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Pharmaceutical microbiology

D Nemes, Z Ujhelyi, P Arany, A Pető, P Fehér, J Váradi, F Fenyvesi, M Vecsernyés, I Bácskay
Aqueous pharmaceutical solutions provide prosperous living conditions for microbiological agents. In order to eliminate these microbes, we use preservatives which can harm human cells as well. Their cytotoxicity is concentration-dependent and the aim of our study was to find how other pharmaceutical excipients modify the cytotoxic attributes of preservatives. We tested the following compounds: methylparaben, benzalkonium chloride, polysorbate 20, Labrasol® and hydroxyethyl cellulose. The MTT tests indicated that surfactants increase the cytotoxicity while polymers may decrease it in some cases...
January 2, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Fatma M Dardir, Aya S Mohamed, Mostafa R Abukhadra, Ezzat A Ahmed, Mamdouh F Soliman
The aim of this paper is to characterize and evaluate newly discovered bentonite deposits in Egypt for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications as well as its suitability as carrier for Praziquantel drug. The study was performed for the raw bentonite sample, purified bentonite sample and alkali activated purified bentonite sample. The raw bentonite sample composed mainly of montmorillonite contaminated by little amounts of quartz and calcite, while the purified sample composed of montmorillonite without detected mineral impurities and matches the mineralogical properties of Wyoming bentonite as an international standard...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Erika Tayse da Cruz Almeida, Maria Cristina Delgado da Silva, José Marcos Dos Santos Oliveira, Regianne Umeko Kamiya, Rodolfo Elleson Dos Santos Arruda, Danilo Abreu Vieira, Valdemir da Costa Silva, Pierre Barnabé Escodro, Irinaldo Diniz Basílio-Júnior, Ticiano Gomes do Nascimento
The aim of this study was to characterize tinctures and microcapsules loaded with an ethanol extract of red propolis through chemical, physicochemical and microbiological assays in order to establish quality control tools for nutraceutical preparations of red propolis. The markers (isoflavonoids, chalcones, pterocarpans, flavones, phenolic acids, terpenes and guttiferones) present in the tinctures A and B were identified and confirmed using LC/ESI/FTMS/Orbitrap. Four compositions (A, B, C and D) were prepared to contain B tincture of the red propolis with some pharmaceutical excipients and submitted to two drying processes, i...
October 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Sajjad Ali, Heloise Labuschagne, Nickolay Azarov, Zakaria Hindi, Lavi Oud
Metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA) is a rare complication among patients who are diabetic, commonly presenting with non-specific findings, and developing mostly among those with other risk factors for lactic acidosis. We report the development of MALA in a 67-year-old man with diabetes who presented with progressive abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea. On presentation the patient was in shock, with signs suggestive of peritonitis, and with severe lactic acidosis, renal failure and non-specific findings on abdominal CT...
February 1, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
William Bradley Weir, Linda Y Fred, Matthew Pike, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Tyler J Ludwig, Ashley M Shar, Lingyang Zhu, Ann Frederick, Ike Uzoaru, Lin Wang, Jonathan V Sweedler
OBJECTIVES: Epinephrine shortages affect nearly all American emergency medical services (EMS) systems. Utilization of expired epinephrine could mitigate this situation in daily EMS operations. Concerns about using expired medications include sterility, potency, and potential harmful chemical decay byproducts. There are no cross-platform analyses of sterility and chemical purity of multiple samples of expired parenteral epinephrine. We hypothesized that epinephrine injections will remain sterile and will retain their active ingredient's content for more than 30 months past expiration...
January 26, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Beata Mazińska, Waleria Hryniewicz
Antimicrobial resistance has been one of the biggest global current issues in medicine and public health. Overuse and imprudent use of antimicrobial agents are recognized as one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the attitudes of Polish physicians practicing at the community level towards antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance. The majority of physicians taking part in the survey believed that Polish people overuse antibiotics (98%). Most physicians (91%) considered that antimicrobial resistance is a major problem at present...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Barbara Pliszka
BACKGROUND: The pharmaceutical and food industries expect detailed knowledge on the physicochemical properties of elderberry fruit extracts, their stability and microbiological quality, as well as the polyphenol content in elderberry cultivars. The characteristics of the extracts might be additionally modified by citric acid, which improves the stability of anthocyanins and protects processed fruits and syrups from pathogenic microorganisms. The choice of the method with citric acid was a consequence of the physicochemical charac teristics of elderberry pigments, which are not stable under the effect of light in alcoholic solutions...
October 2017: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Mariana M Silva, Raquel Calado, Joana Marto, Ana Bettencourt, António J Almeida, Lídia M D Gonçalves
Pharmaceutical approaches based on nanotechnologies and the development of eye drops composed of the mucoadhesive polymers chitosan and hyaluronic acid are emerging strategies for the efficient treatment of ocular diseases. These innovative nanoparticulate systems aim to increase drugs' bioavailability at the ocular surface. For the successful development of these systems, the evaluation of mucoahesiveness (the interaction between the ocular delivery system and mucins present on the eye) is of utmost importance...
December 1, 2017: Marine Drugs
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Ludovic Reveiz, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
December 1, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Ludovic Reveiz, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Afsaneh Vazin, Iman Karimzadeh, Atiyeh Zand, Nazafarin Hatami-Mazinani, Dena Firouzabadi
Purpose: To evaluate colistin use according to global standard drug consumption in intensive care units of a referral hospital in Shiraz, Iran Methods: A prospective, interventional study was performed during an 11 month period on 100 patients admitted to ICUs of a teaching hospital being treated with colistin for at least 3 subsequent doses. Required demographic, clinical, and paraclinical data were gathered by a pharmacist. Fifteen indexes were considered to evaluate colistin use. A clinical pharmacist reviewed indication and dose of colistin at the time of prescribing this agent...
