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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470463/monitoring-intracellular-nanomolar-calcium-using-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging
#1
Kaiyu Zheng, Thomas P Jensen, Dmitri A Rusakov
Nanomolar-range fluctuations of intracellular [Ca2+ ] are critical for brain cell function but remain difficult to measure. We have advanced a microscopy technique to monitor intracellular [Ca2+ ] in individual cells in acute brain slices (also applicable in vivo) using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of the Ca2+ -sensitive fluorescent indicator Oregon Green BAPTA1 (OGB-1). The OGB-1 fluorescence lifetime is sensitive to [Ca2+ ] within the 10-500 nM range but not to other factors such as viscosity, temperature, or pH...
March 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468672/ca-v-3-2-drives-sustained-burst-firing-which-is-critical-for-absence-seizure-propagation-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#2
Stuart M Cain, John R Tyson, Hyun-Beom Choi, Rebecca Ko, Paulo J C Lin, Jeffrey M LeDue, Kim L Powell, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Ravi L Rungta, Yi Yang, Pieter R Cullis, Terence J O'Brien, Brian A MacVicar, Terrance P Snutch
OBJECTIVE: Genetic alterations have been identified in the CACNA1H gene, encoding the CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel in patients with absence epilepsy, yet the precise mechanisms relating to seizure propagation and spike-wave-discharge (SWD) pacemaking remain unknown. Neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) express high levels of CaV 3.2 calcium channels, and we investigated whether a gain-of-function mutation in the Cacna1h gene in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) contributes to seizure propagation and pacemaking in the TRN...
February 21, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466841/seizures-and-disturbed-brain-potassium-dynamics-in-the-leukodystrophy-mlc
#3
Mohit Dubey, Eelke Brouwers, Eline M C Hamilton, Oliver Stiedl, Marianna Bugiani, Henner Koch, Maarten H P Kole, Ursula Boschert, Robert C Wykes, Huibert D Mansvelder, Marjo S van der Knaap, Rogier Min
OBJECTIVE: Loss of function of the astrocyte-specific protein MLC1 leads to the childhood onset leukodystrophy "megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts" (MLC). Studies on isolated cells show a role for MLC1 in astrocyte volume regulation and suggest that disturbed brain ion and water homeostasis is central to the disease. Excitability of neuronal networks is particularly sensitive to ion and water homeostasis. In line with this, reports of seizures and epilepsy in MLC patients exist...
February 21, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464573/intrinsic-inflammation-is-a-potential-anti-epileptogenic-target-in-the-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-model
#4
Seon-Ah Chong, Silvia Balosso, Catherine Vandenplas, Gregory Szczesny, Etienne Hanon, Kasper Claes, Xavier Van Damme, Bénédicte Danis, Jonathan Van Eyll, Christian Wolff, Annamaria Vezzani, Rafal M Kaminski, Isabelle Niespodziany
Understanding the mechanisms of epileptogenesis is essential to develop novel drugs that could prevent or modify the disease. Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a promising target for therapeutic interventions to inhibit the epileptogenic process that evolves from traumatic brain injury. However, it remains unclear whether cytokine-related pathways, particularly TNFα signaling, have a critical role in the development of epilepsy. In this study, we investigated the role of innate inflammation in an in vitro model of post-traumatic epileptogenesis...
February 20, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464489/learning-neural-connectivity-from-firing-activity-efficient-algorithms-with-provable-guarantees-on-topology
#5
Amin Karbasi, Amir Hesam Salavati, Martin Vetterli
The connectivity of a neuronal network has a major effect on its functionality and role. It is generally believed that the complex network structure of the brain provides a physiological basis for information processing. Therefore, identifying the network's topology has received a lot of attentions in neuroscience and has been the center of many research initiatives such as Human Connectome Project. Nevertheless, direct and invasive approaches that slice and observe the neural tissue have proven to be time consuming, complex and costly...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459821/pre-and-postsynaptic-activation-of-gaba-b-receptors-modulates-principal-cell-excitation-in-the-piriform-cortex
#6
Leah B Gerrard, Malinda L S Tantirigama, John M Bekkers
The piriform cortex (PC), like other cortical regions, normally operates in a state of dynamic equilibrium between excitation and inhibition. Here we examined the roles played by pre- and postsynaptic GABAB receptors in maintaining this equilibrium in the PC. Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices from the anterior PC of mice, we found that synaptic activation of postsynaptic GABAB receptors hyperpolarized the two major classes of layer 2 principal neurons and reduced the intrinsic electrical excitability of these neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447951/suction-electrode-recording-in-locus-coeruleus-of-newborn-rat-brain-slices-reveals-network-bursting-comprising-summated-non-synchronous-spiking
#7
Vladimir Rancic, Bijal Rawal, Bogdan Panaitescu, Araya Ruangkittisakul, Klaus Ballanyi
The brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) controling behaviors like arousal, sleep, breathing, pain or opioid withdrawal is an established model for spontaneous action potential synchronization. Such synchronous 'spiking' might produce an extracellular field potential (FP) which is a crucial tool for neural network analyses. We found using ≥10 μm tip diameter suction electrodes in newborn rat brainstem slices that the LC generates at ∼1 Hz a robust rhythmic FP (rFP). During distinct rFP phases, LC neurons discharge with a jitter of ±33 ms single spikes that summate to a ∼200 ms-lasting population burst...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447844/angiotensin-ii-facilitates-gabaergic-neurotransmission-at-postsynaptic-sites-in-rat-amygdala-neurons
#8
Bo Hu, Hu Qiao, Tian Cao, Bo Sun, Xiao Luo, Ru Jia, Yuanyuan Fan, Nan Wang, Yi Lu, Jianqun Yan
