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Immunodiagnostics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649604/clonorchis-sinensis-omega-class-glutathione-transferases-are-reliable-biomarkers-for-serodiagnosis-of-clonorchiasis-and-opisthorchiasis
#1
J-G Kim, C-S Ahn, B Sripa, K S Eom, I Kang, W-M Sohn, Y Nawa, Y Kong
OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential for immunodiagnostic application of two recombinant forms of Clonorchis sinensis omega-class glutathione transferases (rCsGSTo1 and rCsGSTo2) against human small liver-fluke C. sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini infections. METHODS: Specific antibody levels against rCsGSTo1 and rCsGSTo2 in patients' sera of egg-positive opisthorchiasis (n = 87) and clonorchiasis (n = 120), as well as those in sera from patients with other helminthic infections (n = 252) and healthy controls (n = 40) were retrospectively analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620156/expression-and-clinical-significance-of-pd%C3%A2-1-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-tissues-detected-by-a-novel-mouse-anti-human-pd%C3%A2-1-monoclonal-antibody
#2
Ziwei Li, Bin Li, Dan Peng, Haiyan Xing, Guanying Wang, Pan Li, Jiming Wang, George Ye, Jianhong Chen
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies and causes of death worldwide. Research investigating novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of HCC is urgently required. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target the programmed cell death‑1 (PD‑1/PDCD1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint have demonstrated substantial clinical benefit for a variety of solid tumors; however, these mAbs have not been well studied in HCC. In the present study, Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells and spleen cells derived from BALB/c mice immunized with the recombinant human PD‑1/PDCD1 protein were fused for the production of novel antibodies...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610143/characterization-of-the-antigenic-heterogeneity-of-lipoarabinomannan-the-major-surface-glycolipid-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-complexity-of-antibody-specificities-toward-this-antigen
#3
Alok Choudhary, Deendayal Patel, William Honnen, Zhong Lai, Raja Sekhar Prattipati, Ruixiang Blake Zheng, Ying-Chao Hsueh, Maria Laura Gennaro, Alfred Lardizabal, Blanca I Restrepo, Moncerrato Garcia-Viveros, Maju Joe, Yu Bai, Ke Shen, Kamar Sahloul, John S Spencer, Delphi Chatterjee, Tobias Broger, Todd L Lowary, Abraham Pinter
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM), the major antigenic glycolipid of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , is an important immunodiagnostic target for detecting tuberculosis (TB) infection in HIV-1-coinfected patients, and is believed to mediate a number of functions that promote infection and disease development. To probe the human humoral response against LAM during TB infection, several novel LAM-specific human mAbs were molecularly cloned from memory B cells isolated from infected patients and grown in vitro. The fine epitope specificities of these Abs, along with those of a panel of previously described murine and phage-derived LAM-specific mAbs, were mapped using binding assays against LAM Ags from several mycobacterial species and a panel of synthetic glycans and glycoconjugates that represented diverse carbohydrate structures present in LAM...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605542/non-culture-based-assays-for-the-detection-of-fungal-pathogens
#4
REVIEW
S Otašević, S Momčilović, N M Stojanović, M Skvarč, K Rajković, V Arsić-Arsenijević
Traditional, culture based methods for the diagnosis of fungal infections are still considered as gold standard, but they are time consuming and low sensitive. Therefore, in order to overcome the limitations, many researchers have focused on the development of new immunological and molecular based rapid assays that could enable early diagnosis of infection and accurate identification of fungal pathogens causing superficial and invasive infection. In this brief review, we highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of conventional diagnostic methods and possibility of non-culture based assays in diagnosis of superficial fungal infections and presented the overview on currently available immunochromatographic assays as well as availability of biomarkers detection by immunodiagnostic procedures in prompt and accurate diagnosis of invasive fungal infections...
