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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100655/furosemide-depresses-the-presynaptic-fiber-volley-and-modifies-frequency-dependent-axonal-excitability-in-rat-hippocampus
#1
Mogens Andreasen, Steen Nedergaard
The loop diuretic furosemide is known to have anticonvulsant effects, believed to be exerted through blockade of glial Na-K-Cl cotransport causing altered volume regulation in brain tissue. The possibility that direct effects of furosemide on neuronal properties could also be involved is supported by previous observations, but such effects have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study we show that furosemide has two opposing effects on stimulus-induced postsynaptic excitation in the non-epileptic rat hippocampal slice: i) an enhancement of e-s coupling, which depended on intact GABAA transmission and was partially mimicked by selective blockade of K-Cl cotransport, and ii) a decrement of fEPSPs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097203/staged-anticonvulsant-screening-for-chronic-epilepsy
#2
Yevgeny Berdichevsky, Yero Saponjian, Kyung-Il Park, Bonnie Roach, Wendy Pouliot, Kimberly Lu, Waldemar Swiercz, F Edward Dudek, Kevin J Staley
OBJECTIVE: Current anticonvulsant screening programs are based on seizures evoked in normal animals. One-third of epileptic patients do not respond to the anticonvulsants discovered with these models. We evaluated a tiered program based on chronic epilepsy and spontaneous seizures, with compounds advancing from high-throughput in vitro models to low-throughput in vivo models. METHODS: Epileptogenesis in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures was quantified by lactate production and lactate dehydrogenase release into culture media as rapid assays for seizure-like activity and cell death, respectively...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095421/approximate-inference-for-time-varying-interactions-and-macroscopic-dynamics-of-neural-populations
#3
Christian Donner, Klaus Obermayer, Hideaki Shimazaki
The models in statistical physics such as an Ising model offer a convenient way to characterize stationary activity of neural populations. Such stationary activity of neurons may be expected for recordings from in vitro slices or anesthetized animals. However, modeling activity of cortical circuitries of awake animals has been more challenging because both spike-rates and interactions can change according to sensory stimulation, behavior, or an internal state of the brain. Previous approaches modeling the dynamics of neural interactions suffer from computational cost; therefore, its application was limited to only a dozen neurons...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#4
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077712/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#5
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069353/effects-of-chronic-exposure-to-low-dose-thip-on-brainstem-neuronal-excitability-in-mouse-models-of-rett-syndrome-evidence-from-symptomatic-females
#6
Weiwei Zhong, Christopher Mychal Johnson, Ningren Cui, Hao Xing, Yang Wu, Chun Jiang
Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations of the MECP2 gene, affecting predominantly females. One of the characteristic features of the disease is defective brainstem autonomic function. In Mecp2(-/Y) mice, several groups of brainstem neurons are overly excitable, which causes destabilization of neuronal networks for the autonomic control. We have previously shown that the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist THIP relieves many RTT-like symptoms in Mecp2(-/Y) mice. Although neuronal activity is inhibited by acute THIP exposure, how a chronic treatment affects neuronal excitability remains elusive...
January 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069030/acute-stress-enhances-the-glutamatergic-transmission-onto-basoamygdala-neurons-embedded-in-distinct-microcircuits
#7
Chen Song, Wen-Hua Zhang, Xue-Hui Wang, Jun-Yu Zhang, Xiao-Li Tian, Xiao-Ping Yin, Bing-Xing Pan
Amygdala activation is known to be critical for the processing of stressful events in brain. Recent studies have shown that the projection neurons (PNs) in amygdala, although architecturally intermingled, are integrated into distinct microcircuits and thus play divergent roles in amygdala-related behaviors. It remains unknown how stress regulates the individual amygdala PNs embedded in distinct microcircuits. Here, by using retrograde tracing and electrophysiological recording in in vitro slices, we explored the modulation of acute immobilization stress (AIS) on the basoamygdala (BA) PNs projecting either to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or elsewhere, which we designated as BA-mPFC and non-BA-mPFC PNs respectively...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067279/impaired-novelty-acquisition-and-synaptic-plasticity-in-congenital-hyperammonemia-caused-by-hepatic-glutamine-synthetase-deficiency
#8
Aisa N Chepkova, Olga A Sergeeva, Boris Görg, Helmut L Haas, Nikolaj Klöcker, Dieter Häussinger
Genetic defects in ammonia metabolism can produce irreversible damage of the developing CNS causing an impairment of cognitive and motor functions. We investigated alterations in behavior, synaptic plasticity and gene expression in the hippocampus and dorsal striatum of transgenic mice with systemic hyperammonemia resulting from conditional knockout of hepatic glutamine synthetase (LGS-ko). These mice showed reduced exploratory activity and delayed habituation to a novel environment. Field potential recordings from LGS-ko brain slices revealed significantly reduced magnitude of electrically-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in both CA3-CA1 hippocampal and corticostriatal synaptic transmission...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062187/dentate-gyrus-autonomous-ictal-activity-in-the-status-epilepticus-rat-model-of-epilepsy
#9
Florian Weissinger, Matthias Wawra, Pawel Fidzinski, Mark Elsner, Hartmut Meierkord, Martin Holtkamp, Katharina Buchheim
The dentate gyrus (DG) as part of the hippocampal formation is believed to serve as a gatekeeper with strong inhibitory properties against uncontrolled propagation of neuronal activity from the entorhinal cortex and neocortical structures. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the DG becomes hyperexcitable and loses its gate function, enabling propagation of ictal activity into downstream structures such as CA3 and CA1 areas. Furthermore, the DG, apart from facilitating propagation, may also be able to autonomously generate ictal activity, but this point has remained open so far...
