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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324602/imaging-of-brain-slices-with-a-genetically-encoded-voltage-indicator
#1
Peter Quicke, Samuel J Barnes, Thomas Knöpfel
Functional fluorescence microscopy of brain slices using voltage sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFPs) allows large scale electrophysiological monitoring of neuronal excitation and inhibition. We describe the equipment and techniques needed to successfully record functional responses optical voltage signals from cells expressing a voltage indicator such as VSFP Butterfly 1.2. We also discuss the advantages of voltage imaging and the challenges it presents.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315444/directional-spread-of-activity-in-synaptic-networks-of-the-human-lateral-amygdala
#2
Stéphanie Graebenitz, Manuela Cerina, Jörg Lesting, Olga Kedo, Ali Gorji, Heinz Pannek, Volkmar Hans, Karl Zilles, Hans-Christian Pape, Erwin-Josef Speckmann
Spontaneous epileptiform activity has previously been observed in lateral amygdala (LA) slices derived from patients with intractable-temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study aimed to characterize intranuclear LA synaptic connectivity and to test the hypothesis that differences in the spread of flow of neuronal activity may relate to spontaneous epileptiform activity occurrence. Electrical activity was evoked through electrical microstimulation in acute human brain slices containing the LA, signals were recorded as local field potentials combined with fast optical imaging of voltage-sensitive dye fluorescence...
March 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315396/ischemia-deteriorates-spike-encoding-at-cortical-gabaergic-neurons-and-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-by-increasing-the-intracellular-ca-2
#3
Li Huang, Chun Wang, Rongjing Ge, Hong Ni, Shidi Zhao
GABAergic neurons play a critical role in the central nervous system, such as well-organized behaviors. The ischemic cell death is presumably initiated by neuronal excitotoxicity resulted from the dysfunction of GABAergic neurons. It is not clear how ischemia influences different types of GABAergic neurons and whether intracellular Ca(2+) plays a key role in the ischemic excitotoxicity. We have investigated this issue at cortical GABAergic neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells by whole-cell recording in mouse brain slices, and the roles of intracellular Ca(2+) are examined by BABTA infusion...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298170/concussion-induces-hippocampal-circuitry-disruption-in-swine
#4
John A Wolf, Brian N Johnson, Victoria E Johnson, Mary E Putt, Kevin D Browne, Constance J Mietus, Daniel P Brown, Kathryn L Wofford, Douglas H Smith, M Sean Grady, Akiva S Cohen, D Kacy Cullen
Hippocampal-dependent deficits in learning and memory formation are a prominent feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the role of the hippocampus in cognitive dysfunction after concussion (mild TBI) is unknown. We therefore investigated functional and structural changes in the swine hippocampus following TBI using a model of head rotational acceleration that closely replicates the biomechanics and neuropathology of closed-head TBI in humans. We examined neurophysiological changes using a novel ex vivo hippocampal slice paradigm with extracellular stimulation and recording in the dentate gyrus and CA1 occurring at 7 days following non-impact inertial TBI in swine...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294308/neuronal-inhibition-and-seizure-suppression-by-acetoacetate-and-its-analog-2-phenylbutyrate
#5
Atsushi Kadowaki, Nagisa Sada, Narinobu Juge, Ayaka Wakasa, Yoshinori Moriyama, Tsuyoshi Inoue
OBJECTIVE: The ketogenic diet is clinically used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy. The diet treatment markedly increases ketone bodies (acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate), which work as energy metabolites in the brain. Here, we investigated effects of acetoacetate on voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) in pyramidal cells of the hippocampus. We further explored an acetoacetate analog that inhibited VDCCs in pyramidal cells, reduced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), and suppressed seizures in vivo...
