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Wildlife rehabilitation

Sarah G H Sapp, Lisa N Rascoe, Patricia P Wilkins, Sukwan Handali, Elizabeth B Gray, Mark Eberhard, Dana M Woodhall, Susan P Montgomery, Karen L Bailey, Emily W Lankau, Michael J Yabsley
Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms can cause potentially fatal neural larva migrans in many species, including humans. However, the clinical spectrum of baylisascariasis is not completely understood. We tested 347 asymptomatic adult wildlife rehabilitators for B. procyonis antibodies; 24 were positive, suggesting that subclinical baylisascariasis is occurring among this population.
December 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mark A O'Dea, Bethany Jackson, Carol Jackson, Pally Xavier, Kristin Warren
A respiratory disease syndrome has been observed in large numbers of wild shingleback lizards (Tiliqua rugosa) admitted to wildlife care facilities in the Perth metropolitan region of Western Australia. Mortality rates are reportedly high without supportive treatment and care. Here we used next generation sequencing techniques to screen affected and unaffected individuals admitted to Kanyana Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Perth between April and December 2015, with the resultant discovery of a novel nidovirus significantly associated with cases of respiratory disease according to a case definition based on clinical signs...
2016: PloS One
Beata Dolka, Artur Żbikowski, Izabella Dolka, Piotr Szeleszczuk
BACKGROUND: Recent epidemics of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) produced an unprecedented number of cases in mute swans (Cygnus olor) in European countries, which indicates that these birds are very sensitive to the H5N1 virus. The HPAI outbreaks stirred a debate on the controversial stamping-out policy in populations of protected bird species. After preventive vaccination had been approved in the European Union, several countries have introduced vaccination schemes to protect poultry, captive wild birds or exotic birds in zoos against HPAI...
October 22, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Guillermo M Wiemeyer, Miguel A Pérez, Laura Torres Bianchini, Luciano Sampietro, Guillermo F Bravo, N Luis Jácome, Vanesa Astore, Sergio A Lambertucci
Wildlife lead exposure is an increasing conservation threat that is being widely investigated. However, for some areas of the world (e.g., South America) and certain species, research on this subject is still scarce or only local information is available. We analyzed the extent and intensity of lead exposure for a widely distributed threatened species, the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). We conducted the study at two different scales: 1) sampling of birds received for rehabilitation or necropsy in Argentina, and 2) bibliographic review and extensive survey considering exposure event for the species' distribution in South America...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
Manuela A Carneiro Dvm, Paula A Oliveira, Ricardo Brandão, Olga Nicolas Francisco, Roser Velarde, Santiago Lavín, Bruno Colaço
Avian scavengers that typically include game birds and mammals in their diets are at risk of lead poisoning from ingestion of carcasses with fragmented or residual lead ammunition that is used in hunting. Thus, lead may be one of the threats that the griffon vulture ( Gyps fulvus ) faces in the Iberian Peninsula and particularly in Portugal, where their conservation status is considered to be near-threatened. This is the first report that details 3 cases of lead poisoning, associated with the ingestion of lead shot, in adult female griffon vultures found in the Iberian Peninsula...
September 2016: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
B L Chilvers, G Finlayson, E J Candy, A Sriram, K J Morgan, J F Cockrem
Whether oiled wildlife should be rehabilitated during an oil spill is internationally debated. Research on little penguins (LP, Eudyptula minor) rehabilitated and released back into a cleaned environment after the New Zealand C/V Rena grounding oil spill in 2011 found the rehabilitation process was effective at treating and reversing the negative effects of oil-contamination on penguin post-release survival, productivity and diving behaviour. Here we investigated the acute corticosterone stress response of LPs to determine if responses of rehabilitated birds differed from those of "control" birds...