January 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042098/age-dependent-alterations-in-neuronal-activity-in-the-hippocampus-and-visual-cortex-in-a-mouse-model-of-juvenile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-cln3
#10
Maria Burkovetskaya, Nikolay Karpuk, Tammy Kielian
Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is a fatal lysosomal storage disease caused by autosomal recessive mutations in CLN3. JNCL is typified by progressive neurodegeneration that has been suggested to occur from excessive excitatory and impaired inhibitory synaptic input; however, no studies to date have directly evaluated neuronal function. To examine changes in neuronal activity with advancing disease, electrophysiological recordings were performed in the CA1 hippocampus (HPC) and visual cortex (VC) of acute brain slices from Cln3(Δex7/8) mice at 1, 4, 8, and 12months of age...
December 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032116/synaptic-inhibition-in-avian-interaural-level-difference-sound-localizing-neurons
#11
Rebecca J Curry, Yong Lu
Synaptic inhibition plays a fundamental role in the neural computation of the interaural level difference (ILD), an important cue for the localization of high-frequency sound. Here, we studied the inhibitory synaptic currents in the chicken posterior portion of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (LLDp), the first binaural level difference encoder of the avian auditory pathway. Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices, we provide the first evidence confirming a monosynaptic inhibition driven by direct electrical and chemical stimulation of the contralateral LLDp, establishing the reciprocal inhibitory connection between the two LLDps, a long-standing assumption in the field...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018160/a-sliced-inverse-regression-sir-decoding-the-forelimb-movement-from-neuronal-spikes-in-the-rat-motor-cortex
#12
Shih-Hung Yang, You-Yin Chen, Sheng-Huang Lin, Lun-De Liao, Henry Horng-Shing Lu, Ching-Fu Wang, Po-Chuan Chen, Yu-Chun Lo, Thanh Dat Phan, Hsiang-Ya Chao, Hui-Ching Lin, Hsin-Yi Lai, Wei-Chen Huang
Several neural decoding algorithms have successfully converted brain signals into commands to control a computer cursor and prosthetic devices. A majority of decoding methods, such as population vector algorithms (PVA), optimal linear estimators (OLE), and neural networks (NN), are effective in predicting movement kinematics, including movement direction, speed and trajectory but usually require a large number of neurons to achieve desirable performance. This study proposed a novel decoding algorithm even with signals obtained from a smaller numbers of neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011743/5-ht2c-receptor-knockdown-in-the-amygdala-inhibits-neuropathic-pain-related-plasticity-and-behaviors
#13
Guangchen Ji, Wei Zhang, Lenin Mahimainathan, Madhusudhanan Narasimhan, Takaki Kiritoshi, Xiuzhen Fan, Jigong Wang, Thomas A Green, Volker Neugebauer
: Neuroplasticity in the amygdala drives pain-related behaviors. The central nucleus (CeA) serves major amygdala output functions and can generate emotional-affective behaviors and modulate nocifensive responses. The CeA receives excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the basolateral nucleus (BLA), and serotonin receptor subtype 5-HT2CR in the BLA, but not CeA, has been implicated anxiogenic behaviors and anxiety disorders. Here we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT2CR in the BLA plays a critical role in CeA plasticity and neuropathic pain behaviors in the rat spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009283/calcium-imaging-reveals-coordinated-simple-spike-pauses-in-populations-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells
#14
Jorge E Ramirez, Brandon M Stell
The brain's control of movement is thought to involve coordinated activity between cerebellar Purkinje cells. The results reported here demonstrate that somatic Ca(2+) imaging is a faithful reporter of Na(+)-dependent "simple spike" pauses and enables us to optically record changes in firing rates in populations of Purkinje cells in brain slices and in vivo. This simultaneous calcium imaging of populations of Purkinje cells reveals a striking spatial organization of pauses in Purkinje cell activity between neighboring cells...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007640/the-insecticide-esfenvalerate-modulates-neuronal-excitability-in-mammalian-central-nervous-system-in-vitro
#15
Petra Varró, Melinda Kovács, Ildikó Világi
Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides showing significant selective toxicity on insects over mammals, but effects on mammalian nervous system are not negligible. These substances act on the voltage-gated sodium channel, prolonging the duration of the open state. The present study focused on the effect of the pyrethroid esfenvalerate on the excitability of neuronal networks in vitro. From isolated rat brain slices, neocortical and hippocampal evoked field potentials were recorded; four concentrations (5-40μM) of esfenvalerate were tested using in vitro administration of the commercial product Sumi-Alpha 5 EC(®)...
