Thomas Papouin, Philip G Haydon
Obtaining acute brain slices for electrophysiology or amperometric recordings has become a routine procedure in most labs in the field of neuroscience. Yet, protocols describing the step by step process are scarce, in particular for routine acute preparations such as from the mouse hippocampus. Here we provide a detailed protocol for the dissection, extraction and acute slicing of the mouse brain, including tips and list of material required.
January 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540789/feasibility-and-resolution-limits-of-opto-magnetic-imaging-of-neural-network-activity-in-brain-slices-using-color-centers-in-diamond
#10
Mürsel Karadas, Adam M Wojciechowski, Alexander Huck, Nils Ole Dalby, Ulrik Lund Andersen, Axel Thielscher
We suggest a novel approach for wide-field imaging of the neural network dynamics of brain slices that uses highly sensitivity magnetometry based on nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. In-vitro recordings in brain slices is a proven method for the characterization of electrical neural activity and has strongly contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that govern neural information processing. However, this traditional approach only acquires signals from a few positions, which severely limits its ability to characterize the dynamics of the underlying neural networks...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525995/neuronal-precursor-migration-in-ex-vivo-brain-slice-culture
#11
Fu-Sheng Chou, Pei-Shan Wang
Neuronal migration during fetal brain development is a well-coordinated process between the migrating neurons and their substrates, the basal processes of the radial glial cells (RGCs). The progeny-progenitor relationship between the migrating neurons and the RGCs in the developing fetal brain may make interpretations of the results difficult, because the variable in question may affect both the RGCs and the migrating neurons in different ways. A transplantation assay combining migrating cells and the scaffolding tissue from two different sources may circumvent this issue...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524644/dopamine-suppresses-persistent-firing-in-layer-iii-lateral-entorhinal-cortex-neurons
#12
Ariel A Batallán-Burrowes, C Andrew Chapman
Persistent firing in layer III entorhinal cortex neurons that can be evoked during muscarinic receptor activation may contribute to mechanisms of working memory. The entorhinal cortex receives strong dopaminergic inputs which may modulate working memory for motivationally significant information. We used whole cell recordings in in vitro rat brain slices to assess the effects of dopamine on persistent firing in layer III neurons initiated by depolarizing current injection. Persistent firing during pharmacological block of ionotropic excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, and in the presence of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (10 μM), was observed in 39% of layer III pyramidal cells...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515159/prolonged-life-of-human-acute-hippocampal-slices-from-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#13
J Wickham, N G Brödjegård, R Vighagen, L H Pinborg, J Bengzon, D P D Woldbye, M Kokaia, M Andersson
Resected hippocampal tissue from patients with drug-resistant epilepsy presents a unique possibility to test novel treatment strategies directly in target tissue. The post-resection time for testing and analysis however is normally limited. Acute tissue slices allow for electrophysiological recordings typically up to 12 hours. To enable longer time to test novel treatment strategies such as, e.g., gene-therapy, we developed a method for keeping acute human brain slices viable over a longer period. Our protocol keeps neurons viable well up to 48 hours...
March 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510210/3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-mdma-alters-synaptic-dopamine-release-in-the-dorsal-striatum-through-nicotinic-receptors-and-dat-inhibition
#14
Francesca Romana Rizzo, Mauro Federici, Nicola Biagio Mercuri
An increase of extracellular dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the psychostimulant properties of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Although this drug has been reported to affect the DA uptake transporter (DAT), it might activate other mechanisms to regulate the outflow of DA in the brain. Our aim was to examine the overall effects of MDMA on the release of DA in the striatum. We studied the effect of MDMA on stimulus-evoked synaptic DA release in dorsal striatal slices of mice using in vitro amperometric techniques...
