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Immunodiagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415506/vhh-antibodies-reagents-for-mycotoxin-detection-in-food-products
#1
REVIEW
Jia Wang, Hina Mukhtar, Lan Ma, Qian Pang, Xiaohong Wang
Mycotoxins are the toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi and they are a worldwide public health concern. A VHH antibody (or nanobody) is the smallest antigen binding entity and is produced by heavy chain only antibodies. Compared with conventional antibodies, VHH antibodies overcome many pitfalls typically encountered in clinical therapeutics and immunodiagnostics. Likewise, VHH antibodies are particularly useful for monitoring mycotoxins in food and feedstuffs, as they are easily genetic engineered and have superior stability...
February 6, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409531/development-and-characterization-of-serotype-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-against-the-dengue-virus-4-denv-4-non-structural-protein-ns1
#2
Tesfaye Gelanew, Elizabeth Hunsperger
BACKGROUND: Dengue, caused by one of the four serologically distinct dengue viruses (DENV-1 to - 4), is a mosquito-borne disease of serious global health significance. Reliable and cost-effective diagnostic tests, along with effective vaccines and vector-control strategies, are highly required to reduce dengue morbidity and mortality. Evaluation studies revealed that many commercially available NS1 antigen (Ag) tests have limited sensitivity to DENV-4 serotype compared to the other three serotypes...
February 6, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334990/performance-evaluation-of-existing-immunoassays-for-clonorchis-sinensis-infection-in-china
#3
Hong-Mei Li, Men-Bao Qian, Yi-Chao Yang, Zhi-Hua Jiang, Kang Wei, Jia-Xu Chen, Jun-Hu Chen, Ying-Dan Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis ranks among the most important food-borne parasitic diseases in China. However, due to low compliance to traditional fecal examination techniques in the general population and medical personnel, immunodiagnosis is expected. This study evaluated, in parallel, the performance of four immunodiagnostic kits detecting clonorchiasis in China. RESULTS: A bank with 475 sera was established in this study. Except for the low performance of the kit detecting IgM, the other three kits detecting IgG showed sensitivities ranging from 81...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291152/efficient-immunodiagnosis-of-citrus-yellow-mosaic-virus-using-polyclonal-antibodies-with-an-expressed-recombinant-virion-associated-protein
#4
P Vignesh Kumar, Susheel Kumar Sharma, Narayan Rishi, Virendra Kumar Baranwal
Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV) is a member of genus Badnavirus of the family Caulimoviridae. It is the causal agent of citrus yellow mosaic disease in citrus and causes reduction in yield. As the virus is vegetative propagated by grafting, development of high-throughput diagnosis methods based on serological techniques is a prerequisite for production of healthy virus-free planting material. The current study describes the development of polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits against purified recombinant virion-associated protein (rVAP) encoded by ORF-II of CYMV...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204098/effectiveness-of-rituximab-in-nephrotic-syndrome-treatment
#5
Katarzyna Popko, Elżbieta Górska, Elżbieta Kuźma-Mroczkowska
Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is a common chronic illness characterized by massive proteinuria and hypo-albuminemia in children. Baseline treatment is 6 month-corticotherapy. In cases of steroid resistant/dependent INS several types of treatment are used, including course of methyloprednisolone "pulses", alkylating agents, cyclosporin A, levamisole and mycophenolate mofetil. It has been suggested that children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome had a significantly longer relapse-free period if rituximab (RTX) treatment was additionally applied...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174995/evaluation-of-the-new-restandardized-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-assay-on-the-isys-platform
#6
Damien Denimal, Stéphanie Roux, Laurence Duvillard
BACKGROUND: 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the most reliable biomarker of vitamin D status, but until now 25(OH)D assays have suffered from inter-laboratory and inter-assay discrepancies. In the setting of the international Vitamin D Standardization Program, Immunodiagnostic Systems (IDS) recently reformulated and restandardized the 25(OH)D immunoassay available on the automated iSYS platform. In the present study, we evaluated this new generation of the 25(OH)D immunoassay (IS-2500)...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149256/structural-and-immunodiagnostic-characterization-of-synthetic-antigen-b-subunits-from-echinococcus-granulosus-and-their-evaluation-as-target-antigens-for-cyst-viability-assessment
#7
Daniela Pagnozzi, Francesca Tamarozzi, Anna Maria Roggio, Vittorio Tedde, Maria Filippa Addis, Salvatore Pisanu, Gabriella Masu, Cinzia Santucciu, Ambra Vola, Adriano Casulli, Giovanna Masala, Enrico Brunetti, Sergio Uzzau
Background: Several tools have been proposed for serodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE), but none appears promising for cyst viability assessment. Antigens with stage-specific diagnostic value have been described, but few studies with well-characterized antigens and human sera have been performed. Antigen B (AgB) proteoforms hold promise as markers of viability, due to their differential stage-related expression and immunoreactivity. Methods: Four AgB subunits (AgB1, AgB2, AgB3, AgB4) were synthesized and structurally characterized...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116026/the-c3heb-fej-mouse-model-recapitulates-the-hallmark-of-bovine-tuberculosis-lung-lesions-following-mycobacterium-bovis-aerogenous-infection
#8
Mélodie Bouté, Florence Carreras, Christelle Rossignol, Emilie Doz, Nathalie Winter, Mathieu Epardaud
Achieving the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) would require the discovery of an efficient combined immunodiagnostic and vaccine strategy. Since in vivo experiments on cattle are not ethically and economically acceptable there is a need for a cost-effective animal model capable of reproducing, as closely as possible, the physiopathology of bTB to (i) better characterize the cellular and molecular features of bTB immunopathogenesis and (ii) screen preclinical vaccine candidates. To develop such a model, we focused on the C3HeB/FeJ Kramnik's mouse forming hypoxic, encapsulated granulomas with a caseous necrotic center following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
November 7, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113601/incidence-of-paragonimiasis-in-chongqing-china-a-6-year-retrospective-case-review
#9
Xiaohong Peng, Jingru Zhang, Jian Zhang, Ying Wang, Xilin Zhang
Paragonimiasis is an important infectious disease in Chongqing, China. However, no epidemiological surveys of paragonimiasis have been carried out in Chongqing since it became a municipality in 1997. We conducted a retrospective case review of 683 patients who were referred to our laboratory and diagnosed as having paragonimiasis during 2010-2015. Patients were diagnosed with paragonimiasis based on immunodiagnostic tests in addition to clinical and laboratory findings. Patient data extracted from the epidemiologic form were analysed...