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the regulation of sodium appetite. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is important in the generation of sodium appetite and may function as a neurotransmitter or modulator to affect the synaptic transmission and the excitability of neurons. However, the role of Ang II in the CeA remains unclear. In this study, we determined the effects of Ang II on the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to the CeA neurons in brain slices with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
February 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438798/short-term-fasting-decreases-excitatory-synaptic-inputs-to-ventromedial-tuberoinfundibular-dopaminergic-neurons-and-attenuates-their-activity-in-male-mice
#9
Takafumi Kubota, Atsushi Fukushima, Hiroko Hagiwara, Yoshinori Kamiya, Miyako Furuta, Tomoyuki Miyazaki, Hitomi Fujioka, Sei-Etsu Fujiwara, Toshiya Funabashi, Tatsuo Akema
Tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus play a role in inhibiting prolactin (PRL) secretion from the anterior pituitary. PRL is involved in a variety of behaviors, including feeding. Consequently, we hypothesized that fasting might reduce the activity of TIDA neurons, which might alter PRL secretion. However, direct examinations of TIDA neuron activity are difficult. Recently, transgenic mice were generated that expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the rat tyrosine hydroxylase gene...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433836/multiresolution-image-registration-for-multimodal-brain-images-and-fusion-for-better-neurosurgical-planning
#10
Siddeshappa Nandish, Gopalakrishna Prabhu, Kadavigere V Rajagopal
BACKGROUND: Imaging modalities in medicine gives complementary information. Inadequacy in clinical information made single imaging modality insufficient. There is a need for computer-based system that permits rapid acquisition of digital medical images and performs multi-modality registration, segmentation and three-dimensional planning of minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. In this regard proposed article presents multimodal brain image registration and fusion for better neurosurgical planning...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421326/kv3-k-currents-control-spike-timing-in-dorsal-cochlear-nucleus-principal-cells
#11
Timothy Olsen, Alberto Capurro, Nadia Pilati, Charles Large, Martine Hamann
Exposure to loud sound increases burst-firing of dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) fusiform cells in the auditory brainstem, which has been suggested to be an electrophysiological correlate of tinnitus. The altered activity of DCN fusiform cells may be due to down-regulation of high voltage-activated (Kv3-like) K+ currents. Whole cell current-clamp recordings were obtained from DCN fusiform cells in brain slices from P15-P18 CBA mice. We first studied whether acoustic over-exposure (performed at P15) or pharmacological inhibition of K+ currents with tetraethylamonium (TEA) affect fusiform cell action potential characteristics, firing frequency and spike-timing relative to evoking current stimuli...
February 5, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420933/precisely-timed-nicotinic-activation-drives-sst-inhibition-in-neocortical-circuits
#12
Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Jean-Sebastien Jouhanneau, Stephanie E Myal, James F A Poulet, Alison L Barth
Sleep, waking, locomotion, and attention are associated with cell-type-specific changes in neocortical activity. The effect of brain state on circuit output requires understanding of how neuromodulators influence specific neuronal classes and their synapses, with normal patterns of neuromodulator release from endogenous sources. We investigated the state-dependent modulation of a ubiquitous feedforward inhibitory motif in mouse sensory cortex, local pyramidal (Pyr) inputs onto somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419884/balancing-tonic-and-phasic-inhibition-in-hypothalamic-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons
#13
Phillip L W Colmers, Jaideep S Bains
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) are integratory hubs that regulate the endocrine response to stress. GABA inputs provide a basal inhibitory tone that constrains this system and circulating glucocorticoids (CORT) are important feedback controllers of CRH output. Surprisingly little is known about the direct effects of CORT on GABA synapses in PVN. Here we used whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CRH neurons in mouse hypothalamic brain slices to examine the effects of CORT on synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA signalling...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399096/the-effect-of-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-on-tlr4-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway
#14
Jing Chen, Chenli Yang, Xiang Xu, Yonglin Yang, Bo Xu
The present study analyzed the change of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model. A sample of 36 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly selected and divided into sham operation group (group S), control group (group C) and Chrysanthemum ester group (NF-κB inhibitor, group CE), each group consisted of 12 rats. The rat model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion was established. The physiological indexes and neurological severity score of rats was recorded by a double-blind method...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390057/enhanced-hypothalamic-nmda-receptor-activity-contributes-to-hyperactivity-of-hpa-axis-in-chronic-stress-in-male-rats
#15
Jing-Jing Zhou, Yonggang Gao, Xiangjian Zhang, Therese A Kosten, De-Pei Li
Chronic stress stimulates corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and leads to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity, but the mechanisms underlying this action are unknown. Because chronic stress enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity in various brain regions, we hypothesized that augmented NMDAR activity contributes to the hyperactivity of PVN-CRH neurons and the HPA axis in chronic stress. We performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on PVN-CRH neurons expressing CRH promoter-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein in brain slices from rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and unstressed rats...
