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brain slice recording

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533392/syringe-injectable-mesh-electronics-integrate-seamlessly-with-minimal-chronic-immune-response-in-the-brain
#1
Tao Zhou, Guosong Hong, Tian-Ming Fu, Xiao Yang, Thomas G Schuhmann, Robert D Viveros, Charles M Lieber
Implantation of electrical probes into the brain has been central to both neuroscience research and biomedical applications, although conventional probes induce gliosis in surrounding tissue. We recently reported ultraflexible open mesh electronics implanted into rodent brains by syringe injection that exhibit promising chronic tissue response and recording stability. Here we report time-dependent histology studies of the mesh electronics/brain-tissue interface obtained from sections perpendicular and parallel to probe long axis, as well as studies of conventional flexible thin-film probes...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533325/physiologic-regulation-of-heart-rate-and-blood-pressure-involves-connexin-36-containing-gap-junctions
#2
Varinder K Lall, Gareth Bruce, Larysa Voytenko, Mark Drinkhill, Kerstin Wellershaus, Klaus Willecke, Jim Deuchars, Susan A Deuchars
Chronically elevated sympathetic nervous activity underlies many cardiovascular diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms contributing to sympathetic nervous system output may reveal new avenues of treatment. The contribution of the gap junctional protein connexin 36 (Cx36) to the regulation of sympathetic activity and thus blood pressure and heart rate was determined using a mouse with specific genetic deletion of Cx36. Ablation of the Cx36 protein was confirmed in sympathetic preganglionic neurons of Cx36 knockout (KO) mice...
May 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494861/excitatory-microcircuits-within-superficial-layers-of-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#3
Jochen Winterer, Nikolaus Maier, Christian Wozny, Prateep Beed, Jörg Breustedt, Roberta Evangelista, Yangfan Peng, Tiziano D'Albis, Richard Kempter, Dietmar Schmitz
The distinctive firing pattern of grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) supports its role in the representation of space. It is widely believed that the hexagonal firing field of grid cells emerges from neural dynamics that depend on the local microcircuitry. However, local networks within the MEC are still not sufficiently characterized. Here, applying up to eight simultaneous whole-cell recordings in acute brain slices, we demonstrate the existence of unitary excitatory connections between principal neurons in the superficial layers of the MEC...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481031/interleukin-6-trans-signaling-regulates-basal-synaptic-transmission-and-sensitivity-to-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-in-mice
#4
Roberto Cuevas-Olguin, Eric Esquivel-Rendon, Jorge Vargas-Mireles, Francisco Garcias-Oscos, Marcela Miranda-Morales, Humberto Salgado, Stefan Rose-John, Marco Atzori
The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) interacts with the central nervous system in a largely unknown manner. We used a genetically modified mouse strain (GFAP-sgp130Fc, TG) and wild type (WT) mice to determine whether IL-6 trans-signaling contributes to basal properties of synaptic transmission. Postsynaptic currents (PSCs) were studied by patch-clamp recording in cortical layer 5 of a mouse prefrontal cortex brain slice preparation. TG and WT animals displayed differences mainly (but not exclusively) in excitatory synaptic responses...
May 8, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474990/radiodensity-of-intraventricular-hemorrhage-associated-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-may-be-a-negative-predictor-of-outcome
#5
Ha Son Nguyen, Luyuan Li, Mohit Patel, Shekar Kurpad, Wade Mueller
OBJECTIVE The presence, extent, and distribution of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) have been associated with negative outcomes in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Several qualitative scores (Fisher grade, LeRoux score, and Graeb score) have been established for evaluating SAH and IVH. However, no study has assessed the radiodensity within the ventricular system in aneurysmal SAH patients with IVH. Prior studies have suggested that hemorrhage with a higher radiodensity, as measured by CT Hounsfield units, can cause more irritation to brain parenchyma...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461661/measuring-feedforward-inhibition-and-its-impact-on-local-circuit-function
#6
Court Hull
This protocol describes a series of approaches to measure feedforward inhibition in acute brain slices from the cerebellar cortex. Using whole-cell voltage and current clamp recordings from Purkinje cells in conjunction with electrical stimulation of the parallel fibers, these methods demonstrate how to measure the relationship between excitation and inhibition in a feedforward circuit. This protocol also describes how to measure the impact of feedforward inhibition on Purkinje cell excitability, with an emphasis on spike timing...
