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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938858/evaluating-doses-of-multi-slice-ct-in-brain-examinations-using-various-methods
#1
Hung-Chih Lin, Te-Jen Lai, Hsien-Chun Tseng, Cheng-Hsun Lin, Yen-Ling Tseng, Chien-Yi Chen
PURPOSE: The effective dose (HE) and organ or tissue equivalent dose (HT) of a Rando phantom undergoing two brain computed tomography (CT) examination protocols were evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD-100H) and dose length product (DLP) methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TLDs were inserted into the correlated positions of an organ or tissue of Rando phantom, such as thyroid, brain, and salivary gland, using (A) axial scan: scanning the maxillae ranging from external auditory meatus to the parietal bone, and (B) helical scan: scanning from the mandible to the parietal bone...
September 22, 2017: Computer Assisted Surgery (Abingdon, England)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938398/long-term-recordings-of-arcuate-nucleus-kisspeptin-neurons-reveal-patterned-activity-that-is-modulated-by-gonadal-steroids-in-male-mice
#2
Charlotte Vanacker, Manuel Ricu Moya, R Anthony DeFazio, Michael L Johnson, Suzanne M Moenter
Pulsatile release of GnRH is key to fertility. Pulse frequency is modulated by gonadal steroids and likely arises subsequent to coordination of GnRH neuron firing activity. The source of rhythm generation and the site of steroid feedback remain critical unanswered questions. Arcuate neurons that synthetize kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin (KNDy neurons) may be involved in both of these processes. We tested the hypotheses that action potential firing in KNDy neurons is episodic and that gonadal steroids regulate this pattern...
July 28, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936176/chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-differentially-impacts-different-states-of-inspiratory-activity-at-the-level-of-the-preb%C3%A3-tzinger-complex
#3
Alfredo J Garcia, Tatiana Dashevskiy, Maggie A Khuu, Jan-Marino Ramirez
The preBötzinger complex (preBötC) is a medullary brainstem network crucially involved in the generation of different inspiratory rhythms. In the isolated brainstem slice, the preBötC reconfigures to produce different rhythms that we refer to as "fictive eupnea" under baseline conditions (i.e., carbogen), and "fictive gasping" in hypoxia. We recently demonstrated that fictive eupnea is irregular following exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). However, it is unknown how CIH impacts fictive gasping...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931075/excitability-is-increased-in-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells-of-fmr1-knockout-mice
#4
M Angeles Luque, Pablo Beltran-Matas, M Carmen Marin, Blas Torres, Luis Herrero
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a failure of neuronal cells to express the gene encoding the fragile mental retardation protein (FMRP). Clinical features of the syndrome include intellectual disability, learning impairment, hyperactivity, seizures and anxiety. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice do not express FMRP and, as a result, reproduce some FXS behavioral abnormalities. While intrinsic and synaptic properties of excitatory cells in various part of the brain have been studied in Fmr1 KO mice, a thorough analysis of action potential characteristics and input-output function of CA1 pyramidal cells in this model is lacking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916748/%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-mediated-inhibition-in-the-central-amygdala-blocks-fear-conditioning
#5
N M Holmes, J W Crane, M Tang, J Fam, R F Westbrook, A J Delaney
The central amygdala is critical for the acquisition and expression of fear memories. This region receives a dense innervation from brainstem noradrenergic cell groups and has a high level of α2-adrenoceptor expression. Using whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from rat brain slices, we characterise the role of pre-synaptic α2-adrenoceptor in modulating discrete inhibitory and excitatory connections within both the lateral and medial division of the central amygdala. The selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine blocked the excitatory input from the pontine parabrachial neurons onto neurons of the lateral central amygdala...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899919/astrocyte-mediated-neuronal-synchronisation-properties-revealed-by-false-gliotransmitter-release
#6
Tiina M Pirttimaki, Robert E Sims, Gregory Saunders, Serena A Antonio, Neela Krushna Codadu, H Rheinallt Parri
Astrocytes spontaneously release glutamate as a gliotransmitter (GT) resulting in the generation of extrasynaptic NMDA-R mediated slow inward currents (SICs) in neighbouring neurons, which can increase local neuronal excitability. However, there is a deficit in our knowledge of the factors that control spontaneous astrocyte GT release, and the extent of its influence. We found that in rat brain slices, increasing the supply of the physiological transmitter glutamate increased the frequency and signalling charge of SICs over an extended period...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899729/serotonin-gating-of-cortical-and-thalamic-glutamate-inputs-onto-principal-neurons-of-the-basolateral-amygdala
#7
Ji-Dong Guo, Brendan M O'Flaherty, Donald G Rainnie
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a key site for crossmodal association of sensory stimuli and an important relay in the neural circuitry of emotion. Indeed, the BLA receives substantial glutamatergic inputs from multiple brain regions including the prefrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei. Modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the BLA regulates stress- and anxiety-related behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) also plays an important role in regulating stress-related behavior through activation of both pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT receptors...
