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molecular characteristics of sperm surface

Ernesto J Grasso, Adolfo E Sottile, Carlos E Coronel
It is known that caltrin (calcium transport inhibitor) protein binds to sperm cells during ejaculation and inhibits extracellular Ca(2+) uptake. Although the sequence and some biological features of mouse caltrin I and bovine caltrin are known, their physicochemical properties and tertiary structure are mainly unknown. We predicted the 3D structures of mouse caltrin I and bovine caltrin by molecular homology modeling and threading. Surface electrostatic potentials and electric fields were calculated using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation...
2016: Bioinformatics and Biology Insights
Lindsey M Vansandt, Janelle L Livesay, Melissa Joy Dickson, Lei Li, Budhan S Pukazhenthi, Carol L Keefer
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are distinct in their ability to self-renew, transmit genetic information, and persist throughout the life of an individual. These characteristics make SSCs a useful tool for addressing diverse challenges such as efficient transgenic production in nonrodent, biomedical animal models, or preservation of the male genome for species in which survival of frozen-thawed sperm is low. A requisite first step to access this technology in felids is the establishment of molecular markers...
September 1, 2016: Theriogenology
Agnieszka P Lipinska, Els J M Van Damme, Olivier De Clerck
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary studies of genes that mediate recognition between sperm and egg contribute to our understanding of reproductive isolation and speciation. Surface receptors involved in fertilization are targets of sexual selection, reinforcement, and other evolutionary forces including positive selection. This observation was made across different lineages of the eukaryotic tree from land plants to mammals, and is particularly evident in free-spawning animals. Here we use the brown algal model species Ectocarpus (Phaeophyceae) to investigate the evolution of candidate gamete recognition proteins in a distant major phylogenetic group of eukaryotes...
2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Daniel A Peñalva, Natalia Wilke, Bruno Maggio, Marta I Aveldaño, Maria L Fanani
Molecular species of sphingomyelin (SM) with nonhydroxy (n) and 2-hydroxy (h) very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n- and h-28:4, 30:5, and 32:5) abound in rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. These SMs are located on the sperm head, where they are converted to the corresponding ceramides (Cer) after the completion of the acrosomal reaction, as induced in vitro. The aim of this study was to look into the surface properties of these unique SM species and how these properties change by the SM → Cer conversion...
April 22, 2014: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Geneviève Plante, Jinjiang Fan, Puttaswamy Manjunath
Proteins of the Binder of SPerm superfamily are known to bind choline phospholipids on sperm membrane and promote sperm capacitation. The current study focuses on the biochemical and functional characterization of the murine Binder of SPerm homolog 2 (BSPH2). A recombinant protein (rec-BSPH2) was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami B (DE3)pLysS cells using pET32a vector. It was purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography and refolded on column using a decreasing urea gradient. Rec-BSPH2 was found to share some binding characteristics with other BSP proteins, such as binding to gelatin, heparin, and epididymal sperm...
January 2014: Biology of Reproduction
Kate A Redgrove, Amanda L Anderson, Eileen A McLaughlin, Moira K O'Bryan, R John Aitken, Brett Nixon
A unique characteristic of mammalian spermatozoa is that, upon ejaculation, they are unable to recognize and bind to an ovulated oocyte. These functional attributes are only realized following the cells' ascent of the female reproductive tract whereupon they undergo a myriad of biochemical and biophysical changes collectively referred to as 'capacitation'. We have previously shown that this functional transformation is, in part, engineered by the modification of the sperm surface architecture leading to the assembly and/or presentation of multimeric sperm-oocyte receptor complexes...
March 2013: Molecular Human Reproduction
Stefanie Sprunck, Svenja Rademacher, Frank Vogler, Jacqueline Gheyselinck, Ueli Grossniklaus, Thomas Dresselhaus
Double fertilization is the defining characteristic of flowering plants. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating the fusion of one sperm with the egg and the second sperm with the central cell are largely unknown. We show that gamete interactions in Arabidopsis depend on small cysteine-rich EC1 (EGG CELL 1) proteins accumulating in storage vesicles of the egg cell. Upon sperm arrival, EC1-containing vesicles are exocytosed. The sperm endomembrane system responds to exogenously applied EC1 peptides by redistributing the potential gamete fusogen HAP2/GCS1 (HAPLESS 2/GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1) to the cell surface...
