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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220192/fluidic-microactuation-of-flexible-electrodes-for-neural-recording
#1
Flavia Vitale, Daniel Vercosa, Alexander V Rodriguez, Sushma Sri Pamulapati, Frederik Seibt, Eric Lewis, Jiaxi Stephen Yan, Krishna Badhiwala, Mohammed Adnan, Gianni Royer-Carfagni, Michael Beierlein, Caleb Kemere, Matteo Pasquali, Jacob Robinson
Soft and conductive nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanowire scaffolds have expanded the family of ultra-flexible microelectrodes that can bend and flex with the natural movement of the brain, reduce the inflammatory response and improve the stability of long-term neural recordings. However, current methods to implant these highly flexible electrodes rely on temporary stiffening agents that temporarily increase the electrode size and stiffness thus aggravating neural damage during implantation, which can lead to cell loss and glial activation that persists even after the stiffening agents are removed or dissolve...
December 8, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214635/kv4-2-channel-activity-controls-intrinsic-firing-dynamics-of-arcuate-kisspeptin-neurons
#2
Philipe R F Mendonça, Victoria Kyle, Shel-Hwa Yeo, William H Colledge, Hugh P C Robinson
Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus are critically involved in reproductive function, via their effect on GnRH neuron activity and consequent gonadotropin release. Kisspeptin neurons show an intrinsic irregularity of firing, but the mechanism of this remains unclear. To address this, we carried out targeted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Kiss1Arc ), in brain slices isolated from adult male Kiss-Cre:tdTomato mice. Cells fired irregularly in response to constant current stimuli, with a wide range of spike time variability, and prominent subthreshold voltage fluctuations...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212920/phasic-and-tonic-cell-types-in-the-zebra-finch-auditory-caudal-mesopallium
#3
Andrew N Chen, C Daniel Meliza
The caudal mesopallium (CM) is a cortical-level area in the songbird auditory pathway where selective, invariant responses to familiar songs emerge. To characterize the cell types that perform this computation, we made whole-cell recordings from brain slices in juvenile zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) of both sexes. We found three groups of putatively excitatory neurons with distinct firing patterns. Tonic cells produced sustained responses to depolarizing step currents, phasic cells produced only a few spikes at the onset, and an intermediate group was also phasic but responded for up to a few hundred ms...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209170/noradrenaline-modulates-the-membrane-potential-and-holding-current-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons-via-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptors-and-hcn-channels
#4
Katarzyna Grzelka, Przemysław Kurowski, Maciej Gawlak, Paweł Szulczyk
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) receives dense noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus. Adrenergic innervation of mPFC pyramidal neurons plays an essential role in both physiology (control of memory formation, attention, working memory, and cognitive behavior) and pathophysiology (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, cognitive deterioration after traumatic brain injury, behavioral changes related to addiction, Alzheimer's disease and depression). The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism responsible for adrenergic receptor-mediated control of the resting membrane potential in layer V mPFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205598/an-auditory-brainstem-nucleus-as-a-model-system-for-neuronal-metabolic-demands
#5
Sonja Brosel, Benedikt Grothe, Lars Kunz
The correlation between neuronal activity and metabolism is essential for coding, plasticity, neurological disorders and the interpretation of functional neuroimaging data. Most likely, metabolic requirements depend upon neuron type and macroscopic energy demands vary with brain region. However, specific needs of individual neuron types are enigmatic. Therefore, we monitored metabolic activity in the lateral superior olive (LSO), an auditory brainstem nucleus containing only one neuron type. LSO neurons exhibit extreme but well described biophysics with firing rates of several hundred hertz and low input resistances of a few megaohms...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201002/a-comparison-of-different-slicing-planes-in-preservation-of-major-hippocampal-pathway-fibers-in-the-mouse
#6
Guoxiang Xiong, Hannah Metheny, Brian N Johnson, Akiva S Cohen
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory and higher cognitive functions, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various neuropathological disorders. Electrophysiological recording undertaken in live brain slices is one of the most powerful tools for investigating hippocampal cellular and network activities. The plane for cutting the slices determines which afferent and/or efferent connections are best preserved, and there are three commonly used slices: hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC), coronal and transverse...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195907/presynaptic-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-nucleus-accumbens-in-vitro
#7
Shi-Yu Peng, Bin Li, Kang Xi, Jian-Jun Wang, Jing-Ning Zhu
The nucleus accumbens (NAc), integrating information from the prefrontal cortex and limbic structures, plays a critical role in reward and emotion regulation. Previous studies have reported that the NAc shell receives direct noradrenergic projections, and activation of α2-adrenoceptor (α2-AR) in the NAc shell decreases the fear or anxiety level of rats. However, the underlying mechanism is still little known. Intriguingly, glutamatergic neurotransmission in the NAc shell is closely related to reward and emotion...
