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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429885/intravenous-self-administration-of-benzydamine-a-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-with-a-central-cannabinoidergic-mechanism-of-action
#1
Riccardo Avvisati, Maria Meringolo, Emiliana Stendardo, Elisa Malavasi, Silvia Marinelli, Aldo Badiani
Benzydamine (BZY) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the topical treatment of inflammations of the oral and vaginal mucosae. Virtually nothing is known about the central pharmacological actions of BZY. Yet there are reports of voluntary systemic overdosage of BZY in drug addicts, resulting in a euphoric, hallucinatory state. In the present study, we investigated the reinforcing properties of BZY in a rat self-administration paradigm. We found that BZY has a powerful reinforcing effect and that this effect is greatly facilitated in animals that already had substance experience, having previously self-administered heroin and cocaine, indicating cross sensitization between BZY and other common drugs of abuse...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424399/-recent-advancements-in-understanding-hippocampal-functions
#2
Sakura Okada, Yuki Aoki, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
The hippocampal formation located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain has been studied extensively for several decades, both in in vitro slice preparations and in vivo living animals. Recent advancements in large-scale recording techniques, such as multisite silicon probes and tetrodes, enable us to examine the detailed characteristics of temporal spiking patterns of tens or hundreds of neurons in the hippocampal circuit. Here, we introduce how such tools contribute to our understanding of the hippocampal network dynamics and review several hippocampal functions for information processing in the brain, including pattern separation and completion, spatial representation, and encoding of positive and negative valence...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424297/magnitude-and-behavior-of-cross-talk-effects-in-multi-channel-electrophysiology-experiments
#3
Matthew John Nelson, Silvana Valtcheva, Laurent Venance
Modern neurophysiological experiments frequently involve multiple channels separated by very small distances. A unique methodological concern for multiple electrode experiments is that of capacitive coupling (cross-talk) between channels. Yet the nature of the cross-talk recording circuit is not well known in the field and the extent to which it practically affects neurophysiology experiments has never been fully investigated. Here we describe a simple electrical circuit model of simultaneous recording and stimulation with two or more channels and experimentally verify the model using ex vivo brain slice and in vivo whole-brain preparations...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400256/n-oleoyldopamine-modulates-activity-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-through-multiple-mechanisms
#4
Olga A Sergeeva, Roberto De Luca, Karolina Mazur, Aissa N Chepkova, Helmut L Haas, Andreas Bauer
N-oleoyl-dopamine (OLDA) is an amide of dopamine and oleic acid, synthesized in catecholaminergic neurons. The present study investigates OLDA targets in midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Substantia Nigra compacta (SNc) DA neurons recorded in brain slices were excited by OLDA in wild type mice. In transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout (KO) mice, however, SNc DA neurons displayed sustained inhibition of firing. In the presence of the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist sulpiride or the dopamine transporter blocker nomifensine no such inhibition was observed...
April 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391591/syrian-hamster-neuroplasticity-mechanisms-fail-as-temperature-declines-to-15%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-but-histaminergic-neuromodulation-persists
#5
Jock S Hamilton, Sat M Chau, Kevin J Malins, Giancarlo G Ibanez, John M Horowitz, Barbara A Horwitz
Previous research suggests that hippocampal neurons in mammalian hibernators shift their major function from memory formation at euthermic brain temperatures (T b = ~37 °C) to modulation of hibernation bout duration as T b decreases. This role of hippocampal neurons during torpor is based in part on in vivo studies showing that histamine (HA) infused into ground squirrel hippocampi lengthened torpor bouts by ~50%. However, it was unclear if HA acted directly on hippocampal neurons or on downstream brain regions via HA spillover into lateral ventricles...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390647/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-mesolimbic-reward-circuitry-mediates-nociception-in-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#6
Hongxing Zhang, Yi-Ling Qian, Chen Li, Di Liu, Lei Wang, Xiao-Yi Wang, Mei-Jun Liu, He Liu, Song Zhang, Xiao-Yun Guo, Jun-Xia Yang, Hai-Lei Ding, Ja Wook Koo, Ezekiell Mouzon, Karl Deisseroth, Eric J Nestler, Venetia Zachariou, Ming-Hu Han, Jun-Li Cao
BACKGROUND: The mesolimbic reward system plays a critical role in modulating nociception; however, its underlying molecular, cellular, and neural circuitry mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: Chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was used to model neuropathic pain. Projection-specific in vitro recordings in mouse brain slices and in vivo recordings from anesthetized animals were used to measure firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
March 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381725/pursuit-of-neurotransmitter-functions-being-attracted-with-fascination-of-the-synapse
#7
Shiro Konishi
 In the beginning of the 1970s, only two chemical substances, acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), had been definitely established as neurotransmitters. Under such circumstances, I started my scientific career in Professor Masanori Otsuka's lab searching for the transmitter of primary sensory neurons. Until 1976, lines of evidence had accumulated indicating that the undecapeptide substance P could be released as a transmitter from primary afferent fibers into spinal synapses, although the substance P-mediated synaptic response had yet to be identified...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380662/involvement-of-intracellular-zn-2-signaling-in-ltp-at-perforant-pathway-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapse
#8
Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Atsushi Takeda
Physiological significance of synaptic Zn(2+) signaling was examined at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses. In vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was induced using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe and the recording region was locally perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) via the microdialysis probe. Perforant pathway LTP was not attenuated under perfusion with CaEDTA (10 mM), an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, but attenuated under perfusion with ZnAF-2DA (50 μM), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling is required for perforant pathway LTP...
