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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908238/small-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-sk-channel-dependent-and-independent-effects-of-riluzole-on-neuropathic-pain-related-amygdala-activity-and-behaviors-in-rats
#1
Jeremy M Thompson, Vadim Yakhnitsa, Guangchen Ji, Volker Neugebauer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic neuropathic pain is an important healthcare issue with significant emotional components. The amygdala is a brain region involved in pain and emotional-affective states and disorders. The central amygdala output nucleus (CeA) contains small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels that can control neuronal activity. A clinically available therapeutic, riluzole can activate SK channels and may have antinociceptive effects through a supraspinal action...
June 13, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905563/characteristics-of-gamma-oscillations-induced-by-kainate-pressure-ejection-on-ca1-hippocampus-of-mice-brain-slices-in-submerged-chambers
#2
E Kipiani
Aim - mostly, gamma oscillations are studied in interface-type chambers. The purpose of the presented investigation is to describe the characteristics of gamma oscillations induced in submerged chambers by kainite pressure ejection. Horizontal combined entorhynal-hippocampal slices 300-350 µm were prepared from young mice (P18-28). Gamma oscillations were induced by 1 mM kainite pressure ejection at the boundary of stratum radiatum and lacunosum-moleculare of area CA1. Field potential recordings were registered from the vicinity of kainite application...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904342/accelerated-development-of-the-first-order-central-auditory-neurons-with-spontaneous-activity
#3
Xin-Lu Yin, Hui-Qun Jie, Min Liang, Li-Na Gong, Han-Wei Liu, Hao-Lai Pan, Ya-Zhi Xing, Hai-Bo Shi, Chun-Yan Li, Lu-Yang Wang, Shan-Kai Yin
In developing sensory systems, elaborate morphological connectivity between peripheral cells and first-order central neurons emerges via genetic programming before the onset of sensory activities. However, how the first-order central neurons acquire the capacity to interface with peripheral cells remains elusive. By making patch-clamp recordings from mouse brainstem slices, we found that a subset of neurons in the cochlear nuclei, the first central station to receive peripheral acoustic impulses, exhibits spontaneous firings (SFs) as early as at birth, and the fraction of such neurons increases during the prehearing period...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901836/chronic-stress-dampens-excitatory-synaptic-gain-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#4
Eric Salter, Julia Sunstrum, Sara Matovic, Wataru Inoue
KEY POINTS: Glutamatergic synaptic inputs to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) secreting neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) are required for stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These synapses also undergo stress-induced plasticity thereby influencing HPA axis stress adaptation. By using patch clamp electrophysiology, we show that, in adult non-stressed mice, action potentials at these glutamatergic afferents elicit multiquantal transmission to the postsynaptic PVN-CRH neurons (i...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897864/calcium-induced-calcium-release-activates-spontaneous-miniature-outward-currents-in-newt-medullary-reticular-formation-neurons
#5
Daniel B Yaeger, Emma J Coddington
Neurons in the medullary reticular formation are involved in the control of postural and locomotor behaviors in all vertebrates. Reticulospinal neurons in this brain region provide one of the major descending projections to the spinal cord. Although neurons in the newt medullary reticular formation have been extensively studied using in vivo extracellular recordings, little is known of their intrinsic biophysical properties or of the underlying circuitry of this region. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices containing the rostromedial reticular formation (rmRF) from adult male newts, we observed spontaneous miniature outward currents (SMOCs) in approximately two-thirds of neurons...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894770/overexpression-of-mirna-137-in-the-brain-suppresses-seizure-activity-and-neuronal-excitability-a-new-potential-therapeutic-strategy-for-epilepsy
#6
Wei Wang, Yi Guo, Liang He, Chengzhi Chen, Jing Luo, Yuanlin Ma, Jie Li, Yong Yang, Qin Yang, Chao Du, Yanke Zhang, Zhonggui Li, Xin Xu, Xin Tian, Xuefeng Wang
miRNA-137 is an extremely abundant miRNA in the central nervous system and is thought to be closely related to synaptic plasticity. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role of miRNA-137 in epilepsy. The expression of miRNA-137 was decreased both in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in two different mouse models of epilepsy. Overexpression of miRNA-137 induced by an intrahippocampal injection of a specific agomir prolonged the latency to spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) and reduced seizure severity in a mouse model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy...