November 30, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189773/multimodal-profiling-of-single-cell-morphology-electrophysiology-and-gene-expression-using-patch-seq
#8
Cathryn R Cadwell, Federico Scala, Shuang Li, Giulia Livrizzi, Shan Shen, Rickard Sandberg, Xiaolong Jiang, Andreas S Tolias
Neurons exhibit a rich diversity of morphological phenotypes, electrophysiological properties, and gene-expression patterns. Understanding how these different characteristics are interrelated at the single-cell level has been difficult because of the lack of techniques for multimodal profiling of individual cells. We recently developed Patch-seq, a technique that combines whole-cell patch-clamp recording, immunohistochemistry, and single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) to comprehensively profile single neurons from mouse brain slices...
December 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175952/modulation-of-ether-%C3%A3-go-go-related-gene-erg-current-governs-intrinsic-persistent-activity-in-rodent-neocortical-pyramidal-cells
#9
Edward D Cui, Ben W Strowbridge
While cholinergic receptor activation has long been known to dramatically enhance the excitability of cortical neurons, the cellular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. We used intracellular recordings in rat (both sexes) neocortical brain slices to assess the ionic mechanisms supporting persistent firing modes triggered by depolarizing stimuli following cholinergic receptor activation. We found multiple lines of evidence suggesting that a component of the underlying hyperexcitability associated with persistent firing reflects a reduction in the standing (leak) K+ current mediated by Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (ERG) channels...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167400/tonotopic-variation-of-the-t-type-ca2-current-in-avian-auditory-coincidence-detector-neurons
#10
Ryota Fukaya, Rei Yamada, Hiroshi Kuba
Neurons in avian nucleus laminaris (NL) are binaural coincidence detectors for sound localization and are characterized by striking structural variations in dendrites and axon initial segment (AIS) according to their acoustic tuning (characteristic frequency, CF). T-type Ca2+ (CaT) channels regulate synaptic integration and firing behavior at these neuronal structures. However, whether or how CaT channels contribute to the signal processing in NL neurons is not known. In this study, we addressed this issue with whole-cell recording and two-photon Ca2+ imaging in brain slices of posthatch chicks of both sexes...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165917/a-novel-multisite-confocal-system-for-rapid-ca-2-imaging-from-submicron-structures-in-brain-slices
#11
Luiza Filipis, Karima Ait Ouares, Philippe Moreau, Dimitrii Tanese, Valeria Zampini, Andrea Latini, Chun Bleau, Charlie Bleau, Jeremy Graham, Marco Canepari
In brain slices, resolving fast Ca(2+) fluorescence signals from submicron structures is typically achieved using two-photon or confocal scanning microscopy, an approach that limits the number of scanned points. The novel multiplexing confocal system presented here overcomes this limitation. This system is based on a fast spinning disk, a multimode diode laser and a novel high-resolution CMOS camera. The spinning disk, running at 20,000 rpm, has custom-designed spiral pattern that maximises light collection while rejecting out-of-focus fluorescence to resolve signals from small neuronal compartments...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155768/slice-patch-clamp-technique-for-analyzing-learning-induced-plasticity
#12
Hiroyuki Kida, Yuya Sakimoto, Dai Mitsushima
The slice patch clamp technique is a powerful tool for investigating learning-induced neural plasticity in specific brain regions. To analyze motor-learning induced plasticity, we trained rats using an accelerated rotor rod task. Rats performed the task 10 times at 30-s intervals for 1 or 2 days. Performance was significantly improved on the training days compared to the first trial. We then prepared acute brain slices of the primary motor cortex (M1) in untrained and trained rats. Current-clamp analysis showed dynamic changes in resting membrane potential, spike threshold, afterhyperpolarization, and membrane resistance in layer II/III pyramidal neurons...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146192/calcium-imaging-method-to-visualize-the-spatial-patterns-of-neural-responses-in-the-pygmy-squid-idiosepius-paradoxus-central-nervous-system
#13
Motoki Koizumi, Shuichi Shigeno, Makoto Mizunami, Nobuaki K Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Cephalopods exhibit unique behaviors such as camouflage and tactile learning. The brain functions correlated to these behaviors have long been analyzed through behavioral observations of animals subject to surgical manipulation or electrical stimulation of brain lobes. However, physiological methods have rarely been introduced to investigate the functions of each individual lobe, though physiological work on giant axons and slices of the vertical lobe system of the cephalopods have provided deep insights into ion conductance of nerves and long-term synaptic plasticity...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136290/the-role-of-ca-2-dependent-k-channels-at-the-rat-corticostriatal-synapses-revealed-by-paired-pulse-stimulation
#14
Angel A Robles G, Ana V Vega, Carolina Gonzalez-Sandoval, Jaime Barral
Potassium channels play an important role in modulating synaptic activity both at presynaptic and postsynaptic levels. We have shown before that presynaptically located KV and KIR channels modulate the strength of corticostriatal synapses in rat brain, but the role of other types of potassium channels at these synapses remains largely unknown. Here we show that calcium-dependent potassium channels BK-type but not SK-type channels are located presynaptically in corticostriatal synapses. We stimulated cortical neurons in rat brain slices and recorded postsynaptic excitatory potentials (EPSP) in medium spiny neurons (MSN) in dorsal neostriatum...