March 29, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528265/current-progress-of-immunoinformatics-approach-harnessed-for-cellular-and-antibody-dependent-vaccine-design
#5
Kazi Ada, Candy Chuah, Abu Bakar Abdul Majeed, Chiuan Herng Leow, Boon Huat Lim, Chiuan Yee Leow
Immunoinformatics plays a pivotal role in vaccine design, immunodiagnostic development, and antibody production. In the past, antibody design and vaccine development depended exclusively on immunological experiments which are relatively expensive and time-consuming. However, recent advances in the field of immunological bioinformatics have provided feasible tools which can be used to lessen the time and cost required for vaccine and antibody development. This approach allows the selection of immunogenic regions from the pathogen genomes...
March 12, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518081/study-of-diagnostic-accuracy-of-helmintex-kato-katz-and-poc-cca-methods-for-diagnosing-intestinal-schistosomiasis-in-candeal-a-low-intensity-transmission-area-in-northeastern-brazil
#6
Catieli Gobetti Lindholz, Vivian Favero, Carolina de Marco Verissimo, Renata Russo Frasca Candido, Renata Perotto de Souza, Renata Rosa Dos Santos, Alessandra Loureiro Morassutti, Helio Radke Bittencourt, Malcolm K Jones, Timothy G St Pierre, Carlos Graeff-Teixeira
Control initiatives have successfully reduced the prevalence and intensity of schistosomiasis transmission in several localities around the world. However, individuals that release low numbers of eggs in their feces may not be detected by classical methods that are limited by low sensitivity. Given that accurate estimates of prevalence are key to implementing planning control actions for the elimination of schistosomiasis, new diagnostic tools are needed to effectively monitor infections and confirm transmission interruption...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515569/computational-strategies-for-dissecting-the-high-dimensional-complexity-of-adaptive-immune-repertoires
#7
REVIEW
Enkelejda Miho, Alexander Yermanos, Cédric R Weber, Christoph T Berger, Sai T Reddy, Victor Greiff
The adaptive immune system recognizes antigens via an immense array of antigen-binding antibodies and T-cell receptors, the immune repertoire. The interrogation of immune repertoires is of high relevance for understanding the adaptive immune response in disease and infection (e.g., autoimmunity, cancer, HIV). Adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing (AIRR-seq) has driven the quantitative and molecular-level profiling of immune repertoires, thereby revealing the high-dimensional complexity of the immune receptor sequence landscape...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509907/patterns-of-inter-individual-variability-in-the-antibody-repertoire-targeting-proteins-across-the-epstein-barr-virus-proteome
#8
Zhiwei Liu, Anna E Coghill, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Carla Proietti, Wan-Lun Hsu, Yin-Chu Chien, Lea Lekieffre, Lutz Krause, Kelly J Yu, Pei-Jen Lou, Cheng-Ping Wang, Jason Mulvenna, Jaap M Middeldorp, Jeff Bethony, Chien-Jen Chen, Denise L Doolan, Allan Hildesheim
Background: Little is known about variation in antibody response targeting the full spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) proteins and how such patterns inform disease risk. Methods: We utilized a microarray to measure IgG and IgA antibody responses against 199 EBV protein sequences from five EBV strains in 289 healthy adults from Taiwan. We described positivity patterns, estimated the correlation between antibodies, and investigated the association between environmental and genetic risk factors and variation in antibody responses...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498081/associations-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-i-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-3-with-bone-quality-in-the-general-adult-population
#9
J Böker, H Völzke, M Nauck, A Hannemann, N Friedrich
OBJECTIVE: Growth hormone (GH) and its main mediator, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) play a significant role in bone metabolism. The relations between IGF-I and bone mineral density (BMD) or osteoporosis have been assessed in previous studies but whether the associations are sex-specific remains uncertain. Moreover, only few studies examined bone quality assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS). We aimed to investigate these associations in the general population of northeast Germany...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490627/utility-of-dominant-epitopes-derived-from-cell-wall-protein-lppz-for-immunodiagnostic-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#10
Jinjing Tan, Xiaoguang Wu, Suting Chen, Meng Gu, Hairong Huang, Wentao Yue
BACKGROUND: Serological antibodies tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. They appear to have some advantages- faster, simple and could be used for extrapulmonary TB. However, most of current commercial TB serological tests are failed to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Improved serological biomarkers were essential. In this study, we present an approach using peptide array to discover new immunodiagnostic biomarkers based on immunodominant epitopes of TB antigens...