March 11, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287556/in-utero-electroporation-approaches-to-study-the-excitability-of-neuronal-subpopulations-and-single-cell-connectivity
#6
Carlos G Briz, Marta Navarrete, José A Esteban, Marta Nieto
The nervous system is composed of an enormous range of distinct neuronal types. These neuronal subpopulations are characterized by, among other features, their distinct dendritic morphologies, their specific patterns of axonal connectivity, and their selective firing responses. The molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for these aspects of differentiation during development are still poorly understood. Here, we describe combined protocols for labeling and characterizing the structural connectivity and excitability of cortical neurons...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270612/synchronous-circadian-voltage-rhythms-with-asynchronous-calcium-rhythms-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#7
Ryosuke Enoki, Yoshiaki Oda, Michihiro Mieda, Daisuke Ono, Sato Honma, Ken-Ichi Honma
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock, contains a network composed of multiple types of neurons which are thought to form a hierarchical and multioscillator system. The molecular clock machinery in SCN neurons drives membrane excitability and sends time cue signals to various brain regions and peripheral organs. However, how and at what time of the day these neurons transmit output signals remain largely unknown. Here, we successfully visualized circadian voltage rhythms optically for many days using a genetically encoded voltage sensor, ArcLightD...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269213/behavior-of-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-in-regard-of-brain-activity-a-proof-of-concept
#8
Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Dang Nguyen, Lionel Carmant, Alain Bouthillier, Nathalie T Sanon, Mohamad Sawan
The study of cerebral magnetic activity is very promising for the understanding and care of diseases involving impaired cerebral activity such as epilepsy. One of the main hurdle in the recording of cerebral magnetic activity is that the intensity of cerebral magnetic fields is very weak. In this regard, we explore another potential way to appreciate the magnetic cerebral activity using superparamagnetic nanoparticles. These particles react to magnetic fields and can aggregate under their influence. Being superparamagnetic, they are also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259877/findings-of-vascular-brain-injury-and-structural-loss-from-cranial-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-elderly-american-indians-the-strong-heart-study
#9
Astrid M Suchy-Dicey, Dean K Shibata, Tara M Madhyastha, Thomas J Grabowski, W T Longstreth, Dedra S Buchwald
BACKGROUND: The Cerebrovascular Disease and its Consequences in American Indians study conducted cranial MRI examination of surviving participants of the Strong Heart Study, a longitudinal cohort of elderly American Indians. METHODS: Of the 1,033 recruited participants, some were unable to complete the MRI (n = 22), some scans were unusable due to participant motion or technical errors (n = 13), and one community withdrew consent after data collection (n = 209), leaving 789 interpretable MRI scan images...
March 4, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258626/glucose-concentrations-modulate-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-responsiveness-of-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#10
William McIsaac, Alastair V Ferguson
The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is critical for normal energy balance and has been shown to contain high levels of both BDNF and TrkB mRNA. Microinjections of BDNF into the PVN increase energy expenditure, suggesting BDNF plays an important role in energy homeostasis through direct actions in this nucleus. The current studies were undertaken to examine the postsynaptic effects of BDNF on the membrane potential of PVN neurons, and to determine if extracellular glucose concentrations modulated these effects...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242676/voltage-sensitive-rhodol-with-enhanced-two-photon-brightness
#11
Rishikesh U Kulkarni, Daniel J Kramer, Narges Pourmandi, Kaveh Karbasi, Helen S Bateup, Evan W Miller
We have designed, synthesized, and applied a rhodol-based chromophore to a molecular wire-based platform for voltage sensing to achieve fast, sensitive, and bright voltage sensing using two-photon (2P) illumination. Rhodol VoltageFluor-5 (RVF5) is a voltage-sensitive dye with improved 2P cross-section for use in thick tissue or brain samples. RVF5 features a dichlororhodol core with pyrrolidyl substitution at the nitrogen center. In mammalian cells under one-photon (1P) illumination, RVF5 demonstrates high voltage sensitivity (28% ΔF/F per 100 mV) and improved photostability relative to first-generation voltage sensors...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240725/assessment-of-mutations-in-kcnn2-and-znf135-to-patient-neurological-symptoms
#12
Vijeta Raghuram, Sydney Weber, Jacob Raber, Dong-Hui Chen, Thomas D Bird, James Maylie, John P Adelman
Exome sequencing from a patient with neurological and developmental symptoms revealed two mutations in separate genes. One was a homozygous transition mutation that results in an in-frame, premature translational stop codon in the ZNF135 gene predicted to encode a transcriptional repressor. Another mutation was heterozygous, a single nucleotide duplication in the KCNN2 gene that encodes a Ca-activated K channel, SK2, and leads to a translational frame shift and a premature stop codon. Heterologous expression studies, brain slice recordings, and coordination tests from a transgenic mouse line carrying the SK2 mutation suggest that it does not contribute to the patient's symptoms...
February 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227443/behavior-of-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-in-regard-of-brain-activity-a-proof-of-concept
#13
Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Dang Nguyen, Lionel Carmant, Alain Bouthillier, Nathalie T Sanon, Mohamad Sawan, Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Dang Nguyen, Lionel Carmant, Alain Bouthillier, Nathalie T Sanon, Mohamad Sawan, Dang Nguyen, Alain Bouthillier, Mohamad Sawan, Nathalie T Sanon, Pierre-Olivier Champagne, Lionel Carmant
The study of cerebral magnetic activity is very promising for the understanding and care of diseases involving impaired cerebral activity such as epilepsy. One of the main hurdle in the recording of cerebral magnetic activity is that the intensity of cerebral magnetic fields is very weak. In this regard, we explore another potential way to appreciate the magnetic cerebral activity using superparamagnetic nanoparticles. These particles react to magnetic fields and can aggregate under their influence. Being superparamagnetic, they are also visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223513/single-neuron-identification-of-chemical-constituents-physiological-changes-and-metabolism-using-mass-spectrometry
#14
Hongying Zhu, Guichang Zou, Ning Wang, Meihui Zhuang, Wei Xiong, Guangming Huang
The use of single-cell assays has emerged as a cutting-edge technique during the past decade. Although single-cell mass spectrometry (MS) has recently achieved remarkable results, deep biological insights have not yet been obtained, probably because of various technical issues, including the unavoidable use of matrices, the inability to maintain cell viability, low throughput because of sample pretreatment, and the lack of recordings of cell physiological activities from the same cell. In this study, we describe a patch clamp/MS-based platform that enables the sensitive, rapid, and in situ chemical profiling of single living neurons...