November 14, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131433/suppressive-effects-of-morphine-injected-into-the-ventral-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-on-the-affective-but-not-sensory-component-of-pain-in-rats
#15
Chikashi Maruyama, Satoshi Deyama, Yusuke Nagano, Soichiro Ide, Katsuyuki Kaneda, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Masabumi Minami
Pain is a complex experience with both sensory and affective components. Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that the affective component of pain can be reduced by doses of morphine lower than those necessary to reduce the sensory component. Although the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of morphine on the sensory component of pain have been investigated extensively, those influencing the affective component remain to be elucidated. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in the regulation of various negative emotional states, including aversion, anxiety, and fear...
November 13, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129832/multiphoton-minimal-inertia-scanning-for-fast-acquisition-of-neural-activity-signals
#16
Renaud Schuck, Mary Ann Go, Stefania Garasto, Stephanie Reynolds, Pier Luigi Dragotti, Simon Schultz
OBJECTIVE: Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy provides a powerful tool for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural circuit activity. It is, however, intrinsically a point scanning technique. Standard raster scanning enables imaging at subcellular resolution; however, acquisition rates are limited by the size of the field of view to be scanned. Recently developed scanning strategies such as Travelling Salesman Scanning (TSS) have been developed to maximize cellular sampling rate by scanning only select regions in the field of view corresponding to locations of interest such as somata...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121962/direct-interaction-with-14-3-3%C3%AE-promotes-surface-expression-of-best1-channel-in-astrocyte
#17
Soo-Jin Oh, Junsung Woo, Young-Sun Lee, Minhee Cho, Eunju Kim, Nam-Chul Cho, Jae-Yong Park, Ae Nim Pae, C Justin Lee, Eun Mi Hwang
BACKGROUND: Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel (CAAC) that is expressed broadly in mammalian tissues including the brain. We have previously reported that Best1 is expressed in hippocampal astrocytes at the distal peri-synaptic regions, called microdomains, right next to synaptic junctions, and that it disappears from the microdomains in Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Although Best1 appears to be dynamically regulated, the mechanism of its regulation and modulation is poorly understood...
November 9, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121295/disruption-of-cortical-network-activity-by-the-general-anaesthetic-isoflurane
#18
H Hentschke, A Raz, B M Krause, C A Murphy, M I Banks
Background: Actions of general anaesthetics on activity in the cortico-thalamic network likely contribute to loss of consciousness and disconnection from the environment. Previously, we showed that the general anaesthetic isoflurane preferentially suppresses cortically evoked synaptic responses compared with thalamically evoked synaptic responses, but how this differential sensitivity translates into changes in network activity is unclear. Methods: We investigated isoflurane disruption of spontaneous and stimulus-induced cortical network activity using multichannel recordings in murine auditory thalamo-cortical brain slices...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109970/dynamics-of-gnrh-neuron-ionotropic-gaba-and-glutamate-synaptic-receptors-are-unchanged-during-estrogen-positive-and-negative-feedback-in-female-mice
#19
Xinhuai Liu, Robert Porteous, Allan E Herbison
Inputs from GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons are suspected to play an important role in regulating the activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. The GnRH neurons exhibit marked plasticity to control the ovarian cycle with circulating estradiol concentrations having profound "feedback" effects on their activity. This includes "negative feedback" responsible for suppressing GnRH neuron activity and "positive feedback" that occurs at mid-cycle to activate the GnRH neurons to generate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109680/diversity-of-evoked-astrocyte-ca-2-dynamics-quantified-through-experimental-measurements-and-mathematical-modeling
#20
Marsa Taheri, Gregory Handy, Alla Borisyuk, John A White
Astrocytes are a major cell type in the mammalian brain. They are not electrically excitable, but generate prominent Ca(2+) signals related to a wide variety of critical functions. The mechanisms driving these Ca(2+) events remain incompletely understood. In this study, we integrate Ca(2+) imaging, quantitative data analysis, and mechanistic computational modeling to study the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of cortical astrocyte Ca(2+) transients evoked by focal application of ATP in mouse brain slices...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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