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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809399/evidence-for-newly-generated-interneurons-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-of-adult-mice
#1
D J Jhaveri, A Tedoldi, S Hunt, R Sullivan, N R Watts, J M Power, P F Bartlett, P Sah
New neurons are continually generated from the resident populations of precursor cells in selective niches of the adult mammalian brain such as the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb. However, whether such cells are present in the adult amygdala, and their neurogenic capacity, is not known. Using the neurosphere assay, we demonstrate that a small number of precursor cells, the majority of which express Achaete-scute complex homolog 1 (Ascl1), are present in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of the adult mouse...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791701/electrophysiological-properties-of-basal-forebrain-cholinergic-neurons-identified-by-genetic-and-optogenetic-tagging
#2
Gretchen Y López-Hernández, Mala Ananth, Li Jiang, Elizabeth C Ballinger, David A Talmage, Lorna W Role
Recent developments in the generation of neuronal population-specific, genetically modified mouse lines have allowed precise identification and selective stimulation of cholinergic neurons in vivo. Although considerably less laborious than studies conducted with post hoc identification of cholinergic neurons by immunostaining, it is not known whether the genetically based labeling procedures that permit in vivo identification are electrophysiologically benign. In this study, we use mice carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome transgene that drives expression of a tau-green fluorescent fusion protein specifically in cholinergic neurons...
August 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790892/a-critical-period-for-the-rapid-modification-of-synaptic-properties-at-the-vpm-relay-synapse
#3
Libiao Pan, Junhua Yang, Qian Yang, Xiaomeng Wang, Liya Zhu, Yali Liu, Huifang Lou, Chou Xu, Ying Shen, Hao Wang
In addition to cortical areas, the thalamus also displays plasticity during a critical period in early life. Since most sensory information is transmitted to the cortex via the thalamus, it will be of significant interest to understand the precise time window and underlying mechanisms of this critical period in the thalamus. By using in vitro whole-cell patch recording in acute brain slices, we found that VPm relay synapses were only sensitive to whisker deprivation from postnatal day 11 (P11) to P14. Whisker deprivation initiated within the P11 to P14 window significantly reduced the amplitude of AMPAR-EPSCs, but not NMDAR-EPSCs when recorded 24 h after whisker removal...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790178/heteromeric-channels-formed-by-trpc1-trpc4-and-trpc5-define-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-and-working-memory
#4
Jenny Bröker-Lai, Astrid Kollewe, Barbara Schindeldecker, Jörg Pohle, Vivan Nguyen Chi, Ilka Mathar, Raul Guzman, Yvonne Schwarz, Alan Lai, Petra Weißgerber, Herbert Schwegler, Alexander Dietrich, Martin Both, Rolf Sprengel, Andreas Draguhn, Georg Köhr, Bernd Fakler, Veit Flockerzi, Dieter Bruns, Marc Freichel
Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels influence various neuronal functions. Using quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that TRPC1, TRPC4, and TRPC5 assemble into heteromultimers with each other, but not with other TRP family members in the mouse brain and hippocampus. In hippocampal neurons from Trpc1/Trpc4/Trpc5-triple-knockout (Trpc1/4/5(-/-)) mice, lacking any TRPC1-, TRPC4-, or TRPC5-containing channels, action potential-triggered excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were significantly reduced, whereas frequency, amplitude, and kinetics of quantal miniature EPSC signaling remained unchanged...
August 8, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752054/serotonergic-modulation-of-the-activity-of-glp-1-producing-neurons-in-the-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-in-mouse
#5
Marie K Holt, Ida J Llewellyn-Smith, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Stefan Trapp
OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and 5-HT are potent regulators of food intake within the brain. GLP-1 is expressed by preproglucagon (PPG) neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). We have previously shown that PPG neurons innervate 5-HT neurons in the ventral brainstem. Here, we investigate whether PPG neurons receive serotonergic input and respond to 5-HT. METHODS: We employed immunohistochemistry to reveal serotonergic innervation of PPG neurons...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729628/a-new-approach-for-ratiometric-in-vivo-calcium-imaging-of-microglia
#6
Bianca Brawek, Yajie Liang, Daria Savitska, Kaizhen Li, Natalie Fomin-Thunemann, Yury Kovalchuk, Elizabeta Zirdum, Johan Jakobsson, Olga Garaschuk
Microglia, resident immune cells of the brain, react to the presence of pathogens/danger signals with a large repertoire of functional responses including morphological changes, proliferation, chemotaxis, production/release of cytokines, and phagocytosis. In vitro studies suggest that many of these effector functions are Ca(2+)-dependent, but our knowledge about in vivo Ca(2+) signalling in microglia is rudimentary. This is mostly due to technical reasons, as microglia largely resisted all attempts of in vivo labelling with Ca(2+) indicators...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729445/preferential-disruption-of-prefrontal-gabaergic-function-by-nanomolar-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-7nach-negative-modulator-kynurenic-acid
#7
Eden Flores-Barrera, Daniel R Thomases, Daryn K Cass, Ajay Bhandari, Robert Schwarcz, John P Bruno, Kuei Y Tseng
Increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to contribute to the development of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Although this view is consistent with pre-clinical studies showing a negative impact of prefrontal KYNA elevation on executive function, the mechanism underlying such a disruption remains unclear. Here we measured changes in local field potential responses to ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, and conducted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to reveal how nanomolar concentrations of KYNA alter synaptic transmission in the PFC of male adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725010/glucose-deficiency-elevates-acid-sensing-ion-channel-2a-expression-and-increases-seizure-susceptibility-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Haitao Zhang, Guodong Gao, Yu Zhang, Yang Sun, Huanfa Li, Shan Dong, Wei Ma, Bei Liu, Weiwen Wang, Hao Wu, Hua Zhang
Brain hypometabolism is a common epilepsy-related finding in both patients and animal models. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies have shown that recurrent seizures lead to reduced glucose metabolism in certain brain regions, but no studies have definitively determined whether this induces epileptogenesis. There is evidence that acid-sensing ion channel 2a (ASIC2a) affects epilepsy susceptibility. Transcription factor CP2 (TFCP2) regulates ASIC2a expression. We report that suppressed TFCP2 expression and elevated ASIC2a expression were associated with glucose hypometabolism in the hippocampi of humans with epilepsy and of rat epilepsy model brains...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714121/acetylcholine-dependent-upregulation-of-task-1-channels-in-thalamic-interneurons-by-a-smooth-muscle-like-signalling-pathway
#9
Michael Leist, Susanne Rinné, Maia Datunashvili, Ania Aissaoui, Hans-Christian Pape, Niels Decher, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Budde
The dorsal part of the lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the main thalamic site for state-dependent transmission of visual information. Non-retinal inputs from the ascending arousal system and inhibition provided by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic local circuit interneurons (INs) control neuronal activity within the dLGN. In particular, acetylcholine (ACh) depolarizes thalamocortical relay (TC) neurons by inhibiting two-pore domain potassium (K2P ) channels. Conversely, ACh also hyperpolarizes INs via an as-yet-unknown mechanism...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698388/delayed-cryptochrome-degradation-asymmetrically-alters-the-daily-rhythm-in-suprachiasmatic-clock-neuron-excitability
#10
Sven Wegner, Mino D C Belle, Alun T L Hughes, Casey O Diekman, Hugh D Piggins
Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) neurons contain an intracellular molecular circadian clock and the Cryptochromes (CRY1/2), key transcriptional repressors of this molecular apparatus, are subject to post-translational modification through ubiquitination and targeting for proteosomal degradation by the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. Loss-of-function point mutations in a component of this ligase complex, Fbxl3, delay CRY1/2 degradation, reduce circadian rhythm strength, and lengthen the circadian period by ∼2.5h...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696429/glud1-linked-to-schizophrenia-controls-the-burst-firing-of-dopamine-neurons
#11
N Benamer, F Marti, R Lujan, R Hepp, T G Aubier, A A M Dupin, G Frébourg, S Pons, U Maskos, P Faure, Y A Hay, B Lambolez, L Tricoire
Human mutations of the GRID1 gene encoding the orphan delta1 glutamate receptor-channel (GluD1) are associated with schizophrenia but the explicit role of GluD1 in brain circuits is unknown. Based on the known function of its paralog GluD2 in cerebellum, we searched for a role of GluD1 in slow glutamatergic transmission mediated by metabotropic receptor mGlu1 in midbrain dopamine neurons, whose dysfunction is a hallmark of schizophrenia. We found that an mGlu1 agonist elicits a slow depolarizing current in HEK cells co-expressing mGlu1 and GluD1, but not in cells expressing mGlu1 or GluD1 alone...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682946/cerebral-alterations-following-experimental-multiple-trauma-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#12
Nina Vogt, Christiane Herden, Elke Roeb, Martin Roderfeld, Daphne Eschbach, Thorsten Steinfeldt, Hinnerk Wulf, Steffen Ruchholtz, Eberhard Uhl, Karsten Schöller
Multiple trauma (MT) associated with hemorrhagic shock (HS) might lead to cerebral hypoperfusion and brain damage. We investigated cerebral alterations using a new porcine MT/HS model without traumatic brain injury (TBI) and assessed the neuroprotective properties of mild therapeutic hypothermia. Male pigs underwent standardized MT with HS (45% or 50% loss of blood volume) and resuscitation after 90/120 minutes (T90/T120). In additional groups (TH90/TH120) mild hypothermia (33°C) was induced following resuscitation...
July 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667175/the-relevance-of-agrp-neuron-derived-gaba-inputs-to-pomc-neurons-differs-for-spontaneous-and-evoked-release
#13
Andrew R Rau, Shane T Hentges
Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. Spontaneous GABA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA release from AgRP neurons either by cell-type-specific deletion of the vesicular GABA transporter or by expression of botulinum toxin in AgRP neurons to prevent VAMP2-dependent vesicle fusion...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666957/functional-perturbation-of-forebrain-principal-neurons-reveals-differential-effects-in-novel-and-well-learned-tasks
#14
Emily T Stoneham, Daniel G McHail, Katelyn N Boggs, Sarah H Albani, Jason A Carty, Rebekah C Evans, Kelly A Hamilton, Victoria M Saadat, Samanza Hussain, Maggie E Greer, Theodore C Dumas
Neural circuits in mammalian brains consist of large numbers of different cell types having different functional properties. To better understand the separate roles of individual neuron types in specific aspects of spatial learning and memory, we perturbed the function of principal neurons in vivo during maze performance or in hippocampal slices during recording of evoked excitatory synaptic potentials. Transgenic mice expressing the Drosophila allatostatin receptor (AlstR) in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells were tested on an elevated plus maze, in a Y-maze, and in the Morris water maze...