December 19, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998459/-the-preliminary-study-of-stimulus-input-temporal-changes-on-the-visual-cortex-of-rats-at-different-ages
#16
R Hao, X F Shi, Y Gao, H Y Mu, K X Zhao
Objective: To observe the impact of the input temporal changes on visual cortex of rats cells and the change of the synaptic efficacy, for the study of visual developmental plasticity mechanism. Methods: Experimental research. The brain slice of ten 14d healthy Wistar rats and ten 21d healthy Wistar rats were recorded with whole cell recording technique, using single stimulation and combined stimulate model, to observe the visual cortex of rats neurons changes in synaptic activity. Change the stimulus input sequence, and observe the visual cortex of rats changes of synaptic efficacy...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935149/the-sorting-receptor-sorcs3-is-a-stronger-regulator-of-glutamate-receptor-functions-compared-to-gabaergic-mechanisms-in-the-hippocampus
#17
Gitte B Christiansen, Katrine Andersen, Sarah Riis, Anders Nykjaer, Ulrik Bølcho, Morten Skovgaard Jensen, Mai Marie Holm
Correct function of glutamate receptors in the postsynaptic density is crucial to synaptic function and plasticity. SorCS3 (sortilin-related receptor CNS expressed 3) is a sorting receptor which previously has been shown to interact with the key postsynaptic proteins; PSD-95 and PICK1. In this study, we employed electrophysiological analyses of acute brain slices combined with immunohistochemistry to define the role of SorCS3 in hippocampal synapses in CA1 and the dentate gyrus. We analyzed a juvenile (P17-21) and a young adult (P55-65) group of animals from a Sorcs3 knockout mouse model...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920665/multiple-single-unit-long-term-tracking-on-organotypic-hippocampal-slices-using-high-density-microelectrode-arrays
#18
Wei Gong, Jure Senčar, Douglas J Bakkum, David Jäckel, Marie Engelene J Obien, Milos Radivojevic, Andreas R Hierlemann
A novel system to cultivate and record from organotypic brain slices directly on high-density microelectrode arrays (HD-MEA) was developed. This system allows for continuous recording of electrical activity of specific individual neurons at high spatial resolution while monitoring at the same time, neuronal network activity. For the first time, the electrical activity patterns of single neurons and the corresponding neuronal network in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture were studied during several consecutive weeks at daily intervals...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911756/activation-of-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-promotes-ltp-induction-at-schaffer-collateral-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapses-by-priming-nmda-receptors
#19
Nadia Rosenberg, Urs Gerber, Jeanne Ster
: It is well established that selective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors induces LTD of synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. In contrast, application of 1S,3R-ACPD, a mixed agonist at group I and group II mGlu receptors, induces LTP. Using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells and field recordings in the hippocampal CA1 region, we investigated the specific contribution of group II mGlu receptors to synaptic plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute slices of adult mice...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911605/gnrh-neuron-activity-and-pituitary-response-in-estradiol-induced-vs-proestrous-luteinizing-hormone-surges-in-female-mice
#20
Marina Silveira, Laura L Burger, R Anthony DeFazio, Elizabeth R Wagenmaker, Suzanne M Moenter
During the female reproductive cycle, estradiol exerts negative and positive feedback at both the central level to alter GnRH release and at the pituitary to affect response to GnRH. Many studies of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying estradiol feedback have been done on ovariectomized, estradiol-replaced (OVX+E) mice. In this model, GnRH neuron activity depends on estradiol and time of day, increasing in estradiol-treated mice in the late afternoon coincident with a daily LH surge. Amplitude of this surge appears lower than in proestrous mice, perhaps because other ovarian factors are not replaced...
December 2, 2016: Endocrinology
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