November 23, 2012: Science
Tamara Jimenez, Gladis Sánchez, Gustavo Blanco
The α4 polypeptide is a testis-specific isoform of the catalytic subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, which is essential for sperm motility and fertility. In the present study, we have investigated the regulation of activity of the α4 isoform and the relevance of this event for sperm capacitation. We have performed this by taking advantage of the selective high affinity of α4 for the inhibitor ouabain. Our results show that ouabain-sensitive hydrolysis of ATP and uptake of (86)Rb, corresponding to the enzymatic and ion transport activities of α4, respectively, increased during sperm capacitation in a time-dependent manner...
September 2012: Journal of Andrology
Ralf Henkel
For assisted reproduction technologies (ART), numerous techniques were developed to isolate spermatozoa capable of fertilizing oocytes. While early methodologies only focused on isolating viable, motile spermatozoa, with progress of ART, particularly intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), it became clear that these parameters are insufficient for the identification of the most suitable spermatozoon for fertilization. Conventional sperm preparation techniques, namely, swim-up, density gradient centrifugation and glass wool filtration, are not efficient enough to produce sperm populations free of DNA damage, because these techniques are not physiological and not modeled on the stringent sperm selection processes taking place in the female genital tract...
March 2012: Asian Journal of Andrology
Juan Manuel Teijeiro, María Lorena Roldán, Patricia Estela Marini
Porcine sperm binding glycoprotein (SBG) is involved in sperm-oviduct interaction. Here we use mass spectrometry to identify SBG, finding peptides corresponding to deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1), at scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) and CUB domains. RT-PCR allowed the cloning of unique sequences, belonging to porcine DMBT1. Western blot and immunofluorescence of oviductal tissues using anti-SBG and anti-hDMBT1 antibodies showed identical results. The biochemical characteristics of both proteins are coincident...
January 2012: Biochimie
Hitomi Watanabe, Gen Kondoh
Mammalian sperm undergo several maturation steps after leaving the testis to become competent for fertilization. Important changes occur in sperm within the female reproductive tract, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes remain unclear. To investigate sperm membrane remodeling upon sperm maturation, we developed transgenic mouse lines carrying glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP-GPI) and traced the fate of this fluorescent protein during the fertility-acquiring process in sperm in vitro and in vivo...
August 1, 2011: Journal of Cell Science
Hiroshi Yoshitake, Mitsuaki Yanagida, Mayuko Maruyama, Kenji Takamori, Akiko Hasegawa, Yoshihiko Araki
We previously established an anti-sperm head auto-monoclonal antibody designated Ts4. The immunoreactivity of this antibody was also observed in other reproduction-related cells, such as testicular germ cells and early embryos, suggesting that the Ts4-recognized molecules might play a role in the reproductive process. However, the molecular characteristics and functions of the antigens warrant further clarification. In this study, we primarily attempted identification of the mAb-recognized molecules within the mouse testis...
August 2011: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Magnus Monné, Luca Jovine
Species-restricted interaction between gametes at the beginning of fertilization is mediated by the extracellular coat of the egg, a matrix of cross-linked glycoprotein filaments called the zona pellucida (ZP) in mammals and the vitelline envelope in nonmammals. All egg coat subunits contain a conserved protein-protein interaction module-the "ZP domain"-that allows them to polymerize upon dissociation of a C-terminal propeptide containing an external hydrophobic patch (EHP). Recently, the first crystal structures of a ZP domain protein, sperm receptor ZP subunit zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (ZP3), have been reported, giving a glimpse of the structural organization of the ZP at the atomic level and the molecular basis of gamete recognition in vertebrates...