June 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889309/mechanisms-of-increased-hippocampal-excitability-in-the-mashl-mouse-model-of-na-k-atpase-dysfunction
#7
Arsen S Hunanyan, Ashley R Helseth, Elie Abdelnour, Bassil Kherallah, Monisha Sachdev, Leeyup Chung, Melanie Masoud, Jordan Richardson, Qiang Li, J Victor Nadler, Scott D Moore, Mohamad A Mikati
OBJECTIVE: Na+ /K+ -ATPase dysfunction, primary (mutation) or secondary (energy crisis, neurodegenerative disease) increases neuronal excitability in the brain. To evaluate the mechanisms underlying such increased excitability we studied mice carrying the D801N mutation, the most common mutation causing human disease, specifically alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) including epilepsy. Because the gene is expressed in all neurons, particularly γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons, we hypothesized that the pathophysiology would involve both pyramidal cells and interneurons and that fast-spiking interneurons, which have increased firing rates, would be most vulnerable...
June 11, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887679/understanding-cerebellum-granular-layer-network-computations-through-mathematical-reconstructions-of-evoked-local-field-potentials
#8
Harilal Parasuram, Bipin Nair, Giovanni Naldi, Egidio D'Angelo, Shyam Diwakar
Background: The cerebellar granular layer input stage of cerebellum receives information from tactile and sensory regions of the body. The somatosensory activity in the cerebellar granular layer corresponds to sensory and tactile input has been observed by recording Local Field Potential (LFP) from the Crus-IIa regions of cerebellum in brain slices and in anesthetized animals. Purpose: In this paper, a detailed biophysical model of Wistar rat cerebellum granular layer network model and LFP modelling schemas were used to simulate circuit's evoked response...
April 2018: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29884945/long-term-plasticity-at-the-mitral-and-tufted-cell-to-granule-cell-synapse-of-the-olfactory-bulb-investigated-with-a-custom-multielectrode-in-acute-brain-slice-preparations
#9
Michael Lukas, Knut Holthoff, Veronica Egger
Single extracellular stimulation electrodes are a widespread means to locally activate synaptic inputs in acute brain slices. Here we describe the fabrication and application of a multielectrode stimulator that was developed for conditions under which independent stimulation of several nearby sites is desirable. For the construction of the multielectrode we have developed a method by which electrode wires can be spaced at minimal distances of 100 μm. This configuration increases the efficiency of stimulation paradigms, such as the comparison of proximal induced and control inputs for studies of synaptic plasticity...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873079/bicarbonate-directly-modulates-activity-of-chemosensitive-neurons-in-the-retrotrapezoid-nucleus
#10
Christopher M Gonçalves, Daniel K Mulkey
KEY POINTS: changes in CO2 result in corresponding changes in both H+ and HCO3 - and despite evidence that HCO3 - can function as an independent signaling molecule, there is little evidence suggesting HCO3 - contributes to respiratory chemoreception. We show that HCO3 - directly activates chemosensitive RTN neurons. Identifying all relevant signaling molecules is essential for understanding how chemoreceptors function, and since HCO3 - and H+ are buffered by separate cellular mechanisms, having the ability to sense both modalities adds additional information regarding changes in CO2 that are not necessarily reflected by pH alone...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867183/brainfilm-a-novel-technique-for-physical-compression-of-3d-brain-slices-for-efficient-image-acquisition-and-post-processing
#11
Joo Yeon Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Min Jee Jang, June Hoan Kim, Ju-Hyun Lee, Eunsoo Lee, Kyerl Park, Hyuncheol Kim, Jaedong Lee, Jeehyun Kwag, Namhee Kim, Mi-Ryoung Song, Hyun Kim, Woong Sun
Tissue clearing enables us to observe thick tissue at a single cell resolution by reducing light scattering and refractive index matching. However, imaging of a large volume of tissue for 3D reconstruction requires a great deal of time, cost, and efforts. Few methods have been developed to transcend these limitations by mechanical compression or isotropic tissue shrinkage. Tissue shrinkage significantly lessens the imaging burden; however, there is an inevitable trade-off with image resolution. Here, we have developed the "BrainFilm" technique to compress cleared tissue at Z-axis by dehydration, without alteration of the XY-axis...
