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brain slice recording

A D Surowka, M Töpperwien, M Bernhardt, J D Nicolas, M Osterhoff, T Salditt, D Adamek, M Szczerbowska-Boruchowska
Human dopaminergic system in general, and substantia nigra (SN) neurons, in particular, are implicated in the pathologies underlying the human brain aging. The interplay between aberrations in the structural organization and elemental composition of SN neuron bodies has recently gained in importance as selected metals: Fe, Cu, Zn, Ca were found to trigger oxidative-stress-mediated aberration in their molecular assembly due to concomitant protein (alpha-synuclein, tau-protein) aggregation, gliosis and finally oxidative stress...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Thomas J Younts, Hannah R Monday, Barna Dudok, Matthew E Klein, Bryen A Jordan, István Katona, Pablo E Castillo
Long-term changes of neurotransmitter release are critical for proper brain function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes are poorly understood. While protein synthesis is crucial for the consolidation of postsynaptic plasticity, whether and how protein synthesis regulates presynaptic plasticity in the mature mammalian brain remain unclear. Here, using paired whole-cell recordings in rodent hippocampal slices, we report that presynaptic protein synthesis is required for long-term, but not short-term, plasticity of GABA release from type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1)-expressing axons...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
Hanne Mette Hoffmann, Nadine Crouzin, Estefanía Moreno, Noora Raivio, Silvia Fuentes, Peter J McCormick, Jordi Ortiz, Michel Vignes
BACKGROUND: Cocaine addiction continues to be a major heath concern, and despite public health intervention there is a lack of efficient pharmacological treatment options. A newly identified potential target are the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/5), with allosteric modulators showing particular promise. METHODS: We evaluated the capacity of mGluR1/5 receptors to induce functional responses in ex vivo striatal slices from rats with 1) acute cocaine self-administration (CSA), 2) chronic CSA and 3) 60 days CSA withdrawal by westernblot and extracellular recordings of synaptic transmission...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
I Kolb, W A Stoy, E B Rousseau, O A Moody, A Jenkins, C R Forest
Patch-clamp recording has enabled single-cell electrical, morphological and genetic studies at unparalleled resolution. Yet it remains a laborious and low-throughput technique, making it largely impractical for large-scale measurements such as cell type and connectivity characterization of neurons in the brain. Specifically, the technique is critically limited by the ubiquitous practice of manually replacing patch-clamp pipettes after each recording. To circumvent this limitation, we developed a simple, fast, and automated method for cleaning glass pipette electrodes that enables their reuse within one minute...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nienke A V Derks, Harm J Krugers, Casper C Hoogenraad, Marian Joëls, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) increases the risk for developing psychopathology in adulthood. When these effects occur is largely unknown. We here studied at which time during development ELS affects hippocampal synaptic plasticity, from early life to adulthood, in a rodent ELS model. Moreover, we investigated whether the sensitivity of synaptic plasticity to the stress-hormone corticosterone is altered by exposure to ELS. MATERIALS & METHODS: Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to maternal deprivation (MD) for 24h on postnatal day (P)3 or left undisturbed with their mother (control)...
2016: PloS One
Catarina Luís, Nazzareno Cannella, Rainer Spanagel, Georg Köhr
High rates of relapse after prolonged abstinence are often triggered by exposure to drug-associated cues that induce drug craving. Incubation of drug craving is a phenomenon that consists of time-dependent increases in cue-induced drug craving during withdrawal. Plasticity mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) underlie drug-seeking responses and involve changes in excitatory synaptic transmission's efficacy. In particular, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) glutamatergic input to the NAc core has been well characterized regarding cocaine-evoked plasticity following non-contingent versus contingent exposure to cocaine or alternatively after protracted abstinence...