May 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458635/analysis-and-modeling-of-subthreshold-neural-multi-electrode-array-data-by-statistical-field-theory
#7
Måns Henningson, Sebastian Illes
Multi-electrode arrays (MEA) are increasingly used to investigate spontaneous neuronal network activity. The recorded signals comprise several distinct components: Apart from artifacts without biological significance, one can distinguish between spikes (action potentials) and subthreshold fluctuations (local fields potentials). Here we aim to develop a theoretical model that allows for a compact and robust characterization of subthreshold fluctuations in terms of a Gaussian statistical field theory in two spatial and one temporal dimension...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449351/long-term-plasticity-of-corticostriatal-synapses-is-modulated-by-pathway-specific-co-release-of-opioids-through-kappa-opioid-receptors
#8
Sarah L Hawes, Armando G Salinas, David M Lovinger, Kim T Blackwell
Synaptic plasticity in striatum adjusts behaviour adaptively during skill learning, or maladaptively in the case of addiction. Just as dopamine plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity underlying normal skill learning and addiction, endogenous and exogenous opiates also modulate learning and addiction-related striatal plasticity. Though the role of opioid receptors in long-term depression in striatum has been characterized, their effect on long-term potentiation (LTP) remains unknown. In particular, direct pathway (Dopamine D1 Receptor containing; D1R) - spiny projection neurons (SPNs) co-release the opioid neuropeptide dynorphin, which acts at presynaptic kappa opioid receptors (KORs) on dopaminergic afferents and can negatively regulate dopamine release...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429885/intravenous-self-administration-of-benzydamine-a-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-with-a-central-cannabinoidergic-mechanism-of-action
#9
Riccardo Avvisati, Maria Meringolo, Emiliana Stendardo, Elisa Malavasi, Silvia Marinelli, Aldo Badiani
Benzydamine (BZY) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the topical treatment of inflammations of the oral and vaginal mucosae. Virtually nothing is known about the central pharmacological actions of BZY. Yet there are reports of voluntary systemic overdosage of BZY in drug addicts, resulting in a euphoric, hallucinatory state. In the present study, we investigated the reinforcing properties of BZY in a rat self-administration paradigm. We found that BZY has a powerful reinforcing effect and that this effect is greatly facilitated in animals that already had substance experience, having previously self-administered heroin and cocaine, indicating cross sensitization between BZY and other common drugs of abuse...
April 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424399/-recent-advancements-in-understanding-hippocampal-functions
#10
Sakura Okada, Yuki Aoki, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
The hippocampal formation located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain has been studied extensively for several decades, both in in vitro slice preparations and in vivo living animals. Recent advancements in large-scale recording techniques, such as multisite silicon probes and tetrodes, enable us to examine the detailed characteristics of temporal spiking patterns of tens or hundreds of neurons in the hippocampal circuit. Here, we introduce how such tools contribute to our understanding of the hippocampal network dynamics and review several hippocampal functions for information processing in the brain, including pattern separation and completion, spatial representation, and encoding of positive and negative valence...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424297/magnitude-and-behavior-of-cross-talk-effects-in-multi-channel-electrophysiology-experiments
#11
Matthew John Nelson, Silvana Valtcheva, Laurent Venance
Modern neurophysiological experiments frequently involve multiple channels separated by very small distances. A unique methodological concern for multiple electrode experiments is that of capacitive coupling (cross-talk) between channels. Yet the nature of the cross-talk recording circuit is not well known in the field and the extent to which it practically affects neurophysiology experiments has never been fully investigated. Here we describe a simple electrical circuit model of simultaneous recording and stimulation with two or more channels and experimentally verify the model using ex vivo brain slice and in vivo whole-brain preparations...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400256/n-oleoyldopamine-modulates-activity-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neurons-through-multiple-mechanisms
#12
Olga A Sergeeva, Roberto De Luca, Karolina Mazur, Aissa N Chepkova, Helmut L Haas, Andreas Bauer
N-oleoyl-dopamine (OLDA) is an amide of dopamine and oleic acid, synthesized in catecholaminergic neurons. The present study investigates OLDA targets in midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Substantia Nigra compacta (SNc) DA neurons recorded in brain slices were excited by OLDA in wild type mice. In transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) knockout (KO) mice, however, SNc DA neurons displayed sustained inhibition of firing. In the presence of the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) antagonist sulpiride or the dopamine transporter blocker nomifensine no such inhibition was observed...