June 27, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656372/increased-gyrification-and-aberrant-adult-neurogenesis-of-the-dentate-gyrus-in-adult-rats
#15
Alejandra Magagna-Poveda, Jillian N Moretto, Helen E Scharfman
A remarkable example of maladaptive plasticity is the development of epilepsy after a brain insult or injury to a normal animal or human. A structure that is considered central to the development of this type of epilepsy is the dentate gyrus (DG), because it is normally a relatively inhibited structure and its quiescence is thought to reduce hippocampal seizure activity. This characteristic of the DG is also considered to be important for normal hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. It has been suggested that the brain insults which cause epilepsy do so because they cause the DG to be more easily activated...
June 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655644/pregnenolone-does-not-interfere-with-the-effects-of-cannabinoids-on-synaptic-transmission-in-the-cerebellum-and-the-nucleus-accumbens
#16
Anna Krohmer, Martin Brehm, Volker Auwärter, Bela Szabo
The steroid hormone pregnenolone attenuates several in vivo behavioural and somatic effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and it was suggested that pregnenolone can protect the brain from cannabis intoxication. The primary neuronal cannabinoid action behind most of the behavioural and somatic effects of cannabinoids is presynaptic inhibition of synaptic transmission. Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that pregnenolone attenuates the inhibition of synaptic transmission elicited by cannabinoids...
June 24, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655149/neuromodulation-of-axon-terminals
#17
Darpan Chakraborty, Dennis Q Truong, Marom Bikson, Hanoch Kaphzan
Understanding which cellular compartments are influenced during neuromodulation underpins any rational effort to explain and optimize outcomes. Axon terminals have long been speculated to be sensitive to polarization, but experimentally informed models for CNS stimulation are lacking. We conducted simultaneous intracellular recording from the neuron soma and axon terminal (blebs) during extracellular stimulation with weak sustained (DC) uniform electric fields in mouse cortical slices. Use of weak direct current stimulation (DCS) allowed isolation and quantification of changes in axon terminal biophysics, relevant to both suprathreshold (e...
June 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649992/a-key-role-for-neurotensin-in-chronic-stress-induced-anxiety-like-behavior-in-rats
#18
Catherine P Normandeau, Ana Paula Ventura-Silva, Emily R Hawken, Staci Angelis, Calvin Sjaarda, Xudong Liu, José Miguel Pêgo, É C Dumont
Chronic stress is a major cause of anxiety disorders that can be reliably modeled preclinically, providing insight into alternative therapeutic targets for this mental health illness. Neuropeptides have been targeted in the past to no avail possibly due to our lack of understanding of their role in pathological models. In this study we use a rat model of chronic stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors and hypothesized that neuropeptidergic modulation of synaptic transmission would be altered in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a brain region suspected to contribute to anxiety disorders...
June 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635080/neuroadaptations-of-presynaptic-and-postsynaptic-gabab-receptor-function-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-in-response-to-chronic-unpredictable-stress
#19
Yonggang Gao, Jing-Jing Zhou, Yun Zhu, Li Wang, Therese A Kosten, Xiangjian Zhang, De-Pei Li
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic stress impairs GABAA (GABA type A) receptor-mediated inhibition in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It is not clear whether GABAB receptor function is also altered. We hypothesize that chronic stress alters GABAB receptor function in PVN corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons to control hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made of PVN-CRH neurons expressing eGFP driven by CRH promoter in brain slices from unstressed rats and rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)...
September 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635024/a-small-molecule-activator-of-nav-1-1-channels-increases-fast-spiking-interneuron-excitability-and-gabaergic-transmission-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-has-anti-convulsive-effects-in%C3%A2-vivo
#20
Kristen Frederiksen, Dunguo Lu, Jinhui Yang, Henrik Sindal Jensen, Jesper Frank Bastlund, Peter Hjørringgaard Larsen, Henry Liu, François Crestey, Kim Dekermendjian, Lassina Badolo, Morten Laursen, Charlotte Hougaard, Charles Yang, Niels Svenstrup, Morten Grunnet
Nav 1.1 (SCN1A) channels primarily located in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic fast-spiking interneurons are pivotal for action potential generation and propagation in these neurons. Inappropriate function of fast-spiking interneurons, leading to disinhibition of pyramidal cells and network desynchronization, correlates with decreased cognitive capability. Further, reduced functionality of Nav 1.1 channels is linked to various diseases in the central nervous system. There is, at present, however no subtype selective pharmacological activators of Nav 1...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
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