March 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223240/carbachol-induced-network-oscillations-in-an-in-vitro-limbic-system-brain-slice
#15
Maxime Lévesque, Mauro Cataldi, Li-Yuan Chen, Shabnam Hamidi, Massimo Avoli
We employed simultaneous field potential recordings from CA3, subiculum and entorhinal cortex in an in vitro brain slice preparation to understand the involvement of these limbic areas in the generation of the field potential oscillations that are induced by bath application of the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol. Regularly spaced oscillations that mainly presented at theta frequency range (5-12Hz) occurred synchronously in all three structures in the presence of carbachol. These oscillations, which disappeared when slices were perfused with pirenzepine or with glutamatergic receptor antagonists, were categorized as short (<4s) and long (>4s) with short events oscillating at higher frequencies than long events...
February 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217893/geniculohypothalamic-gabaergic-projections-gate-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-responses-to-retinal-input
#16
Lydia Hanna, Lauren Walmsley, Abigail Pienaar, Michael Howarth, Timothy M Brown
Sensory input to the master mammalian circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is vital in allowing animals to optimise physiology and behaviour alongside daily changes in the environment. Retinal inputs encoding changes in external illumination provide the principle source of such information. The SCN also receives input from other retinorecipient brain regions, primarily via the geniculohypothalamic tract (GHT), but the contribution of these indirect projections to circadian photoreception are currently poorly understood...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213442/amplitude-normalization-of-dendritic-epsps-at-the-soma-of-binaural-coincidence-detector-neurons-of-the-medial-superior-olive
#17
Bradley D Winters, Shan-Xue Jin, Kenneth R Ledford, Nace L Golding
The principal neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) encode cues for horizontal sound localization through comparisons of the relative timing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). To understand how the timing and amplitude of EPSPs is maintained during propagation in the dendrites, we made dendritic and somatic whole-cell recordings from MSO principal neurons in brain slices from Mongolian gerbils. In somatic recordings, EPSP amplitudes were largely uniform following minimal stimulation of excitatory synapses at visualized locations along the dendrites...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211543/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-physiology-of-low-nanomolar-concentrations-of-zn-2-in-artificial-cerebrospinal-fluid
#18
Haruna Tamano, Ryusuke Nishio, Yukina Shakushi, Miku Sasaki, Yuta Koike, Misa Osawa, Atsushi Takeda
Artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), i.e., brain extracellular medium, which includes Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), but not other divalent cations such as Zn(2+), has been used for in vitro and in vivo experiments. The present study deals with the physiological significance of extracellular Zn(2+) in ACSF. Spontaneous presynaptic activity is suppressed in the stratum lucidum of brain slices from young rats bathed in ACSF containing 10 nM ZnCl2, indicating that extracellular Zn(2+) modifies hippocampal presynaptic activity...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206685/claustrum-of-the-short-tailed-fruit-bat-carollia-perspicillata-alignment-of-cellular-orientation-and-functional-connectivity
#19
Rena Orman, Richard Kollmar, Mark Stewart
The claustrum is a gray-matter structure that underlies neocortex and reciprocates connections with cortical and subcortical targets. In lower mammals, the claustrum is directly adjacent to neocortex, making the definition of claustral boundaries challenging. Latexin, an endogenous inhibitor of metallocarboxypeptidases, localizes to claustral cells, enabling a clear delineation of claustrum. Given its proportionately large claustrum, we hypothesized that the short-tailed fruit bat, Carollia perspicillata, can be a useful model for claustral structure-function relations...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198431/investigation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-in-mice-deficient-in-the-actin-binding-protein-drebrin
#20
Claudia G Willmes, Till G A Mack, Julia Ledderose, Dietmar Schmitz, Christian Wozny, Britta J Eickholt
The dynamic regulation of the actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in controlling the structure and function of synapses. It is vital for activity-dependent modulation of synaptic transmission and long-term changes in synaptic morphology associated with memory consolidation. Several regulators of actin dynamics at the synapse have been identified, of which a salient one is the postsynaptic actin stabilising protein Drebrin (DBN). It has been suggested that DBN modulates neurotransmission and changes in dendritic spine morphology associated with synaptic plasticity...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
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