March 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496151/neuronal-life-after-death-electrophysiologic-recordings-from-neurons-in-adult-human-brain-tissue-obtained-through-surgical-resection-or-postmortem
#15
Ioannis Kramvis, Huibert D Mansvelder, Rhiannon M Meredith
Recordings from fresh human brain slices derived from surgically resected brain tissue are being used to unravel mechanisms underlying human neurophysiology and for the evaluation of potential therapeutic targets and compounds. Data resulting from these studies provide unique insights into physiologic properties of human neuronal microcircuits. However, substantial limitations still remain with this approach. First, the tissue is always resected from patients, never from healthy controls. Second, the patient population undergoing brain surgery with tissue resection is limited to epilepsy and tumor patients - never from patients with other neurologic disorders...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483660/multiple-long-range-inputs-evoke-nmda-currents-in-prefrontal-cortex-fast-spiking-interneurons
#16
Luke Joseph Bogart, Patricio O'Donnell
Several aspects of schizophrenia can be mimicked acutely in healthy human volunteers via administration of NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. As these agents decrease firing rates in prefrontal cortical (PFC) GABAergic fast-spiking interneurons (FSI) in animal studies, a leading hypothesis on schizophrenia pathophysiology is that NMDAR in FSI are impaired. However, whole-cell recordings of FSI in slices of adult mouse PFC revealed limited amounts of NMDAR-mediated current. Since those studies used local electrical stimulation to activate a heterogeneous set of synaptic inputs to the recorded cell, it is unclear whether specific afferent inputs may preferentially drive NMDAR responses in FSI...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480209/httq111-huntington-s-disease-knock-in-mice-exhibit-brain-region-specific-morphological-changes-and-synaptic-dysfunction
#17
Marina Kovalenko, Austen Milnerwood, James Giordano, Jason St Claire, Jolene R Guide, Mary Stromberg, Tammy Gillis, Ellen Sapp, Marian DiFiglia, Marcy E MacDonald, Jeffrey B Carroll, Jong-Min Lee, Susan Tappan, Lynn Raymond, Vanessa C Wheeler
BACKGROUND: Successful disease-modifying therapy for Huntington's disease (HD) will require therapeutic intervention early in the pathogenic process. Achieving this goal requires identifying phenotypes that are proximal to the HTT CAG repeat expansion. OBJECTIVE: To use Htt CAG knock-in mice, precise genetic replicas of the HTT mutation in patients, as models to study proximal disease events. METHODS: Using cohorts of B6J.HttQ111/+ mice from 2 to 18 months of age, we analyzed pathological markers, including immunohistochemistry, brain regional volumes and cortical thickness, CAG instability, electron microscopy of striatal synapses, and acute slice electrophysiology to record glutamatergic transmission at striatal synapses...
2018: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479312/eeg-beta-oscillations-in-the-temporoparietal-area-related-to-the-accuracy-in-estimating-others-preference
#18
Jonghyeok Park, Hackjin Kim, Jeong-Woo Sohn, Jong-Ryul Choi, Sung-Phil Kim
Humans often attempt to predict what others prefer based on a narrow slice of experience, called thin-slicing. According to the theoretical bases for how humans can predict the preference of others, one tends to estimate the other's preference using a perceived difference between the other and self. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that the network of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) is related to the ability of predicting others' preference. However, it still remains unknown about the temporal patterns of neural activities for others' preference prediction through thin-slicing...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470463/monitoring-intracellular-nanomolar-calcium-using-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging
#19
Kaiyu Zheng, Thomas P Jensen, Dmitri A Rusakov
Nanomolar-range fluctuations of intracellular [Ca2+ ] are critical for brain cell function but remain difficult to measure. We have advanced a microscopy technique to monitor intracellular [Ca2+ ] in individual cells in acute brain slices (also applicable in vivo) using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of the Ca2+ -sensitive fluorescent indicator Oregon Green BAPTA1 (OGB-1). The OGB-1 fluorescence lifetime is sensitive to [Ca2+ ] within the 10-500 nM range but not to other factors such as viscosity, temperature, or pH...
March 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468672/ca-v-3-2-drives-sustained-burst-firing-which-is-critical-for-absence-seizure-propagation-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#20
Stuart M Cain, John R Tyson, Hyun-Beom Choi, Rebecca Ko, Paulo J C Lin, Jeffrey M LeDue, Kim L Powell, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Ravi L Rungta, Yi Yang, Pieter R Cullis, Terence J O'Brien, Brian A MacVicar, Terrance P Snutch
OBJECTIVE: Genetic alterations have been identified in the CACNA1H gene, encoding the CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel in patients with absence epilepsy, yet the precise mechanisms relating to seizure propagation and spike-wave-discharge (SWD) pacemaking remain unknown. Neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) express high levels of CaV 3.2 calcium channels, and we investigated whether a gain-of-function mutation in the Cacna1h gene in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) contributes to seizure propagation and pacemaking in the TRN...
February 21, 2018: Epilepsia
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