March 1, 2018: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478040/reference-standards-for-the-detection-of-anti-mitochondrial-and-anti-rods-rings-autoantibodies
#11
S John Calise, Bing Zheng, Tomoko Hasegawa, Minoru Satoh, Natasa Isailovic, Angela Ceribelli, Luis E C Andrade, Katherine Boylan, Ilaria Cavazzana, Marvin J Fritzler, Ignacio Garcia de la Torre, Falk Hiepe, Kathryn Kohl, Carlo Selmi, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Angela Tincani, Edward K L Chan
BACKGROUND: Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are found in >90% of primary biliary cholangitis patients. Anti-rods/rings antibodies (anti-RR) are most commonly associated with interferon-α and ribavirin treatment in hepatitis C patients. Clinical laboratories routinely screen for AMA and anti-RR using indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells (HEp-2-IFA). Therefore, we sought to establish reference materials for use in AMA and anti-RR testing. METHODS: AMA-positive and anti-RR-positive human plasma samples (AMA-REF and RR-REF), identified as potential reference materials based on preliminary data, were further validated by multiple laboratories using HEp-2-IFA, immunoprecipitation (IP), western blotting, IP-western, line immunoassay (LIA), addressable laser bead immunoassay (ALBIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469542/-progress-and-application-of-immunodiagnostic-methods-of-giardiasis
#12
Zhang Le-Sheng, Wang Yan-Juan, Cao Jian-Ping
Giardia lamblia is an important intestinal protozoan which can cause diarrhea in humans. The detection of Giardia infection is performed through the detection methods of pathogen, immunoassay and molecular biology. Currently, the immunodiagnostic methods have good application and development prospect because of high sensitivity and specificity, simple and convenient, and time saving. In this article, we review the main progress and application of immunodiagnostic methods for Giardia infection.
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415506/vhh-antibodies-reagents-for-mycotoxin-detection-in-food-products
#13
REVIEW
Jia Wang, Hina Mukhtar, Lan Ma, Qian Pang, Xiaohong Wang
Mycotoxins are the toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi and they are a worldwide public health concern. A VHH antibody (or nanobody) is the smallest antigen binding entity and is produced by heavy chain only antibodies. Compared with conventional antibodies, VHH antibodies overcome many pitfalls typically encountered in clinical therapeutics and immunodiagnostics. Likewise, VHH antibodies are particularly useful for monitoring mycotoxins in food and feedstuffs, as they are easily genetic engineered and have superior stability...
February 6, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409531/development-and-characterization-of-serotype-specific-monoclonal-antibodies-against-the-dengue-virus-4-denv-4-non-structural-protein-ns1
#14
Tesfaye Gelanew, Elizabeth Hunsperger
BACKGROUND: Dengue, caused by one of the four serologically distinct dengue viruses (DENV-1 to - 4), is a mosquito-borne disease of serious global health significance. Reliable and cost-effective diagnostic tests, along with effective vaccines and vector-control strategies, are highly required to reduce dengue morbidity and mortality. Evaluation studies revealed that many commercially available NS1 antigen (Ag) tests have limited sensitivity to DENV-4 serotype compared to the other three serotypes...
February 6, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334990/performance-evaluation-of-existing-immunoassays-for-clonorchis-sinensis-infection-in-china
#15
Hong-Mei Li, Men-Bao Qian, Yi-Chao Yang, Zhi-Hua Jiang, Kang Wei, Jia-Xu Chen, Jun-Hu Chen, Ying-Dan Chen, Xiao-Nong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis ranks among the most important food-borne parasitic diseases in China. However, due to low compliance to traditional fecal examination techniques in the general population and medical personnel, immunodiagnosis is expected. This study evaluated, in parallel, the performance of four immunodiagnostic kits detecting clonorchiasis in China. RESULTS: A bank with 475 sera was established in this study. Except for the low performance of the kit detecting IgM, the other three kits detecting IgG showed sensitivities ranging from 81...