November 8, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082478/production-and-characterization-of-f-ab-2-fragments-obtained-by-enzymatic-digestion-from-murine-anti-mrsa-pbp2a-monoclonal-antibodies
#10
Anna Erika Vieira de Araujo, Natalia Plinio de Souza, Alvaro Paiva Braga de Sousa, Flavio Alves Lara, Jose Procopio Moreno Senna
Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a worldwide health problem. In a previous study, a murine monoclonal antibody (mMAB), capable of binding to PBP2a within MRSA strains, was generated. F(ab')2 antibody fragments are widely described in the literature as immunochemical tools and reagents for diagnostics and therapeutics, particularly because of their low immunogenicity and rapid pharmacokinetics. In this study, F(ab')2 fragments from mMAB were generated by enzymatic digestion, using pepsin...
October 30, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064408/avian-group-d-rotaviruses-structure-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-perspectives-on-future-research-challenges
#11
Pallavi Deol, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Shubhankar Sircar, Souvik Ghosh, Krisztián Bányai, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik
In 1981, a new virus (virus 132) was described for the first time with morphological and biochemical similarities to rotaviruses (RVs), but without antigenic similarity to any of the previously known rotavirus groups. Subsequently, it was re-designated as D/132, and formed a new serogroup among rotaviruses, the group D rotavirus (RVD). Since their identification, RVs are the leading cause of enteritis and diarrhea in humans and various animal species, and are also associated with abridged growth, particularly in avian species...
October 24, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062201/cloning-and-expression-of-p67-protein-of-mycoplasma-leachii
#12
Sabarinath Thankappan, Rajneesh Rana, Arun Thachappully Remesh, Valsala Rekha, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar, Bhavani Puvvala
AIM: The present study was undertaken to clone, express and study the immunogenicity of P67 protein of Mycoplasma leachii. MATERIALS AND METHODS: P67 gene was amplified from genomic DNA of M. leachii. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was inserted in pRham N-His SUMO Kan vector and was used to transform competent Escherichia cloni 10G cells. Recombinant protein expression was done by inducing cells with 0.2% Rhamnose. Purification was done using nickel nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography...
September 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039819/single-domain-antibodies-as-new-biomarker-detectors
#13
REVIEW
Chiuan Herng Leow, Katja Fischer, Chiuan Yee Leow, Qin Cheng, Candy Chuah, James McCarthy
Biomarkers are defined as indicators of biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers have been widely used for early detection, prediction of response after treatment, and for monitoring the progression of diseases. Antibodies represent promising tools for recognition of biomarkers, and are widely deployed as analytical tools in clinical settings. For immunodiagnostics, antibodies are now exploited as binders for antigens of interest across a range of platforms...