April 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391591/syrian-hamster-neuroplasticity-mechanisms-fail-as-temperature-declines-to-15%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c-but-histaminergic-neuromodulation-persists
#13
Jock S Hamilton, Sat M Chau, Kevin J Malins, Giancarlo G Ibanez, John M Horowitz, Barbara A Horwitz
Previous research suggests that hippocampal neurons in mammalian hibernators shift their major function from memory formation at euthermic brain temperatures (T b = ~37 °C) to modulation of hibernation bout duration as T b decreases. This role of hippocampal neurons during torpor is based in part on in vivo studies showing that histamine (HA) infused into ground squirrel hippocampi lengthened torpor bouts by ~50%. However, it was unclear if HA acted directly on hippocampal neurons or on downstream brain regions via HA spillover into lateral ventricles...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390647/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-the-mesolimbic-reward-circuitry-mediates-nociception-in-chronic-neuropathic-pain
#14
Hongxing Zhang, Yi-Ling Qian, Chen Li, Di Liu, Lei Wang, Xiao-Yi Wang, Mei-Jun Liu, He Liu, Song Zhang, Xiao-Yun Guo, Jun-Xia Yang, Hai-Lei Ding, Ja Wook Koo, Ezekiell Mouzon, Karl Deisseroth, Eric J Nestler, Venetia Zachariou, Ming-Hu Han, Jun-Li Cao
BACKGROUND: The mesolimbic reward system plays a critical role in modulating nociception; however, its underlying molecular, cellular, and neural circuitry mechanisms remain unknown. METHODS: Chronic constrictive injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve was used to model neuropathic pain. Projection-specific in vitro recordings in mouse brain slices and in vivo recordings from anesthetized animals were used to measure firing of dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
March 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381725/pursuit-of-neurotransmitter-functions-being-attracted-with-fascination-of-the-synapse
#15
REVIEW
Shiro Konishi
 In the beginning of the 1970s, only two chemical substances, acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), had been definitely established as neurotransmitters. Under such circumstances, I started my scientific career in Professor Masanori Otsuka's lab searching for the transmitter of primary sensory neurons. Until 1976, lines of evidence had accumulated indicating that the undecapeptide substance P could be released as a transmitter from primary afferent fibers into spinal synapses, although the substance P-mediated synaptic response had yet to be identified...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380662/involvement-of-intracellular-zn-2-signaling-in-ltp-at-perforant-pathway-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapse
#16
Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Atsushi Takeda
Physiological significance of synaptic Zn(2+) signaling was examined at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses. In vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) at perforant pathway-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses was induced using a recording electrode attached to a microdialysis probe and the recording region was locally perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) via the microdialysis probe. Perforant pathway LTP was not attenuated under perfusion with CaEDTA (10 mM), an extracellular Zn(2+) chelator, but attenuated under perfusion with ZnAF-2DA (50 μM), an intracellular Zn(2+) chelator, suggesting that intracellular Zn(2+) signaling is required for perforant pathway LTP...
April 5, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380331/near-infrared-fluorescent-protein-irfp713-as-a-reporter-protein-for-optogenetic-vectors-a-transgenic-cre-reporter-rat-and-other-neuronal-studies
#17
Christopher T Richie, Leslie R Whitaker, Keith W Whitaker, Julie Necarsulmer, Heather A Baldwin, Yajun Zhang, Lowella Fortuno, Josh J Hinkle, Pyry Koivula, Mark J Henderson, Wenzhi Sun, Kai Wang, Jeffrey C Smith, Jim Pickel, Na Ji, Bruce T Hope, Brandon K Harvey
BACKGROUND: The use of genetically-encoded fluorescent reporters is essential for the identification and observation of cells that express transgenic modulatory proteins. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins have superior light penetration through biological tissue, but are not yet widely adopted. NEW METHOD: Using the near-infrared fluorescent protein, iRFP713, improves the imaging resolution in thick tissue sections or the intact brain due to the reduced light-scattering at the longer, NIR wavelengths used to image the protein...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370180/astrocytic-vesicle-based-exocytosis-in-cultures-and-acutely-isolated-hippocampal-rodent-slices
#18
REVIEW
Jernej Jorgačevski, Maja Potokar, Marko Kreft, Alenka Guček, Jean-Pierre Mothet, Robert Zorec
Astrocytes are excitable neural cells that contribute to brain information processing via bidirectional communication with neurons. This involves the release of gliosignaling molecules that affect synapses patterning and activity. Mechanisms mediating the release of these molecules likely consist of non-vesicular and vesicular-based mechanisms. It is the vesicle-based regulated exocytosis that is an evolutionary more complex process. It is well established that the release of gliosignaling molecules has profound effects on information processing in different brain regions (e...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344041/stat5-signaling-in-kisspeptin-cells-regulates-the-timing-of-puberty
#19
Marina Augusto Silveira, Isadora C Furigo, Thais T Zampieri, Tabata M Bohlen, Daniella G de Paula, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Jose Donato, Renata Frazao
Previous studies have shown that kisspeptin neurons are important mediators of prolactin's effects on reproduction. However, the cellular mechanisms recruited by prolactin to affect kisspeptin neurons remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of brain slices from kisspeptin reporter mice, we observed that 20% of kisspeptin neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was indirectly depolarized by prolactin via an unknown population of prolactin responsive neurons. This effect required the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway...
March 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336410/the-spatial-temporal-interaction-in-the-ltp-induction-between-layer-iv-to-layer-ii-iii-and-layer-ii-iii-to-layer-ii-iii-connections-in-rats-visual-cortex-during-the-development
#20
Da-Ke Li, Chao Zhang, Yu Gu, She-Hong Zhang, Jian Shi, Xian-Hua Chen
During the early developmental period, long-term potentiation (LTP) can be induced in both vertical and horizontal connections in the rat visual cortex. However, the temporal difference in LTP change between the two pathways during animal development remains unclear. In this study, LTP in vertical (from layer IV to layer II/III) and horizontal (from layer II/III to layer II/III) synaptic connections were recorded in brain slices from the same rats, and the developmental changes of LTP in both directions were compared within the animals' eye-opening period...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience
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