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Immunodiagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899970/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-infectious-diseases-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#1
REVIEW
Claire Aguilar, Shahid Husain, Olivier Lortholary
Background: Undergoing solid organ transplantation (SOT) exposes the recipient to various infectious risks, including possible transmission of pathogen by the transplanted organ, post-surgical infections, reactivation of latent pathogens, or novel infections. Recent advances: In the last few years, the emergence of Zika virus has raised concerns in the transplant community. Few cases have been described in SOT patients, and these were associated mainly with moderate disease and favorable outcome; the notable exception is a recent case of fatal meningo-encephalopathy in a heart transplant recipient...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885292/a-novel-enolase-from-taenia-solium-metacestodes-and-its-evaluation-as-an-immunodiagnostic-antigen-for-porcine-cysticercosis
#2
Reynaldo Ponce, Nancy León-Janampa, Robert H Gilman, Ruddy Liendo, Elisa Roncal, Sueline Luis, Stefany Quiñones-Garcia, Zach Silverstein, Hector H García, Armando Gonzales, Patricia Sheen, Mirko Zimic, Mónica Pajuelo
Cysticercosis is a worldwide parasitic disease of humans and pigs principally caused by infection with the larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. Through the use of the recently-made-available T. solium genome, we identified a gene within a novel 1448 bp ORF that theoretically encodes for a 433 amino acid-long protein and predicted to be an α-enolase closely related to enolases of other flatworms. Additional bioinformatic analyses revealed a putative plasminogen-binding region on this protein, suggesting a potential role for this protein in pathogenesis...
June 6, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793409/oligopeptides-for-immunotherapy-approaches-in-ovarian-cancer-treatment
#3
Darja Kanduc
Anti-ovarian cancer vaccines based on minimal immune determinants uniquely expressed in ovarian cancer biomarkers and absent in the human proteome appear to promise a high level of sensitivity and specificity for early ovarian cancer immunodiagnostics, immunoprevention, and immunotherapy. In this context, the present study analyses three ovarian cancer biomarkers - namely sperm surface protein Sp17, WAP four-disulfide core domain protein 2, and müllerian-inhibiting substance - and describes a methodology for constructing ovarian cancer biomarker-derived oligopeptide constructs that might be useful for developing new diagnostic and immunotherapeutic approaches...
May 24, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787561/interplay-of-strain-and-race-ethnicity-in-the-innate-immune-response-to-m-tuberculosis
#4
P Nahid, L G Jarlsberg, M Kato-Maeda, M R Segal, D H Osmond, S Gagneux, K Dobos, M Gold, P C Hopewell, D M Lewinsohn
BACKGROUND: The roles of host and pathogen factors in determining innate immune responses to M. tuberculosis are not fully understood. In this study, we examined host macrophage immune responses of 3 race/ethnic groups to 3 genetically and geographically diverse M. tuberculosis lineages. METHODS: Monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy Filipinos, Chinese and non-Hispanic White study participants (approximately 45 individuals/group) were challenged with M. tuberculosis whole cell lysates of clinical strains Beijing HN878 (lineage 2), Manila T31 (lineage 1), CDC1551 (lineage 4), the reference strain H37Rv (lineage 4), as well as with Toll-like receptor 2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (TLR2/LTA) and TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (TLR4/LPS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740238/polyclonal-antibodies-against-the-recombinantly-expressed-coat-protein-of-the-citrus-psorosis-virus
#5
Reda Salem, Ibrahim A Arif, Mohamed Salama, Gamal E H Osman
Psorosis is a damaging disease of citrus that is widespread in many parts of the world. Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV), the type species of the genus Ophiovirus, is the putative causal agent of psorosis. Detection of CPsV by laboratory methods, serology in particular is a primary requirement for large-scale surveys but their production has been impaired by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient clean antigen for immunization. Specific PAbs against coat protein were produced in E. coli using recombinant DNA approach...