October 17, 2017: Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035147/isolation-production-and-characterization-of-a-new-single-chain-anti-idiotypic-antibody-against-benzo-a-pyrene
#14
K V Arnst, A E Studennikov, V A Ustinov, A N Glushkov
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are chemical carcinogens which could induce the development of human cancers. Anti-idiotypic antibodies against benzo[a]pyrene are perspective for human cancer immunoprophylaxis and tumor immunodiagnostic. The purpose of this study was isolating of anti-idiotypic antibodies against benzo[a]pyrene from human lymphocytes naïve phage library. The anti-idiotypic antibody, named B5, was selected. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences B5 showed no similarity to known protein databases antibodies...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957334/identification-and-characterization-of-two-linear-epitope-motifs-in-hepatitis-e-virus-orf2-protein
#15
Heng Wang, Weidong Zhang, Honglang Gu, Wanli Chen, Meng Zeng, Chihai Ji, Ruyue Song, Guihong Zhang
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for hepatitis E, which represents a global public health problem. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are reported to be zoonotic, and animals are monitored for HEV infection in the interests of public hygiene and food safety. The development of novel diagnostic methods and vaccines for HEV in humans is thus important topics of research. Opening reading frame (ORF) 2 of HEV includes both linear and conformational epitopes and is regarded as the primary candidate for vaccines and diagnostic tests...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953993/in-silico-analysis-of-amino-acid-variation-in-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-insights-into-immunodiagnostics
#16
Claudemir Souza, Nilson It Zanchin, Marco A Krieger, Adriana Ludwig
BACKGROUND: The highly contagious nature of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and the gravity of its infection in newborns and vulnerable adults pose a serious public health problem. Thus, a rapid and sensitive diagnostic test for viral detection that can be implemented upon the first appearance of symptoms is needed. The genetic variation of the virus must be considered for immunodiagnostic purposes. OBJECTIVES: To analyse HRSV genetic variation and discuss the possible consequences for capture immunoassay development...
October 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945737/quantitative-multiplexed-proteomics-of-taenia-solium-cysts-obtained-from-the-skeletal-muscle-and-central-nervous-system-of-pigs
#17
José Navarrete-Perea, Marta Isasa, Joao A Paulo, Ricardo Corral-Corral, Jeanette Flores-Bautista, Beatriz Hernández-Téllez, Raúl J Bobes, Gladis Fragoso, Edda Sciutto, Xavier Soberón, Steven P Gygi, Juan P Laclette
In human and porcine cysticercosis caused by the tapeworm Taenia solium, the larval stage (cysts) can infest several tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) and the skeletal muscles (SM). The cyst's proteomics changes associated with the tissue localization in the host tissues have been poorly studied. Quantitative multiplexed proteomics has the power to evaluate global proteome changes in response to different conditions. Here, using a TMT-multiplexed strategy we identified and quantified over 4,200 proteins in cysts obtained from the SM and CNS of pigs, of which 891 were host proteins...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917222/validation-of-summer-and-winter-elisa-measurements-of-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-in-mongolia
#18
Sabri Bromage, Daria Tselmen, Gary Bradwin, Michael F Holick, Davaasaambuu Ganmaa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Assay cost, quality, and availability pose challenges for vitamin D surveys in limited resource settings. This study aimed to validate an inexpensive vitamin D assay (ELISA) under real-world conditions in Mongolia, the northernmost developing country, to characterize the assay's usefulness and inform the design of epidemiologic studies in similar regions. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We collected paired summer and winter serum samples from 120 men and women (aged 20-57 years) in urban and rural Mongolia, analyzed each sample for 25(OH)D concentration using both Immunodiagnostic Systems ELISA and DiaSorin LIAISON 25(OH)D TOTAL, and compared the assays using multiple statistics...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902845/clinical-and-epidemiologic-characteristics-of-dengue-and-other-etiologic-agents-among-patients-with-acute-febrile-illness-puerto-rico-2012-2015
#19
Kay M Tomashek, Olga D Lorenzi, Doris A Andújar-Pérez, Brenda C Torres-Velásquez, Elizabeth A Hunsperger, Jorge Luis Munoz-Jordan, Janice Perez-Padilla, Aidsa Rivera, Gladys E Gonzalez-Zeno, Tyler M Sharp, Renee L Galloway, Mindy Glass Elrod, Demetrius L Mathis, M Steven Oberste, W Allan Nix, Elizabeth Henderson, Jennifer McQuiston, Joseph Singleton, Cecilia Kato, Carlos García Gubern, William Santiago-Rivera, Jesús Cruz-Correa, Robert Muns-Sosa, Juan D Ortiz-Rivera, Gerson Jiménez, Ivonne E Galarza, Kalanthe Horiuchi, Harold S Margolis, Luisa I Alvarado
Identifying etiologies of acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is challenging due to non-specific presentation and limited availability of diagnostics. Prospective AFI studies provide a methodology to describe the syndrome by age and etiology, findings that can be used to develop case definitions and multiplexed diagnostics to optimize management. We conducted a 3-year prospective AFI study in Puerto Rico. Patients with fever ≤7 days were offered enrollment, and clinical data and specimens were collected at enrollment and upon discharge or follow-up...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868980/nanoparticle-based-strategies-for-cancer-immunotherapy-and-immunodiagnostics
#20
Anna Maria Grimaldi, Mariarosaria Incoronato, Marco Salvatore, Andrea Soricelli
Although recent successes in clinical trials are strengthening research focused on cancer immunology, the poor immunogenicity and off-target side effects of immunotherapeutics remain major challenges in translating these promising approaches to clinically feasible therapies in the treatment of a large range of tumors. Nanotechnology offers target-based approaches, which have shown significant improvements in the rapidly advancing field of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we first discuss the chemical and physical features of nanoparticulate systems that can be tuned to address the anticancer immune response, and then review recent, key examples of the exploited strategies, ranging from nanovaccines to NPs revising the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment, up to immunotherapeutic multimodal NPs...
September 4, 2017: Nanomedicine
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