April 5, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380331/near-infrared-fluorescent-protein-irfp713-as-a-reporter-protein-for-optogenetic-vectors-a-transgenic-cre-reporter-rat-and-other-neuronal-studies
#9
Christopher T Richie, Leslie R Whitaker, Keith W Whitaker, Julie Necarsulmer, Heather A Baldwin, Yajun Zhang, Lowella Fortuno, Josh J Hinkle, Pyry Koivula, Mark J Henderson, Wenzhi Sun, Kai Wang, Jeffrey C Smith, Jim Pickel, Na Ji, Bruce T Hope, Brandon K Harvey
BACKGROUND: The use of genetically-encoded fluorescent reporters is essential for the identification and observation of cells that express transgenic modulatory proteins. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins have superior light penetration through biological tissue, but are not yet widely adopted. NEW METHOD: Using the near-infrared fluorescent protein, iRFP713, improves the imaging resolution in thick tissue sections or the intact brain due to the reduced light-scattering at the longer, NIR wavelengths used to image the protein...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370180/astrocytic-vesicle-based-exocytosis-in-cultures-and-acutely-isolated-hippocampal-rodent-slices
#10
REVIEW
Jernej Jorgačevski, Maja Potokar, Marko Kreft, Alenka Guček, Jean-Pierre Mothet, Robert Zorec
Astrocytes are excitable neural cells that contribute to brain information processing via bidirectional communication with neurons. This involves the release of gliosignaling molecules that affect synapses patterning and activity. Mechanisms mediating the release of these molecules likely consist of non-vesicular and vesicular-based mechanisms. It is the vesicle-based regulated exocytosis that is an evolutionary more complex process. It is well established that the release of gliosignaling molecules has profound effects on information processing in different brain regions (e...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344041/stat5-signaling-in-kisspeptin-cells-regulates-the-timing-of-puberty
#11
Marina Augusto Silveira, Isadora C Furigo, Thais T Zampieri, Tabata M Bohlen, Daniella G de Paula, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Jose Donato, Renata Frazao
Previous studies have shown that kisspeptin neurons are important mediators of prolactin's effects on reproduction. However, the cellular mechanisms recruited by prolactin to affect kisspeptin neurons remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of brain slices from kisspeptin reporter mice, we observed that 20% of kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was indirectly depolarized by prolactin via an unknown population of prolactin responsive neurons. This effect required the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway...
March 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336410/the-spatial-temporal-interaction-in-the-ltp-induction-between-layer-iv-to-layer-ii-iii-and-layer-ii-iii-to-layer-ii-iii-connections-in-rats-visual-cortex-during-the-development
#12
Da-Ke Li, Chao Zhang, Yu Gu, She-Hong Zhang, Jian Shi, Xian-Hua Chen
During the early developmental period, long-term potentiation (LTP) can be induced in both vertical and horizontal connections in the rat visual cortex. However, the temporal difference in LTP change between the two pathways during animal development remains unclear. In this study, LTP in vertical (from layer IV to layer II/III) and horizontal (from layer II/III to layer II/III) synaptic connections were recorded in brain slices from the same rats, and the developmental changes of LTP in both directions were compared within the animals' eye-opening period...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334325/endocannabinoid-dependent-long-term-potentiation-of-synaptic-transmission-at-rat-barrel-cortex
#13
Laura Eva Maglio, José Antonio Noriega-Prieto, Maria Jesús Maraver, David Fernández de Sevilla
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition...