January 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291152/efficient-immunodiagnosis-of-citrus-yellow-mosaic-virus-using-polyclonal-antibodies-with-an-expressed-recombinant-virion-associated-protein
#16
P Vignesh Kumar, Susheel Kumar Sharma, Narayan Rishi, Virendra Kumar Baranwal
Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV) is a member of genus Badnavirus of the family Caulimoviridae . It is the causal agent of citrus yellow mosaic disease in citrus and causes reduction in yield. As the virus is vegetative propagated by grafting, development of high-throughput diagnosis methods based on serological techniques is a prerequisite for production of healthy virus-free planting material. The current study describes the development of polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits against purified recombinant virion-associated protein (rVAP) encoded by ORF-II of CYMV...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204098/effectiveness-of-rituximab-in-nephrotic-syndrome-treatment
#17
Katarzyna Popko, Elżbieta Górska, Elżbieta Kuźma-Mroczkowska
Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is a common chronic illness characterized by massive proteinuria and hypo-albuminemia in children. Baseline treatment is 6 month-corticotherapy. In cases of steroid resistant/dependent INS several types of treatment are used, including course of methyloprednisolone "pulses", alkylating agents, cyclosporin A, levamisole and mycophenolate mofetil. It has been suggested that children with frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome or steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome had a significantly longer relapse-free period if rituximab (RTX) treatment was additionally applied...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174995/evaluation-of-the-new-restandardized-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-assay-on-the-isys-platform
#18
Damien Denimal, Stéphanie Roux, Laurence Duvillard
BACKGROUND: 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is the most reliable biomarker of vitamin D status, but until now 25(OH)D assays have suffered from inter-laboratory and inter-assay discrepancies. In the setting of the international Vitamin D Standardization Program, Immunodiagnostic Systems (IDS) recently reformulated and restandardized the 25(OH)D immunoassay available on the automated iSYS platform. In the present study, we evaluated this new generation of the 25(OH)D immunoassay (IS-2500)...
February 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149256/structural-and-immunodiagnostic-characterization-of-synthetic-antigen-b-subunits-from-echinococcus-granulosus-and-their-evaluation-as-target-antigens-for-cyst-viability-assessment
#19
Daniela Pagnozzi, Francesca Tamarozzi, Anna Maria Roggio, Vittorio Tedde, Maria Filippa Addis, Salvatore Pisanu, Gabriella Masu, Cinzia Santucciu, Ambra Vola, Adriano Casulli, Giovanna Masala, Enrico Brunetti, Sergio Uzzau
Background: Several tools have been proposed for serodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE), but none appears promising for cyst viability assessment. Antigens with stage-specific diagnostic value have been described, but few studies with well-characterized antigens and human sera have been performed. Antigen B (AgB) proteoforms hold promise as markers of viability, due to their differential stage-related expression and immunoreactivity. Methods: Four AgB subunits (AgB1, AgB2, AgB3, AgB4) were synthesized and structurally characterized...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116026/the-c3heb-fej-mouse-model-recapitulates-the-hallmark-of-bovine-tuberculosis-lung-lesions-following-mycobacterium-bovis-aerogenous-infection
#20
Mélodie Bouté, Florence Carreras, Christelle Rossignol, Emilie Doz, Nathalie Winter, Mathieu Epardaud
Achieving the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) would require the discovery of an efficient combined immunodiagnostic and vaccine strategy. Since in vivo experiments on cattle are not ethically and economically acceptable there is a need for a cost-effective animal model capable of reproducing, as closely as possible, the physiopathology of bTB to (i) better characterize the cellular and molecular features of bTB immunopathogenesis and (ii) screen preclinical vaccine candidates. To develop such a model, we focused on the C3HeB/FeJ Kramnik's mouse forming hypoxic, encapsulated granulomas with a caseous necrotic center following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
November 7, 2017: Veterinary Research
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