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Sepsis in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051184/novel-use-of-hydroxyurea-in-an-african-region-with-malaria-noharm-a-trial-for-children-with-sickle-cell-anemia
#1
Robert O Opoka, Christopher M Ndugwa, Teresa S Latham, Adam Lane, Heather A Hume, Phillip Kasirye, James S Hodges, Russell E Ware, Chandy C John
Hydroxyurea treatment is recommended for children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) living in high-resource malaria-free regions, but its safety and efficacy in malaria-endemic sub-Saharan Africa, where the greatest sickle cell burden exists, remain unknown. In vitro studies suggest hydroxyurea could increase malaria severity, and hydroxyurea-associated neutropenia could worsen infections. NOHARM was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial conducted in malaria-endemic Uganda, comparing hydroxyurea to placebo at 20 ± 2...
October 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049359/analysis-of-pd-1-expression-in-the-monocyte-subsets-from-non-septic-and-septic-preterm-neonates
#2
Magdalena Zasada, Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Małgorzata Stec, Wojciech Durlak, Andrzej Grudzień, Agnieszka Krzeczkowska, Nina Mól, Marta Pilch, Maciej Siedlar, Przemko Kwinta
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor system represents a part of recently reported immunoregulatory pathway. PD-1 is an immune checkpoint molecule, which plays an important role in downregulating the immune system proinflammatory activity. Until recently, PD-1 expression was not established on immune cells of the preterm infants. The study objectives were to confirm expression of the PD-1 receptors on the monocytes isolated from very low birth weight newborns (VLBW), and to analyze their expression during the first week of life and late-onset sepsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034782/the-comparative-epidemiology-of-pediatric-severe-sepsis
#3
Mary E Hartman, Mohammed J Saeed, Kimberly N Powell, Margaret A Olsen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the coding strategies used to identify severe sepsis in administrative data sets could identify cases with comparable case mix, hospitalization characteristics, and outcomes as a cohort of children diagnosed with severe sepsis using strict clinical criteria. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from 2005 to 2011 from the New York and Florida State Inpatient Databases, available from the US Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033034/antimicrobial-resistance-among-children-in-sub-saharan-africa
#4
REVIEW
Phoebe C M Williams, David Isaacs, James A Berkley
Antimicrobial resistance is an important threat to international health. Therapeutic guidelines for empirical treatment of common life-threatening infections depend on available information regarding microbial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibility, but sub-Saharan Africa lacks diagnostic capacity and antimicrobial resistance surveillance. We systematically reviewed studies of antimicrobial resistance among children in sub-Saharan Africa since 2005. 18 of 1075 articles reviewed met inclusion criteria, providing data from 67 451 invasive bacterial isolates from inconsistently defined populations in predominantly urban tertiary settings...
October 9, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991832/adaptation-of-a-biomarker-based-sepsis-mortality-risk-stratification-tool-for-pediatric-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#5
Nadir Yehya, Hector R Wong
OBJECTIVES: The original Pediatric Sepsis Biomarker Risk Model and revised (Pediatric Sepsis Biomarker Risk Model-II) biomarker-based risk prediction models have demonstrated utility for estimating baseline 28-day mortality risk in pediatric sepsis. Given the paucity of prediction tools in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, and given the overlapping pathophysiology between sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome, we tested the utility of Pediatric Sepsis Biomarker Risk Model and Pediatric Sepsis Biomarker Risk Model-II for mortality prediction in a cohort of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, with an a priori plan to revise the model if these existing models performed poorly...
October 6, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991050/selective-lps-adsorption-using-polymyxin-b-immobilized-fiber-cartridges-in-sepsis-patients-following-cardiac-surgery
#6
Michael Yaroustovsky, Marina Abramyan, Ekaterina Komardina, Helen Nazarova, Dmitrii Popov, Marina Plyushch, Alina Soldatkina, Ekaterina Rogalskaya
Sepsis remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. The extracorporeal therapy in the complex treatment of sepsis seems to be the most promising direction.The aim of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of selective endotoxin adsorption on the basis of the analysis of our own experience with the intensive therapy for sepsis in adult cardiac surgical patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our single-center study included 143 patients with sepsis...
October 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988213/management-of-pneumatosis-intestinalis-in-children-over-the-age-of-6-months-a-conservative-approach
#7
Leel Nellihela, Mohamed Mutalib, David Thompson, Kammermeier Jochen, Manasvi Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is an uncommon and poorly understood condition. Although it can be an incidental finding in asymptomatic individuals, it can also be secondary to life-threatening bowel ischaemia and sepsis. In premature infants, it is a pathognomonic sign of necrotising enterocolitis. There is no consensus regarding management and long-term outcome of children with PI. AIM: Review of our experience of PI in children beyond the early infantile period...