June 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863681/recording-and-modulation-of-epileptiform-activity-in-rodent-brain-slices-coupled-to-microelectrode-arrays
#12
Gabriella Panuccio, Ilaria Colombi, Michela Chiappalone
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common partial complex epileptic syndrome and the least responsive to medications. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach when pharmacological treatment fails or neurosurgery is not recommended. Acute brain slices coupled to microelectrode arrays (MEAs) represent a valuable tool to study neuronal network interactions and their modulation by electrical stimulation. As compared to conventional extracellular recording techniques, they provide the added advantages of a greater number of observation points and a known inter-electrode distance, which allow studying the propagation path and speed of electrophysiological signals...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863287/persistent-sodium-current-modulates-axonal-excitability-in-ca1-pyramidal-neurons
#13
Peter Müller, Andreas Draguhn, Alexei V Egorov
Axonal excitability is an important determinant for the accuracy, direction and velocity of neuronal signaling. The mechanisms underlying spike generation in the axonal initial segment and transmitter release from presynaptic terminals have been intensely studied and revealed a role for several specific ionic conductances, including the persistent sodium current (IN aP ). Recent evidence indicates that action potentials can also be generated at remote locations along the axonal fiber, giving rise to ectopic action potentials (eAP) during physiological states (e...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860053/acute-exposure-to-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-critically-disrupts-operation-of-the-respiratory-neural-network-in-neonatal-rat
#14
Angelo Nicolosi, Laura Cardoit, Pierrick Pasquereau, Christèle Jaillet, Muriel Thoby-Brisson, Laurent Juvin, Didier Morin
Due to their extremely small size that gives them unique physicochemical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) are used in the production of everyday materials. However, NPs can accumulate in body organs and could cause various diseases. Moreover, NPs that cross biological membranes such as the blood-brain barrier can aggregate in the brain and potentially produce neuronal damage. Although studies have reported the effects of diverse NPs on the bioelectrical properties of individual neurons, their potential influences on the operation of whole neuronal networks have not been documented...
May 31, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858484/perineuronal-nets-in-the-deep-cerebellar-nuclei-regulate-gabaergic-transmission-and-delay-eyeblink-conditioning
#15
Moritoshi Hirono, Satoshi Watanabe, Fuyuki Karube, Fumino Fujiyama, Shigenori Kawahara, Soichi Nagao, Yuchio Yanagawa, Hiroaki Misonou
Perineuronal nets (PNNs), composed mainly of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), are the extracellular matrix that surrounds cell bodies, proximal dendrites, and axon initial segments of adult CNS neurons. PNNs are known to regulate neuronal plasticity, although their physiological roles in cerebellar functions have yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the contribution of PNNs to GABAergic transmission from cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) to glutamatergic neurons in the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) in male mice by recording inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) from cerebellar slices, in which PNNs were depleted with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852172/activation-of-galanin-receptor-1-inhibits-locus-coeruleus-neurons-via-girk-channels
#16
Yun-Fei Bai, Hai-Tao Ma, Li-Na Liu, Hui Li, Xiao-Xiao Li, Yu-Tao Yang, Bing Xue, Di Wang, Zhi-Qing David Xu
The noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) are associated with various brain functions and psychiatric disorders, such as addiction and depression. It has been shown that neuropeptide galanin (GAL) inhibits neuronal excitability in LC, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the ionic and signal transduction mechanisms underlying inhibitory effect of GAL on LC neurons using whole-cell patch clamp recording in rat brain slices. Bath application of GAL decreased the spontaneous firings and induced a dose-dependent hyperpolarization of LC neurons and this effect was attenuated by knockdown of Galr1, but not Galr2, confirming that mainly GALR1 mediates the inhibition effect of GAL...