September 2017: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
A Pruß
Transplantation of musculoskeletal tissues is widely used in the treatment of extensive defects of the musculoskeletal system, especially in orthopedics for exchange of prostheses, surgical interventions on the spine and in traumatology for reconstruction after extensive tumor resections. A danger after transplantation is the potential transmission of clinically relevant pathogens. Tissue banks have therefore established a safety level approach for musculoskeletal tissue transplants, which includes donor selection, laboratory testing, tissue procurement, tissue processing, tissue storage and quality assurance...
November 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
Eric VAN Wely
The first standards for chemical protective clothing (CPC) emerged mid to late 1980's and have evolved since as most standards are revisited every 5 yr. Over the past years, we have also seen a strengthening of the chemical and worker protection legislation around the globe (various forms of REACH) but also protection of workers. The most prevalent standards originate under the auspices of the International Standards Organisation (ISO), European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) or under various US standards organisations (e...
December 7, 2017: Industrial Health
T Doohun Kim
Lipases are important enzymes with biotechnological applications in dairy, detergent, food, fine chemicals, and pharmaceutical industries. Specifically, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is an intracellular lipase that can be stimulated by several hormones, such as catecholamine, glucagon, and adrenocorticotropic hormone. Bacterial hormone-sensitive lipases (bHSLs), which are homologous to the C-terminal domain of HSL, have α/β-hydrolase fold with a catalytic triad composed of His, Asp, and Ser. These bHSLs could be used for a wide variety of industrial applications because of their high activity, broad substrate specificity, and remarkable stability...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Youngbeom Ahn, Jeong Myeong Kim, Yong-Jin Lee, John J LiPuma, David Hussong, Bernard S Marasa, Carl E Cerniglia
Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and benzalkonium chloride (BZK) formulations are frequently used as antiseptics in healthcare and consumer products. Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) contamination of pharmaceutical products could be due to the use of contaminated water in the manufacturing process, over-diluted antiseptic solutions in the product, and the use of outdated products, which in turn, reduces the antimicrobial activity of CHX and BZK. To establish a "safe use" period following opening containers of CHX and BZK, we measured the antimicrobial effects of CHX (2 ~ 10 µg/ml) and BZK (10 ~ 50 µg/ml) at sub-lethal concentrations on six strains of Burkholderia cenocepacia using chemical and microbiological assays...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Luis Jimenez, Theranda Jashari, Jenifer Vasquez, Stephanie Zapata, Joy Bochis, Margarita Kulko, Victoria Ellman, Matthew Gardner, Tina Choe
A Real-Time (RT) PCR assay was developed to detect Burkholderia cepacia in pharmaceutical products contaminated with low levels of bacterial contamination. Different pharmaceutical suspensions were artificially contaminated with B. cepacia, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus megaterium. After a 24-hour incubation in TSB with Tween 20, samples were streaked on mannitol salt, phenyl ethyl alcohol, eosin methylene blue, MacConkey, and pseudomonas isolation agar. Microbial DNA was extracted from each sample by using a Tris-EDTA, proteinase K, Tween 20 buffer...
October 12, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Barbara Czaplińsk, Ewelina Spaczyńska, Robert Musioł
Background Fluorescent compounds had gained strong attention due to their wide and appealing applications. Microscopic techniques and visualization are good examples among others. Introduction of fluorescent dyes into microbiology opens the possibility to observe tissues, organisms or organelle with exceptional sensitivity and resolution. Probes for detection of biologically relevant metals as zinc, iron or copper seems to be particularly important for drug design and pharmaceutical sciences. Objective Quinoline derivatives are well known for their good metal affinity and wide spectrum of biological activity...
October 2, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
Abdel Naser Zaid, Rania Shtayah, Ayman Qadumi, Mashour Ghanem, Rawan Qedan, Marah Daibes, Somud Abu Awwad, Nidal Jaradat, Naim Kittana
PURPOSE: The stability of an extemporaneously prepared rosuvastatin suspension stored over 30 days under various storage conditions was evaluated. METHODS: Rosuvastatin suspension was extemporaneously prepared using commercial rosuvastatin tablets as the source of active pharmaceutical ingredient. The organoleptic properties, dissolution profile, and stability of the formulation were investigated. For the stability studies, samples of the suspension were stored under 2 storage conditions, room temperature (25 °C and 60% relative humidity) and accelerated stability chambers (40 °C and 75% relative humidity)...
October 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Davood Azadi, Hasan Shojaei, Sina Mobasherizadeh, Abass Daei Naser
Anthropogenic origin pollutants including pesticides, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and industry chemicals impose many risks to human health and environment and bioremediation has been considered the strategy of choice to reduce the risk of hazardous chemicals. In the current study, we aimed to screen and characterize mycobacteria from the diverse range of Iranian aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with harsh and unfavorable environmental conditions that can be utilized for biodegradation of target pollutants...
September 20, 2017: AMB Express
Ana Bielen, Ana Šimatović, Josipa Kosić-Vukšić, Ivan Senta, Marijan Ahel, Sanja Babić, Tamara Jurina, Juan José González Plaza, Milena Milaković, Nikolina Udiković-Kolić
Effluents from pharmaceutical industries are recognized as significant contributors to aquatic pollution with antibiotics. Although such pollution has been mostly reported in Asia, knowledge on industrial discharges in other regions of the world, including Europe, and on the effects associated with such exposures is still limited. Thus, we performed chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses of effluents from two Croatian pharmaceutical industries during four seasons. In treated effluents of the company synthesizing macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), the total concentration of AZI and two macrolide by-products from its synthesis was 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in winter and springtime (up to 10...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
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