October 7, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987479/nurses-early-recognition-of-neonatal-sepsis
#8
Michele Boettiger, Lynda Tyer-Viola, Joseph Hagan
OBJECTIVE: To determine nurses' perceptions of the most common physiologic and behavioral indicators of neonatal sepsis. DESIGN: Descriptive correlational study. SETTING: A women's and children's hospital in an academic medical center in the southwestern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Nurses (N = 181) who cared for neonates in the mother-infant and NICU settings. METHODS: Participants completed an e-mail survey developed from the literature to ascertain their perceptions of which physiologic and behavioral indicators were most often associated with neonatal sepsis...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980166/population-pharmacokinetic-model-to-optimize-cefotaxime-dosing-regimen-in-critically-ill-children
#9
Agathe Béranger, Mehdi Oualha, Saïk Urien, Mathieu Genuini, Sylvain Renolleau, Radia Aboura, Déborah Hirt, Claire Heilbronner, Julie Toubiana, Jean-Marc Tréluyer, Sihem Benaboud
BACKGROUND: During sepsis, optimal plasma antibiotic concentrations are mandatory. Modifications of pharmacokinetic parameters could lead to low drug concentrations and therefore, insufficient therapeutic levels. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to build a population pharmacokinetic model for cefotaxime and its metabolite desacetylcefotaxime in order to optimize individual dosing regimens for critically ill children. METHODS: All children aged < 18 years, weighing more than 2...
October 4, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977260/prevalence-of-multiple-organ-dysfunction-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-pediatric-risk-of-mortality-iii-versus-pediatric-logistic-organ-dysfunction-scores-for-mortality-prediction
#10
Azza Abd Elkader El Hamshary, Seham Awad El Sherbini, HebatAllah Fadel Elgebaly, Samah Abdelkrim Amin
OBJECTIVES: To assess the frequency of primary multiple organ failure and the role of sepsis as a causative agent in critically ill pediatric patients; and calculate and evaluate the accuracy of the Pediatric Risk of Mortality III (PRISM III) and Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) scores to predict the outcomes of critically ill children. METHODS: Retrospective study, which evaluated data from patients admitted from January to December 2011 in the pediatric intensive care unit of the Children's Hospital of the University of Cairo...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976475/new-clinical-criteria-for-sepsis-in-children-finally-what-is-the-most-important-thing-sensitivity-or-specificity
#11
Daniela Carla da Souza, Graziela de Araújo Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969235/super-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-therapeutic-challenge-in-paediatrics
#12
Shrikiran Aroor, Kanaparthi Shravan, Suneel C Mundkur, C Jayakrishnan, Sai Sripad Rao
A status epilepticus which persists for 24 hours or more after starting treatment with anaesthesia or has recurred inspite of general anaesthesia is known as Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE). It includes cases where status epilepticus recurs on reduction or withdrawal of anaesthesia. SRSE, though infrequently seen, constitutes a medical emergency due to the associated high morbidity and mortality. No clear cut guidelines are available till date for the management of SRSE. Most of the published literature was case reports and expert opinion...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965695/-evaluating-a-child-after-a-febrile-seizure-insights-on-three-important-issues
#13
S Auvin, M Antonios, G Benoist, M-A Dommergues, F Corrard, V Gajdos, C Gras Leguen, E Launay, A Salaün, L Titomanlio, L Vallée, M Milh
Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizures seen in the paediatric population in the out-of-hospital and emergency department settings, and they account for the majority of seizures seen in children younger than 5 years old. An FS is a seizure accompanied by fever, without central nervous system infection, occurring in children between 6 months and 5 years old. Five criteria have been used and taught to classify any FS as simple or complex FS. These factors do not bear the same significance for clinical practice, in particular, the decision to perform a lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid analysis to rule out an intracranial infection...