May 28, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29849706/modulation-of-neuronal-activity-on-intercalated-neurons-of-amygdala-might-underlie-anxiolytic-activity-of-a-standardized-extract-of-centella-asiatica-eca233
#17
Aree Wanasuntronwong, Oraphan Wanakhachornkrai, Penphimon Phongphanphanee, Tadashi Isa, Boonyong Tantisira, Mayuree H Tantisira
GABAergic intercalated neurons of amygdala (ITCs) have recently been shown to be important in the suppression of fear-like behavior. Effects of ECa233 (a standardized extract of Centella asiatica ), previously demonstrated anxiolytic activity, were then investigated on ITCs. Cluster of GABAergic neurons expressing fluorescence of GFP was identified in GAD67-GFP knock-in mice. We found that neurons of medial paracapsular ITC were GABAergic neurons exhibiting certain intrinsic electrophysiological properties similar to those demonstrated by ITC neurons at the same location in C57BL/6J mice...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808353/metabolic-modulation-of-neuronal-gamma-band-oscillations
#18
Wadim Vodovozov, Justus Schneider, Shehabeldin Elzoheiry, Jan-Oliver Hollnagel, Andrea Lewen, Oliver Kann
Gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) represent a physiological fast brain rhythm that occurs in many cortex areas in awake mammals, including humans. They associate with sensory perception, voluntary movement, and memory formation and require precise synaptic transmission between excitatory glutamatergic neurons and inhibitory GABAergic interneurons such as parvalbumin-positive basket cells. Notably, gamma oscillations are exquisitely sensitive to shortage in glucose and oxygen supply (metabolic stress), with devastating consequences for higher cognitive functions...
May 28, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793978/ischemic-brain-injury-leads-to-brain-edema-via-hyperthermia-induced-trpv4-activation
#19
Yutaka Hoshi, Kohki Okabe, Koji Shibasaki, Takashi Funatsu, Norio Matsuki, Yuji Ikegaya, Ryuta Koyama
Brain edema is characterized by an increase in net brain water content, which results in an increase in brain volume. Although brain edema is associated with a high fatality rate, the cellular and molecular processes of edema remain largely unclear. Here, we developed an in vitro model of ischemic stroke-induced edema in which male mouse brain slices were treated with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to mimic ischemia. We continuously measured the cross-sectional area of the brain slice for 150 min under macroscopic microscopy, finding that OGD induces swelling of brain slices...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787770/lateral-hypothalamic-orexin-glucose-inhibited-neurons-may-regulate-reward-based-feeding-by-modulating-glutamate-transmission-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area
#20
Suraj B Teegala, Zhenyu Sheng, Miloni S Dalal, Pamela R Hirschberg, Kevin D Beck, Vanessa H Routh
Glucose inhibits ∼60% of lateral hypothalamic (LH) orexin neurons. Fasting increases the activation of LH orexin glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons in low glucose. Increases in spontaneous glutamate excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) onto putative VTA DA neurons in low glucose are orexin dependent (Sheng et al., 2014). VTA DA neurons modulate reward-based feeding (Aston-Jones et al., 2010). We tested the hypothesis that increased activation of LH orexin-GI neurons in low glucose increases glutamate signaling onto VTA DA neurons and contributes to reward-based feeding in food restricted animals...
May 19, 2018: Brain Research
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