October 7, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Belinda Vangchhia, Sam Abraham, Jan M Bell, Peter Collignon, Justine S Gibson, Paul R Ingram, James R Johnson, Karina Kennedy, Darren J Trott, John D Turnidge, David M Gordon
Unlike Escherichia coli strains belonging to phylogroup B2, the clinical significance of strains belonging to phylogroup F is not well understood. Here we report on a collection of phylogroup F strains recovered in Australia from faeces and extra-intestinal sites from humans, companion animals and native animals, as well as from poultry meat and water samples. The distribution of sequence types was clearly non-random with respect to isolate source. The antimicrobial resistance and virulence trait profiles also varied with the sequence type of the isolate...
November 2016: Microbiology
Emily Burton, Andrew Tribe
Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Isis Victoriano Llopis, Laura Tomassone, Elena Grego, Emmanuel Serrano, Andrea Mosca, Gabriella Vaschetti, Daniela Andrade, Luca Rossi
BACKGROUND: The total contact rates (TCRs) between mosquito vectors and their potential hosts have a serious impact on disease transmission dynamics. Culex pipiens (sensu stricto) (s.s.) is considered the main vector of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in Europe and birds are the reservoir hosts. The results of our previous study showed that WNV seroreactors are significantly more prevalent among raptors compared to a range of other wild avian groups. The current study aims to assess the role of bird type (raptor vs others) and bird size on mosquito feeding preferences in a free-choice experiment using bird-baited traps...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
S Saunders, K Smith, R Schott, G Dobbins, J Scheftel
Campylobacteriosis is an enteric illness caused by bacteria of the genus Campylobacter. There are approximately 900 culture-confirmed cases of campylobacteriosis reported annually to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). Case patients are interviewed about risk factors, including foods eaten, recreational and drinking water exposures and animal contact. In September 2013, MDH identified two Campylobacter jejuni cases who reported working at the same wildlife rehabilitation centre before illness onset. This report describes the investigation, which used a case-control study design, and identified 16 additional ill persons, for a total of 18 ill persons...
August 30, 2016: Zoonoses and Public Health
Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias, Ingrid Annes Pereira, Eliane Moura Falavina Dos Reis, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Salvatore Siciliano
The illegal wildlife trade may increase the risk of infectious disease transmission, and it may not only cause disease outbreaks in humans but also threaten livestock, native wild populations, and ecosystems' health. Bird species may act as carriers in the transmission of enteric pathogens. However, epidemiological studies on zoonotic bacteria in wild birds are rare in Brazil. From March 2011 to March 2012, we investigated the frequency of Enterobacteriaceae in cloacal swab samples from 109 birds of the passerine and Psittacidae families...
October 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Rachael K Lau, Anneke Moresco, Sarah J Woods, Christopher M Reilly, Michelle G Hawkins, Christopher J Murphy, Steven R Hollingsworth, Dennis Hacker, Kate S Freeman
A juvenile to young adult, male, great horned owl (Bubo virginianus,GHOW) was presented to the wildlife rehabilitation hospital at Lindsay Wildlife Museum (WRHLWM) due to trauma to the right patagium from barbed wire entanglement. On presentation, both corneas were irregular, dry, and no movement of the third eyelid was noted. A severe corneal enlargement/globoid appearance was the predominant ophthalmic feature. The fundus was normal in both eyes (OU). Over the course of several days, both corneas developed edema combined with further dessication at the ocular surface associated with diffuse dorsal fluorescein stain uptake...
July 31, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Sarrah Kaye, Shawn Johnson, Robert D Arnold, Ben Nie, Joshua T Davis, Frances Gulland, Noha Abou-Madi, Daniel J Fletcher
ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) is a lysine analogue antifibrinolytic drug used to treat bleeding disorders in humans and domestic animals. Its use in zoological medicine is rare, and dosage is anecdotal. One possible application of EACA is to treat bleeding associated with prepatent Otostrongylus arteritis in Northern elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris ) presenting to wildlife rehabilitation centers. This study used an in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis and a thromboelastograph-based assay to estimate the therapeutic plasma concentration of EACA in elephant seals (85 μg/ml, 95% confidence interval = 73...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
MariaCruz Camacho, Jose Manuel Hernández, Jose Francisco Lima-Barbero, Ursula Höfle
More than 70% of new human pathogens are zoonotic and many originate from the wildlife reservoir. Wildlife rehabilitation centres (WRC) are an easily accessible source for sample and data collection for preventive surveillance, but data collected this way may be biased. We use white storks (Ciconia ciconia) as a model to compare pathogen prevalence obtained in the field and WRC. We address factors that may affect disease prevalence data like origin, the age group and the "diseased" state of WRC admissions. In this study we compared prevalence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp...