October 5, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Marquitta Smith, Thuvan Piehler, Richard Benjamin, Karen L Farizatto, Morgan C Pait, Michael F Almeida, Vladimir V Ghukasyan, Ben A Bahr
Explosives create shockwaves that cause blast-induced neurotrauma, one of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service. Blast-induced TBIs are often associated with reduced cognitive and behavioral functions due to a variety of factors. To study the direct effects of military explosive blasts on brain tissue, we removed systemic factors by utilizing rat hippocampal slice cultures. The long-term slice cultures were briefly sealed air-tight in serum-free medium, lowered into a 37°C water-filled tank, and small 1...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Dobromila Pekala, Hanna Szkudlarek, Morten Raastad
We studied the ability of typical unmyelinated cortical axons to conduct action potentials at fever-like temperatures because fever often gives CNS symptoms. We investigated such axons in cerebellar and hippocampal slices from 10 to 25 days old rats at temperatures between 30 and 43°C. By recording with two electrodes along axonal pathways, we confirmed that the axons were able to initiate action potentials, but at temperatures >39°C, the propagation of the action potentials to a more distal recording site was reduced...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Paras R Patel, Huanan Zhang, Matthew T Robbins, Justin B Nofar, Shaun P Marshall, Michael J Kobylarek, Takashi D Y Kozai, Nicholas A Kotov, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Individual carbon fiber microelectrodes can record unit activity in both acute and semi-chronic (∼1 month) implants. Additionally, new methods have been developed to insert a 16 channel array of carbon fiber microelectrodes. Before assessing the in vivo long-term viability of these arrays, accelerated soak tests were carried out to determine the most stable site coating material. Next, a multi-animal, multi-month, chronic implantation study was carried out with carbon fiber microelectrode arrays and silicon electrodes...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Naoki Yamawaki, Benjamin A Suter, Ian R Wickersham, Gordon M G Shepherd
A set of methods is described for channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-based synaptic circuit analysis that combines photostimulation of virally transfected presynaptic neurons' axons with whole-cell electrophysiological recordings from retrogradely labeled postsynaptic neurons. The approach exploits the preserved photoexcitability of ChR2-expressing axons in brain slices and can be used to assess either local or long-range functional connections. Stereotaxic injections are used both to express ChR2 selectively in presynaptic axons of interest (using rabies virus [RV] or adeno-associated virus [AAV]) and to label two types of postsynaptic projection neurons of interest with fluorescent retrograde tracers...
October 3, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Tomoyuki Kaneko, Katsuyuki Kaneda, Atsushi Ohno, Daiki Takahashi, Taiki Hara, Taiju Amano, Soichiro Ide, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Masabumi Minami
Pain is a complex experience involving sensory and affective components. Although the neuronal mechanisms underlying the sensory component of pain have been extensively studied, those underlying its affective component have yet to be elucidated. Recently, we reported that corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced depolarization in type II neurons within the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dlBNST) is critical for pain-induced aversive responses in rats. However, the intracellular signaling underlying the excitatory effects of CRF and the contribution of such signaling to the induction of pain-induced aversion remain unclear...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ammy M Santiago, Deborah J Clegg, Vanessa H Routh
OBJECTIVE: Brain regulation of glucose homeostasis is sexually dimorphic; however, the impact sex hormones have on specific neuronal populations within the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), a metabolically sensitive brain region, has yet to be fully characterized. Glucose-excited (GE) and -inhibited (GI) neurons are located throughout the VMN and may play a critical role in glucose and energy homeostasis. Within the ventrolateral portion of the VMN (VL-VMN), glucose sensing neurons and estrogen receptor (ER) distributions overlap...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Francisco J Urbano, Brennon R Luster, Stasia D'Onofrio, Susan Mahaffey, Edgar Garcia-Rill
Synaptic efferents from the PPN are known to modulate the neuronal activity of several intralaminar thalamic regions (e.g., the centrolateral/parafascicular; Cl/Pf nucleus). The activation of either the PPN or Cl/Pf nuclei in vivo has been described to induce the arousal of the animal and an increment in gamma band activity in the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). The cellular mechanisms for the generation of gamma band oscillations in Reticular Activating System (RAS) neurons are the same as those found to generate gamma band oscillations in other brains nuclei...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Enzo Wanke, Francesca Gullo, Elena Dossi, Gaetano Valenza, Andrea Becchetti