September 28, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963638/widening-access-developing-an-elearning-resource-for-health-and-social-care-professionals-caring-for-children-and-young-people-with-cancer
#14
Wendy McInally, Maria J Pouso Lista, Natalia McLaren, Diane S Willis
Cancer is a key priority worldwide, and caring for children and young people with cancer requires a range of specific knowledge, skills and experience in order to deliver the complex care regimes both within the hospital or community environment. The aim of this paper is to disseminate work undertaken to design and develop pedagogical practice and innovation through an eLearning resource for health care professionals caring for children and young people with cancer across the globe. The work undertaken evaluated an existing cancer course (which has been withdrawn) that was developed and delivered through the Paediatric Oncology Nurses Forum, Royal College Nursing (Nurse Educators) and Warwick University...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962140/relationship-between-blood-lactic-acid-blood-procalcitonin-c-reactive-protein-and-neonatal-sepsis-and-corresponding-prognostic-significance-in-sick-children
#15
Yongfeng Jia, Ying Wang, Xinhua Yu
The study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the blood lactic acid (BLA) level, serum procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and the severity and prognosis of neonatal sepsis. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 90 children with sepsis admitted into the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Hubei Institute for Nationalities Af liated Hospital hospital. Patients were divided into the non-survival group and the survival group. Severity of the 90 patients was evaluated according to Neonatal Critical Illness Score (NCIS)...
September 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960646/high-prevalence-of-developmental-concern-amongst-infants-at-12-months-following-hospitalised-parechovirus-infection
#16
Philip N Britton, Gulam Khandaker, Ameneh Khatami, Suzy Teutsch, Stephanie Francis, Brendan J McMullan, Cheryl A Jones
AIM: The human parechovirus (HPeV) is an increasingly recognised cause of sepsis and central nervous system infection in young infants for which there are limited long-term outcome data. We aimed to assess neurodevelopmental outcome and quality of life in infants following hospitalised HPeV infection. METHODS: This cohort study was a 12-month follow-up of infants who were hospitalised with confirmed HPeV infection at the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network during an outbreak in Sydney in 2013...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955423/variations-in-injury-characteristics-among-paediatric-patients-following-trauma-a-retrospective-descriptive-analysis-comparing-pre-hospital-and-in-hospital-deaths-at-kamuzu-central-hospital-lilongwe-malawi
#17
Laura Purcell, Charles E Mabedi, Jared Gallaher, Steven Mjuweni, Sean McLean, Bruce Cairns, Anthony Charles
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a major cause of paediatric mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. In absence of pre-hospital care, the injury mechanism and cause of death is difficult to characterise. Injury characteristics of pre-hospital deaths (PHD) versus in-hospital deaths (IHD) were compared. METHODS: Using our trauma surveillance database, a retrospective, descriptive analysis of children (<18 years) presenting to Kamuzu Central Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi from 2008 to 2013 was performed...
June 2017: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951670/medication-dosing-errors-and-associated-factors-in-hospitalized-pediatric-patients-from-the-south-area-of-the-west-bank-palestine
#18
Rowa' Al-Ramahi, Bayan Hmedat, Eman Alnjajrah, Israa Manasrah, Iqbal Radwan, Maram Alkhatib
BACKGROUND: Medication dosing errors are a significant global concern and can cause serious medical consequences for patients. Pediatric patients are at increased risk of dosing errors due to differences in medication pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to find the rate of medication dosing errors in hospitalized pediatric patients and possible associated factors. METHOD: The study was an observational cohort study including pediatric inpatients less than 16 years from three governmental hospitals from the West Bank/Palestine during one month in 2014, and sample size was 400 pediatric inpatients from these three hospitals...
September 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942175/evaluation-of-immunological-responses-to-recombinant-porin-a-protein-rpoa-from-native-strains-of-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroups-a-and-b-using-omv-as-an-adjuvant-in-balb-c-mice
#19
Parviz Afrough, Saeid Bouzari, Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Farzam Vaziri, Abolfazl Fateh, Ava Behrouzi, Mohammadali Malekan, Seyed Davar Siadat
Neisseria meningitidis is one of the main causes of sepsis and meningitis, which are two serious life-threatening diseases in both children and adolescents. Porin A (porA) from both serogroup A and B were cloned into the pET28a plasmid and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected three times with 25 μg of the recombinant PorA. Specific total IgG antibodies and isotypes were evaluated using ELISA assay...
September 20, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941540/adjunctive-steroid-therapy-for-treatment-of-pediatric-septic-shock
#20
REVIEW
Jerry J Zimmerman
Septic shock remains the major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although early sepsis recognition, fluid resuscitation, timely administration of antimicrobials, and vasoactive-inotropic drug infusions are all key to achieving good sepsis outcomes, therapy using various steroid drug classes remains an attractive adjunctive intervention to minimize the duration of septic shock and transition to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. All steroid drug classes possess biological plausibility to affect a beneficial clinical effect among children with septic shock, but none has undergone rigorous, prospective assessment in a large, high-quality pediatric interventional trial...
October 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
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