September 9, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895268/lithium-reduces-the-span-of-g-protein-activated-k-girk-channel-inhibition-in-hippocampal-neurons
#8
Nathan Dascal, Moran Rubinstein
OBJECTIVES: Lithium (Li(+) ) is one of the most widely used treatments for bipolar disorder (BD). However, the molecular and neuronal basis of BD, as well as the mechanisms of Li(+) actions are poorly understood. Cellular and biochemical studies identified G proteins as being among the cellular targets for Li(+) action, while genetic studies indicated an association with the KCNJ3 gene, which encodes the G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels. GIRK channels regulate neuronal excitability by mediating the inhibitory effects of multiple neurotransmitters and contribute to the resting potassium conductance...
September 12, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888930/a-combined-experimental-modeling-and-computational-approach-to-interpret-the-viscoelastic-response-of-the-white-matter-brain-tissue-during-indentation
#9
Aref Samadi-Dooki, George Z Voyiadjis, Rhett W Stout
Viscoelastic properties of the white matter brain tissue are systematically studied in this paper utilizing indentation experiments, mathematical modeling, and finite element simulation. It is first demonstrated that the internal stiffness of the instrument needs to be thoroughly obtained and incorporated in the analysis as its contribution to the recorded mechanical response is significant for experiments on very compliant materials. The flat-punch monotonic indentation is then performed indirectly on sagittal plane slices with pushing a large rigid coverslip into the sample surface...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886886/are-changes-in-excitability-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-male-rats-induced-by-prenatal-methamphetamine-exposure-or-stress
#10
Klara Bernaskova, Simona Tomkova, Romana Slamberova
Prenatal stress and drug exposure induce permanent alterations of the brain. Even though different brain structures are involved, alterations almost always refer to the hippocampus. The aim of this study was to investigate the excitability of hippocampal slices in low-magnesium epilepsy model of prenatally methamphetamine (MA, 5mg/kg sc.) or saline (sc., stress model) exposed animals in adult male rats. The second aim was to investigate, if a low dose of MA (1ml/kgs.c.) administered in adulthood changes the hippocampal activity of these animals...
September 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881444/gabaergic-inhibition-gates-excitatory-ltp-in-perirhinal-cortex
#11
Vibhakar C Kotak, Ana Mirallave, Todd M Mowery, Dan H Sanes
The perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a key region downstream of auditory cortex (ACx) that processes familiarity linked mnemonic signaling. In gerbils, ACx-driven EPSPs recorded in PRh neurons are largely shunted by GABAergic inhibition (Kotak et al. 2015). To determine whether inhibitory shunting prevents the induction of excitatory long-term potentiation (e-LTP), we stimulated ACx-recipient PRh in a brain slice preparation using theta burst stimulation (TBS). Under control conditions, without GABA blockers, the majority of PRh neurons exhibited long-term depression...
September 7, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878098/loss-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-8-alters-synapse-composition-and-function-resulting-in-behavioral-defects
#12
Jay Penney, Jinsoo Seo, Oleg Kritskiy, Sara Elmsaouri, Fan Gao, Ping-Chieh Pao, Susan C Su, Li-Huei Tsai
Diverse molecular mechanisms regulate synaptic composition and function in the mammalian nervous system. The multifunctional protein arginine methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8) possesses both methyltransferase and phospholipase activities. Here we examine the role of this neuron-specific protein in hippocampal plasticity and cognitive function. PRMT8 protein localizes to synaptic sites, and conditional whole-brain Prmt8 deletion results in altered levels of multiple synaptic proteins in the hippocampus, using both male and female mice...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877967/memantine-and-ketamine-differentially-alter-nmda-receptor-desensitization
#13
Nathan G Glasgow, Nadezhda V Povysheva, Andrea M Azofeifa, Jon W Johnson
Memantine and ketamine are clinically useful NMDA receptor (NMDAR) open channel blockers that inhibit NMDARs with similar potency and kinetics, but display vastly different clinical profiles. This discrepancy has been hypothesized to result from inhibition by memantine and ketamine of overlapping but distinct NMDAR subpopulations. For example, memantine but not ketamine may inhibit extrasynaptic NMDARs more effectively than synaptic NMDARs. However, the basis for preferential NMDAR inhibition depending on subcellular location has not been systematically investigated...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874190/functional-changes-in-hippocampal-synaptic-signaling-in-offspring-survivors-of-a-mouse-model-of-intrauterine-inflammation
#14
Melissa H Kelley, Wendy W Wu, Jun Lei, Michael McLane, Han Xie, Kyle D Hart, Leonardo Pereira, Irina Burd, James Maylie
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that exposure to intrauterine inflammation causes acute fetal brain injury and is linked to a spectrum of neurobehavioral disorders. In a rodent model of intrauterine inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in utero, activated microglia can be detected in the hippocampus of offspring survivors, as late as 60 days postnatal (DPN). Given that the hippocampus is important for learning and memory, these results suggest that in utero inflammation underlies long-term cognitive deficits observed in children/survivors...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871229/gabapentin-modulates-hcn4-channel-voltage-dependence