August 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Natalia Montesdeoca, Pascual Calabuig, Juan A Corbera, Jorge Orós
We report the causes of morbidity of 2,458 free-living raptors admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, during 2003-13. The seasonal cumulative incidences were investigated while considering estimates of the wild populations in the region. These methods were used as a more accurate approach to assess the potential ecologic impact of different causes of morbidity. The most frequently admitted species were the Eurasian Kestrel ( Falco tinnunculus ; 53.0%), the Eurasian Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus canariensis; 28...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
M Fleming, S Bexton
Ocular pathology is relatively common in stranded seals admitted to wildlife rehabilitation hospitals. Some have pre-existing problems, while others develop eye problems in captivity, and in particular ulcerative keratitis, due to factors such as large prominent eyes, suboptimal water quality, trauma and infighting. Despite treatment, corneal ulcerations can rapidly progress to 'melting' ulcers with subsequent rupture of the globe. In this case series, 32 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) had conjunctival swabs taken on admission to a UK wildlife hospital to identify ocular bacterial flora and nine had subsequent swabs taken after four weeks to see if this changed in captivity...
July 23, 2016: Veterinary Record
Sarah Wills, Chantale Pinard, Stephanie Nykamp, Hugues Beaufrère
This study established ophthalmic reference values and characterized ocular lesions in two captive populations of boreal owls, including 46 eyes of 23 great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) and 38 eyes from 19 snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus). A complete ophthalmologic exam was conducted, including neuro-ophthalmic reflexes, Schirmer tear test I (STT-I), intraocular pressure (IOP) using rebound tonometry, fluorescein staining, horizontal corneal measurements using Jameson calipers, direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy, and ocular ultrasound biometry...
March 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Naama Tessler, Lea Wittenberg, Noam Greenbaum
Fire is a common disturbance in Mediterranean ecosystems, and can have a destructive, influential, and even essential, effect on vegetation and wildlife. In recent decades there has been a general increase in the number of fires in the Mediterranean Basin, including in Mount Carmel, Israel. The effects of recurrent forest fires on vegetation cover and species richness were determined in the spring of 2009 and 2010 by field surveys. The results of this study showed that the vegetation cover changes after recurrent forest fires, and can serve as a good indicator of the influence of fire and the resulting ecosystem rehabilitation...
February 26, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jorge Orós, Natalia Montesdeoca, María Camacho, Alberto Arencibia, Pascual Calabuig
AIMS: The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of stranding of 1,860 loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) admitted at the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 1998 to 2014, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process to allow meaningful auditing of its quality. METHODS: Primary causes of morbidity were classified into seven categories: entanglement in fishing gear and/or plastics, ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines, trauma, infectious disease, crude oil, other causes, and unknown/undetermined...
2016: PloS One
André Tomás, Ricardo L Palma, Maria Teresa Rebelo, Isabel Pereira da Fonseca
This study was carried out to determine chewing louse species of wild birds in the Ria Formosa Natural Park, located in southern Portugal. In addition, the hypothesis that bird age, avian migration and social behaviour have an impact on the louse prevalence was tested. Between September and December of 2013, 122 birds (belonging to 10 orders, 19 families, 31 genera and 35 species) captured in scientific ringing sessions and admitted to the Wildlife Rehabilitation and Investigation Centre of Ria Formosa were examined for lice...
June 2016: Parasitology International
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