Astrocytes reuptake synaptically released glutamate with electrogenic transporters (GluT), and buffer the spike-dependent extracellular K(+) ([K(+)]o) excess with background K(+) channels. We studied neuronal spikes and the slower astrocytic signals on reverberating neocortical cultures and organotypic slices from mouse brains. Spike trains and glial responses were simultaneously captured from individual sites of multi-electrode arrays (MEA), by splitting the recorded traces into appropriate filters, and reconstructing the original signal by deconvolution...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Elisa G Krächan, Alexander U Fischer, Jürgen Franke, Eckhard Friauf
At early stations of the auditory pathway, information is encoded in the precise signal timing and rate. Auditory synapses must maintain the relative timing of events with submillisecond precision even during sustained and high-frequency stimulation. In non-auditory brain regions, e.g. telencephalic ones, synapses are activated at considerably lower frequencies. Central to understanding the heterogeneity of synaptic systems is to elucidate the physical, chemical, and biological factors that determine synapse performance...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Kazuki Okamoto, Yuki Takagi, Yuji Ikegaya
The CA2 region is unique in the hippocampus; it receives direct synaptic innervations from several hypothalamic nuclei and expresses various receptors of neuromodulators, including adenosine, vasopressin, and oxytocin. Furthermore, the CA2 region may have distinct brain functions, such as the control of instinctive and social behaviors; however, little is known about the dynamics of the subthreshold membrane potentials of CA2 neurons in vivo. We conducted whole-cell current-clamp recordings from CA2 pyramidal cells in urethane-anesthetized mice and monitored the intrinsic fluctuations in their membrane potentials...
September 20, 2016: Hippocampus
Xinyu Xu, Chen Zheng, Nan Li, Hui Shen, Guolin Wang
Desflurane is one of the third generation inhaled anesthetics and can be used in obstetric and pediatric medicine. However, effects of exposure to desflurane on neonatal brain are largely unknown. In this work, 6-day-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 1MAC or 1.5MAC desflurane for 2h. When the mice were 28-day-old, the open-field, spontaneous alternation Y-maze and fear conditioning tests were performed to evaluate general activity, working memory and long term memory, respectively. Levels of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2A, and NR2B expression in hippocampus were evaluated by western blot...
September 14, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
De-An Zhao, Ling-Yun Bi, Qian Huang, Fang-Min Zhang, Zi-Ming Han
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Isoflurane is halogenated volatile ether used for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely used in clinics as an inhalational anesthetic. Neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury ensues in the immature brain that results in delayed cell death via excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Isoflurane has shown neuroprotective properties that make a beneficial basis of using isoflurane in both cell culture and animal models, including various models of brain injury. We aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of isoflurane on hypoxic brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism...
September 13, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Michael D Grannan, Catharine A Mielnik, Sean P Moran, Robert W Gould, Jacob Ball, Zhuoyan Lu, Michael Bubser, Amy J Ramsey, Masahito Abe, Hyekyung P Cho, Kellie D Nance, Anna L Blobaum, Colleen M Niswender, P Jeffrey Conn, Craig W Lindsley, Carrie K Jones
Abnormalities in the signaling of the N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor (NMDAR) within cortical and limbic brain regions are thought to underlie many of the complex cognitive and affective symptoms observed in individuals with schizophrenia. The M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtype is a closely coupled signaling partner of the NMDAR. Accumulating evidence suggests that development of selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the M1 receptor represent an important treatment strategy for the potential normalization of disruptions in NMDAR signaling in patients with schizophrenia...
October 5, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Calum Alex Grimsley, David Brian Green, Shobhana Sivaramakrishnan
The coding of sound level by ensembles of neurons improves the accuracy with which listeners identify how loud a sound is. In the auditory system, the rate at which neurons fire in response to changes in sound level is shaped by local networks. Voltage-gated conductances alter local output by regulating neuronal firing, but their role in modulating responses to sound level is unclear. Here, we tested the effects of L-type calcium channels (CaL: CaV1.1-1.4) on sound level coding in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), in the auditory midbrain...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
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