January 30, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374136/prepubertal-development-of-gabaergic-transmission-to-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-neurons-and-postsynaptic-response-are-altered-by-prenatal-androgenization
#16
Tova Berg, Marina A Silveira, Suzanne M Moenter
GnRH neurons regulate reproduction through pulsatile GnRH release. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have persistently elevated LH release frequency reflecting GnRH release; this exacerbates hyperandrogenemia and disrupted reproductive cycles characteristic of this disorder. Clinical evidence suggests neuroendocrine features of PCOS may manifest peripubertally. Adult mice prenatally exposed to androgens (PNA) mimic several reproductive features of PCOS. GnRH neurons from these mice have increased firing activity and receive increased GABAergic transmission, which is excitatory...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364264/recording-synaptic-plasticity-in-acute-hippocampal-slices-maintained-in-a-small-volume-recycling-perfusion-and-submersion-type-chamber-system
#17
Weiguang Weng, Dongxue Li, Cheng Peng, Thomas Behnisch
Even though experiments on brain slices have been in use since 1951, problems remain that reduce the probability of achieving a stable and successful analysis of synaptic transmission modulation when performing field potential or intracellular recordings. This manuscript describes methodological aspects that might be helpful in improving experimental conditions for the maintenance of acute brain slices and for recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in a commercially available submersion chamber with an outflow-carbogenation unit...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364072/the-antihelminthic-moxidectin-enhances-tonic-gaba-currents-in-rodent-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#18
Jay Spampanato, Anne Gibson, F Edward Dudek
Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are commonly used treatments for parasitic worm and insect infections in humans, livestock and companion animals. MLs target the invertebrate glutamate-activated chloride channel that is not present in vertebrates. MLs are not entirely inert in vertebrates though; they have been reported to have activity in heterologous expression systems consisting of ligand-gated ion channels that are present in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). However, these compounds are typically not able to reach significant concentrations in the CNS due to the activity of the blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein extrusion system...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363584/neurogenesis-during-abstinence-is-necessary-for-context-driven-methamphetamine-related-memory
#19
Melissa H Galinato, Yoshio Takashima, McKenzie J Fannon, Leon W Quach, Roberto J Morales Silva, Karthik K Mysore, Michael J Terranova, Rahul R Dutta, Ryan W Ostrom, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Chitra D Mandyam
Abstinence from methamphetamine addiction enhances proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors and increases adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG). We hypothesized that neurogenesis during abstinence contributes to context-driven drug-seeking behaviors. To test this hypothesis, the pharmacogenetic rat model (GFAP-TK rats) was used to conditionally and specifically ablate neurogenesis in the DG. Male GFAP-TK rats were trained to self-administer methamphetamine or sucrose and were administered the antiviral drug valganciclovir (Valcyte) to produce apoptosis of actively dividing GFAP-type 1 stem-like cells to inhibit neurogenesis during abstinence...
January 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361665/nucleus-accumbens-core-medium-spiny-neuron-electrophysiological-properties-and-partner-preference-behavior-in-the-adult-male-prairie-vole-microtus-ochrogaster
#20
Jaime A Willett, Ashlyn G Johnson, Andrea R Vogel, Heather B Patisaul, Lisa A McGraw, John Meitzen
Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens have long been implicated in the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie numerous social and motivated behaviors as studied in rodents such as rats. Recently, the prairie vole has emerged as an important model animal for studying social behaviors, particularly regarding monogamy due to their ability to form pair bonds. However, to our knowledge, no study has assessed intrinsic vole MSN electrophysiological properties, or tested how these properties vary with the strength of the pair bond between partnered voles...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
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