October 2011: Biology of Reproduction
C J Ainsworth, B Nixon, R J Aitken
This study examines the properties of an electrophoretic device designed to effect the rapid isolation of spermatozoa for assisted conception purposes. In light of previous reports suggesting that X- and Y-bearing spermatozoa can be separated in an electric field, the first characteristic examined was the sex chromosome status of electrophoretically isolated spermatozoa. Exploiting sex chromosome-specific differences in the structure of the amelogenin gene, a quantitative PCR protocol was designed that allowed the rapid genotyping of isolated sperm suspensions...
October 2011: International Journal of Andrology
Pavla Maňásková-Postlerová, Nina Davidová, Miroslav Sulc, Anatoly Philimonenko, Pavel Hozák, Věra Jonáková
Beta-microseminoprotein (MSP) is a predominant protein of human seminal plasma and originates from prostate secretions. MSP from boar seminal plasma has been sequenced and shows only 50%-52% homology with that of human. Porcine MSP is synthesized by the post-natal prostate gland and is identical with the sperm motility inhibitor. Although MSP is a protein characteristic of the prostate gland, we have established the presence of its mRNA transcript not only in boar prostate but also in other reproductive organ tissues...
May 2011: Cell and Tissue Research
Peng Wang, Bianjiang Liu, Zengjun Wang, Xiaobing Niu, Shifeng Su, Wei Zhang, Xinru Wang
Lactoferrin (LF) is abundant in human seminal plasma and on sperm surfaces. However, lactoferrin receptor (LFR) on human spermatozoa has not yet been reported. To study the expression, localization and characteristics of LFR on human spermatozoa, different experimental approaches were applied: LFR gene was amplified from a human testis cDNA library and recombinant LFR (rLFR) protein was produced in the expression vector Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3); human sperm membrane proteins were extracted and analysed via Western blot; the binding of LF to LFR was investigated by Far-Western blot, immunoprecipitation and autoradiography analysis and the localization of LFR on sperm surfaces was detected using immunofluorescence...
February 2011: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Pavla Maňásková-Postlerová, Nina Davidová, Věra Jonáková
During the passage through the epididymis, testicular spermatozoa are directly exposed to epididymal fluid and undergo maturation. Proteins and glycoproteins of epididymal fluid may be adsorbed on the sperm surface and participate in the sperm maturation process, potentially in sperm capacitation, gamete recognition, binding and fusion. In present study, we separated proteins from boar epididymal fluid and tested their binding abilities. Boar epididymal fluid proteins were separated by size exclusion chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography with reverse phase (RP HPLC)...
January 1, 2011: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Stefanie Sprunck
Fertilization comprises a series of precisely orchestrated steps that culminate in the fusion of male and female gametes. The most intimate steps during fertilization encompass gamete recognition, adhesion and fusion. In animals, some binding-effector proteins and enzymes have been identified that act on the cell surfaces of the gametes to regulate gamete compatibility and fertilization success. In contrast, exploring plant gamete interaction during double fertilization, a characteristic trait of flowering plants, has been hampered for a long time because of the protected location of the female gametes and technical limitations...
April 2010: Biochemical Society Transactions
Kiyono Sekii, Willi Salvenmoser, Katrien De Mulder, Lukas Scharer, Peter Ladurner
BACKGROUND: Failure of sperm differentiation is one of the major causes of male sterility. During spermiogenesis, spermatids undergo a complex metamorphosis, including chromatin condensation and cell elongation. Although the resulting sperm morphology and property can vary depending on the species, these processes are fundamental in many organisms. Studying genes involved in such processes can thus provide important information for a better understanding of spermatogenesis, which might be universally applied to many other organisms...
2009: BMC Developmental Biology
Nathaniel L Clark, Joe Gasper, Masashi Sekino, Stevan A Springer, Charles F Aquadro, Willie J Swanson
Reproductive proteins are among the fastest evolving in the proteome, often due to the consequences of positive selection, and their rapid evolution is frequently attributed to a coevolutionary process between interacting female and male proteins. Such a process could leave characteristic signatures at coevolving genes. One signature of coevolution, predicted by sexual selection theory, is an association of alleles between the two genes. Another predicted signature is a correlation of evolutionary rates during divergence due to compensatory evolution...
July 2009: PLoS Genetics
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