May 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737217/update-on-fc-receptor-like-fcrl-family-new-immunoregulatory-players-in-health-and-diseases
#6
Davood Rostamzadeh, Tohid Kazemi, Zahra Amirghofran, Mahdi Shabani
Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecules, as recently identified members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), are preferentially expressed by B-cells. They have variable number of extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and cytoplasmic activating ITAMs and/or inhibitory ITIMs. FCRL1-5 are dominantly expressed in different stages of B-cells development. But, FCRL6 is preferentially expressed in different subsets of T-cells and NK cells. FCRL1-5 could regulate different features of B-cell evolution such as development, differentiation, activation, antibody secretion and isotype switching...
May 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728429/interferon-%C3%AE-release-assay-performance-for-tuberculosis-in-childhood
#7
Alexander W Kay, Shamim M Islam, Kristen Wendorf, Janice Westenhouse, Pennan M Barry
BACKGROUND: Interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) are important adjunctive tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) disease in children. METHODS: We analyzed California TB registry data for patients ≤18 years with laboratory-confirmed TB disease during 2010-2015 to identify case characteristics associated with test selection and performance and measure IGRA sensitivity. RESULTS: In total, 778 cases of TB were reported; 360 were laboratory confirmed...
June 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696723/design-and-construction-of-a-new-recombinant-fusion-protein-2b2t-epc1-and-its-assessment-for-serodiagnosis-of-cystic-echinococcosis
#8
Saeid Fathi, Fatemeh Jalousian, Seyed Hossein Hosseini, Ali Najafi, Enayat Darabi, Faramarz Koohsar
The immunodiagnostic tests for cystic echinococcosis (CE) are mostly serological tests based on ELISA that use hydatid cyst antigens for primary screening because of its simple preparation and availability. The challenge to develop new serological methods (as compared to those based on the hydatid cyst fluid antigens) to meet the gold standard remains. Appropriate sources of antigenic material are necessary for application to improve the efficacy of immunodiagnostic tests at a population level. In the current study, a fusion protein containing the coding sequence of antigen B2t and two sequences of EPC1 antigen with some modifications was reconstructed...
May 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649604/clonorchis-sinensis-omega-class-glutathione-transferases-are-reliable-biomarkers-for-serodiagnosis-of-clonorchiasis-and-opisthorchiasis
#9
J-G Kim, C-S Ahn, B Sripa, K S Eom, I Kang, W-M Sohn, Y Nawa, Y Kong
OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential for immunodiagnostic application of two recombinant forms of Clonorchis sinensis omega-class glutathione transferases (rCsGSTo1 and rCsGSTo2) against human small liver-fluke C. sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini infections. METHODS: Specific antibody levels against rCsGSTo1 and rCsGSTo2 in patients' sera of egg-positive opisthorchiasis (n = 87) and clonorchiasis (n = 120), as well as those in sera from patients with other helminthic infections (n = 252) and healthy controls (n = 40) were retrospectively analysed by ELISA...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620156/expression-and-clinical-significance-of-pd%C3%A2-1-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tissues-detected-by-a-novel-mouse-anti-human-pd%C3%A2-1-monoclonal-antibody
#10
Ziwei Li, Bin Li, Dan Peng, Haiyan Xing, Guanying Wang, Pan Li, Jiming Wang, George Ye, Jianhong Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies and causes of death worldwide. Research investigating novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HCC is urgently required. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the programmed cell death‑1 (PD‑1/PDCD1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint have demonstrated substantial clinical benefit for a variety of solid tumors; however, these mAbs have not been well studied in HCC. In the present study, Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells and spleen cells derived from BALB/c mice immunized with the recombinant human PD‑1/PDCD1 protein were fused for the production of novel antibodies...