#15
Han-Shen Tae, Kelly M Smith, A Marie Phillips, Kieran A Boyle, Melody Li, Ian C Forster, Robert J Hatch, Robert Richardson, David I Hughes, Brett A Graham, Steven Petrou, Christopher A Reid
Gabapentin (GBP) is widely used to treat epilepsy and neuropathic pain. There is evidence that GBP can act on hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channel-mediated Ih in brain slice experiments. However, evidence showing that GBP directly modulates HCN channels is lacking. The effect of GBP was tested using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings from human HCN1, HCN2, and HCN4 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Whole-cell recordings were also made from mouse spinal cord slices targeting either parvalbumin positive (PV(+)) or calretinin positive (CR(+)) inhibitory neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868212/high-density-mapping-of-brain-slices-using-a-large-multi-functional-high-density-cmos-microelectrode-array-system
#16
Vijay Viswam, Raziyeh Bounik, Amir Shadmani, Jelena Dragas, Marie Obien, Jan Müller, Yihui Chen, Andreas Hierlemann
We present a CMOS-based high-density microelectrode array (HD-MEA) system that enables high-density mapping of brain slices in-vitro with multiple readout modalities. The 4.48×2.43 mm(2) array consists of 59,760 micro-electrodes at 13.5 µm pitch (5487 electrodes/mm(2)). The overall system features 2048 action-potential, 32 local-field-potential and 32 current recording channels, 32 impedance-measurement and 28 neurotransmitter-detection channels and 16 voltage/current stimulation channels. The system enables real-time and label-free monitoring of position, size, morphology and electrical activity of brain slices...
June 2017: Int Solid State Sens Actuators Microsyst Conf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856240/heterogeneity-in-kv2-channel-expression-shapes-action-potential-characteristics-and-firing-patterns-in-ca1-versus-ca2-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#17
Stephanie Palacio, Vivien Chevaleyre, David H Brann, Karl D Murray, Rebecca A Piskorowski, James S Trimmer
The CA1 region of the hippocampus plays a critical role in spatial and contextual memory, and has well-established circuitry, function and plasticity. In contrast, the properties of the flanking CA2 pyramidal neurons (PNs), important for social memory, and lacking CA1-like plasticity, remain relatively understudied. In particular, little is known regarding the expression of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels and the contribution of these channels to the distinct properties of intrinsic excitability, action potential (AP) waveform, firing patterns and neurotransmission between CA1 and CA2 PNs...
July 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852612/bisphenol-a-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-by-both-pre-and-postsynaptic-mechanisms
#18
Fan Hu, Tingting Li, Huarui Gong, Zhi Chen, Yan Jin, Guangwei Xu, Ming Wang
Bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental xenoestrogen, has been reported to induce learning and memory impairments in rodent animals. However, effects of BPA exposure on synaptic plasticity and the underlying physiological mechanisms remain elusive. Our behavioral and electrophysiological analyses show that BPA obviously perturbs hippocampal spatial memory of juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats after four weeks exposure, with significantly impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. These effects involve decreased spine density of pyramidal neurons, especially the apical dendritic spine...
August 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842412/imaging-voltage-in-genetically-defined-neuronal-subpopulations-with-a-cre-recombinase-targeted-hybrid-voltage-sensor
#19
Peter O Bayguinov, Yihe Ma, Yu Gao, Xinyu Zhao, Meyer B Jackson
Genetically-encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) create an opportunity to monitor electrical activity in defined sets of neurons as they participate in the complex patterns of coordinated electrical activity that underlie nervous system function. Taking full advantage of GEVIs requires a generalized strategy for targeting the probe to genetically-defined populations of cells. To this end we have generated a mouse line with an optimized hybrid voltage sensor (hVOS) probe within a locus designed for efficient Cre recombinase dependent expression...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840475/histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-entinostat-ms-275-restores-anesthesia-induced-alteration-of-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-developing-rat-hippocampus
#20
Srdjan M Joksimovic, Hari Prasad Osuru, Azra Oklopcic, Mark P Beenhakker, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Slobodan M Todorovic
Recent evidence strongly supports the idea that common general anesthetics (GAs) such as isoflurane (Iso) and nitrous oxide (N2O; laughing gas), as well as sedative drugs such as midazolam are neurotoxic for the developing mammalian brain having deleterious effects on neural circuits involved in cognition, learning and memory. However, to date, very little is known about epigenetic mechanisms involved in GA-induced plasticity of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, the main memory-processing region in the brain...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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