March 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334225/pom-thalamocortical-input-drives-layer-specific-microcircuits-in-somatosensory-cortex
#14
Nicholas J Audette, Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Megumi Matsushita, Alison L Barth
Higher-order thalamic nuclei, such as the posterior medial nucleus (POm) in the somatosensory system or the pulvinar in the visual system, densely innervate the cortex and can influence perception and plasticity. To systematically evaluate how higher-order thalamic nuclei can drive cortical circuits, we investigated cell-type selective responses to POm stimulation in mouse primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex, using genetically targeted whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices. We find that ChR2-evoked thalamic input selectively targets specific cell types in the neocortex, revealing layer-specific modules for the summation and processing of POm input...
March 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324602/imaging-of-brain-slices-with-a-genetically-encoded-voltage-indicator
#15
Peter Quicke, Samuel J Barnes, Thomas Knöpfel
Functional fluorescence microscopy of brain slices using voltage sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFPs) allows large scale electrophysiological monitoring of neuronal excitation and inhibition. We describe the equipment and techniques needed to successfully record functional responses optical voltage signals from cells expressing a voltage indicator such as VSFP Butterfly 1.2. We also discuss the advantages of voltage imaging and the challenges it presents.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315444/directional-spread-of-activity-in-synaptic-networks-of-the-human-lateral-amygdala
#16
Stéphanie Graebenitz, Manuela Cerina, Jörg Lesting, Olga Kedo, Ali Gorji, Heinz Pannek, Volkmar Hans, Karl Zilles, Hans-Christian Pape, Erwin-Josef Speckmann
Spontaneous epileptiform activity has previously been observed in lateral amygdala (LA) slices derived from patients with intractable-temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study aimed to characterize intranuclear LA synaptic connectivity and to test the hypothesis that differences in the spread of flow of neuronal activity may relate to spontaneous epileptiform activity occurrence. Electrical activity was evoked through electrical microstimulation in acute human brain slices containing the LA, signals were recorded as local field potentials combined with fast optical imaging of voltage-sensitive dye fluorescence...
March 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315396/ischemia-deteriorates-spike-encoding-at-cortical-gabaergic-neurons-and-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-by-increasing-the-intracellular-ca-2
#17
Li Huang, Chun Wang, Rongjing Ge, Hong Ni, Shidi Zhao
GABAergic neurons play a critical role in the central nervous system, such as well-organized behaviors. The ischemic cell death is presumably initiated by neuronal excitotoxicity resulted from the dysfunction of GABAergic neurons. It is not clear how ischemia influences different types of GABAergic neurons and whether intracellular Ca(2+) plays a key role in the ischemic excitotoxicity. We have investigated this issue at cortical GABAergic neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells by whole-cell recording in mouse brain slices, and the roles of intracellular Ca(2+) are examined by BABTA infusion...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298170/concussion-induces-hippocampal-circuitry-disruption-in-swine
#18
John A Wolf, Brian N Johnson, Victoria E Johnson, Mary E Putt, Kevin D Browne, Constance J Mietus, Daniel P Brown, Kathryn L Wofford, Douglas H Smith, M Sean Grady, Akiva S Cohen, D Kacy Cullen
Hippocampal-dependent deficits in learning and memory formation are a prominent feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the role of the hippocampus in cognitive dysfunction after concussion (mild TBI) is unknown. We therefore investigated functional and structural changes in the swine hippocampus following TBI using a model of head rotational acceleration that closely replicates the biomechanics and neuropathology of closed-head TBI in humans. We examined neurophysiological changes using a novel ex vivo hippocampal slice paradigm with extracellular stimulation and recording in the dentate gyrus and CA1 occurring at 7 days following non-impact inertial TBI in swine...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294308/neuronal-inhibition-and-seizure-suppression-by-acetoacetate-and-its-analog-2-phenylbutyrate
#19
Atsushi Kadowaki, Nagisa Sada, Narinobu Juge, Ayaka Wakasa, Yoshinori Moriyama, Tsuyoshi Inoue
OBJECTIVE: The ketogenic diet is clinically used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy. The diet treatment markedly increases ketone bodies (acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate), which work as energy metabolites in the brain. Here, we investigated effects of acetoacetate on voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) in pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. We further explored an acetoacetate analog that inhibited VDCCs in pyramidal cells, reduced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), and suppressed seizures in vivo...
March 11, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287556/in-utero-electroporation-approaches-to-study-the-excitability-of-neuronal-subpopulations-and-single-cell-connectivity
#20
Carlos G Briz, Marta Navarrete, José A Esteban, Marta Nieto
The nervous system is composed of an enormous range of distinct neuronal types. These neuronal subpopulations are characterized by, among other features, their distinct dendritic morphologies, their specific patterns of axonal connectivity, and their selective firing responses. The molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for these aspects of differentiation during development are still poorly understood. Here, we describe combined protocols for labeling and characterizing the structural connectivity and excitability of cortical neurons...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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