June 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610143/characterization-of-the-antigenic-heterogeneity-of-lipoarabinomannan-the-major-surface-glycolipid-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-complexity-of-antibody-specificities-toward-this-antigen
#11
Alok Choudhary, Deendayal Patel, William Honnen, Zhong Lai, Raja Sekhar Prattipati, Ruixiang Blake Zheng, Ying-Chao Hsueh, Maria Laura Gennaro, Alfred Lardizabal, Blanca I Restrepo, Moncerrato Garcia-Viveros, Maju Joe, Yu Bai, Ke Shen, Kamar Sahloul, John S Spencer, Delphi Chatterjee, Tobias Broger, Todd L Lowary, Abraham Pinter
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM), the major antigenic glycolipid of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , is an important immunodiagnostic target for detecting tuberculosis (TB) infection in HIV-1-coinfected patients, and is believed to mediate a number of functions that promote infection and disease development. To probe the human humoral response against LAM during TB infection, several novel LAM-specific human mAbs were molecularly cloned from memory B cells isolated from infected patients and grown in vitro. The fine epitope specificities of these Abs, along with those of a panel of previously described murine and phage-derived LAM-specific mAbs, were mapped using binding assays against LAM Ags from several mycobacterial species and a panel of synthetic glycans and glycoconjugates that represented diverse carbohydrate structures present in LAM...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605542/non-culture-based-assays-for-the-detection-of-fungal-pathogens
#12
REVIEW
S Otašević, S Momčilović, N M Stojanović, M Skvarč, K Rajković, V Arsić-Arsenijević
Traditional, culture based methods for the diagnosis of fungal infections are still considered as gold standard, but they are time consuming and low sensitive. Therefore, in order to overcome the limitations, many researchers have focused on the development of new immunological and molecular based rapid assays that could enable early diagnosis of infection and accurate identification of fungal pathogens causing superficial and invasive infection. In this brief review, we highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of conventional diagnostic methods and possibility of non-culture based assays in diagnosis of superficial fungal infections and presented the overview on currently available immunochromatographic assays as well as availability of biomarkers detection by immunodiagnostic procedures in prompt and accurate diagnosis of invasive fungal infections...
March 29, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528265/current-progress-of-immunoinformatics-approach-harnessed-for-cellular-and-antibody-dependent-vaccine-design
#13
Ada Kazi, Candy Chuah, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Chiuan Herng Leow, Boon Huat Lim, Chiuan Yee Leow
Immunoinformatics plays a pivotal role in vaccine design, immunodiagnostic development, and antibody production. In the past, antibody design and vaccine development depended exclusively on immunological experiments which are relatively expensive and time-consuming. However, recent advances in the field of immunological bioinformatics have provided feasible tools which can be used to lessen the time and cost required for vaccine and antibody development. This approach allows the selection of immunogenic regions from the pathogen genomes...
March 12, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518081/study-of-diagnostic-accuracy-of-helmintex-kato-katz-and-poc-cca-methods-for-diagnosing-intestinal-schistosomiasis-in-candeal-a-low-intensity-transmission-area-in-northeastern-brazil
#14
Catieli Gobetti Lindholz, Vivian Favero, Carolina de Marco Verissimo, Renata Russo Frasca Candido, Renata Perotto de Souza, Renata Rosa Dos Santos, Alessandra Loureiro Morassutti, Helio Radke Bittencourt, Malcolm K Jones, Timothy G St Pierre, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira
Control initiatives have successfully reduced the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis transmission in several localities around the world. However, individuals that release low numbers of eggs in their feces may not be detected by classical methods that are limited by low sensitivity. Given that accurate estimates of prevalence are key to implementing planning control actions for the elimination of schistosomiasis, new diagnostic tools are needed to effectively monitor infections and confirm transmission interruption...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515569/computational-strategies-for-dissecting-the-high-dimensional-complexity-of-adaptive-immune-repertoires
#15
REVIEW
Enkelejda Miho, Alexander Yermanos, Cédric R Weber, Christoph T Berger, Sai T Reddy, Victor Greiff
The adaptive immune system recognizes antigens via an immense array of antigen-binding antibodies and T-cell receptors, the immune repertoire. The interrogation of immune repertoires is of high relevance for understanding the adaptive immune response in disease and infection (e.g., autoimmunity, cancer, HIV). Adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing (AIRR-seq) has driven the quantitative and molecular-level profiling of immune repertoires, thereby revealing the high-dimensional complexity of the immune receptor sequence landscape...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509907/patterns-of-inter-individual-variability-in-the-antibody-repertoire-targeting-proteins-across-the-epstein-barr-virus-proteome
#16
Zhiwei Liu, Anna E Coghill, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Carla Proietti, Wan-Lun Hsu, Yin-Chu Chien, Lea Lekieffre, Lutz Krause, Kelly J Yu, Pei-Jen Lou, Cheng-Ping Wang, Jason Mulvenna, Jaap M Middeldorp, Jeff Bethony, Chien-Jen Chen, Denise L Doolan, Allan Hildesheim
Background: Little is known about variation in antibody response targeting the full spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins and how such patterns inform disease risk. Methods: We utilized a microarray to measure IgG and IgA antibody responses against 199 EBV protein sequences from five EBV strains in 289 healthy adults from Taiwan. We described positivity patterns, estimated the correlation between antibodies, and investigated the association between environmental and genetic risk factors and variation in antibody responses...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498081/associations-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3-with-bone-quality-in-the-general-adult-population
#17
J Böker, H Völzke, M Nauck, A Hannemann, N Friedrich
OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone (GH) and its main mediator, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), play a significant role in bone metabolism. The relations between IGF-I and bone mineral density (BMD) or osteoporosis have been assessed in previous studies but whether the associations are sex-specific remains uncertain. Moreover, only a few studies examined bone quality assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS). We aimed to investigate these associations in the general population of north-east Germany...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490627/utility-of-dominant-epitopes-derived-from-cell-wall-protein-lppz-for-immunodiagnostic-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#18
Jinjing Tan, Xiaoguang Wu, Suting Chen, Meng Gu, Hairong Huang, Wentao Yue
BACKGROUND: Serological antibodies tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. They appear to have some advantages- faster, simple and could be used for extrapulmonary TB. However, most of current commercial TB serological tests are failed to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Improved serological biomarkers were essential. In this study, we present an approach using peptide array to discover new immunodiagnostic biomarkers based on immunodominant epitopes of TB antigens...
March 1, 2018: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478040/reference-standards-for-the-detection-of-anti-mitochondrial-and-anti-rods-rings-autoantibodies
#19
S John Calise, Bing Zheng, Tomoko Hasegawa, Minoru Satoh, Natasa Isailovic, Angela Ceribelli, Luis E C Andrade, Katherine Boylan, Ilaria Cavazzana, Marvin J Fritzler, Ignacio Garcia de la Torre, Falk Hiepe, Kathryn Kohl, Carlo Selmi, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Angela Tincani, Edward K L Chan
BACKGROUND: Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are found in >90% of primary biliary cholangitis patients. Anti-rods/rings antibodies (anti-RR) are most commonly associated with interferon-α and ribavirin treatment in hepatitis C patients. Clinical laboratories routinely screen for AMA and anti-RR using indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells (HEp-2-IFA). Therefore, we sought to establish reference materials for use in AMA and anti-RR testing. METHODS: AMA-positive and anti-RR-positive human plasma samples (AMA-REF and RR-REF), identified as potential reference materials based on preliminary data, were further validated by multiple laboratories using HEp-2-IFA, immunoprecipitation (IP), western blotting, IP-western, line immunoassay (LIA), addressable laser bead immunoassay (ALBIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469542/-progress-and-application-of-immunodiagnostic-methods-of-giardiasis
#20
Zhang Le-Sheng, Wang Yan-Juan, Cao Jian-Ping
Giardia lamblia is an important intestinal protozoan which can cause diarrhea in humans. The detection of Giardia infection is performed through the detection methods of pathogen, immunoassay and molecular biology. Currently, the immunodiagnostic methods have good application and development prospect because of high sensitivity and specificity, simple and convenient, and time saving. In this article, we review the main progress and application of immunodiagnostic methods for Giardia infection.
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
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