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Pharmaceutical microbiology

Céline Pulcini, Simone Mohrs, Bojana Beovic, Inge Gyssens, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Otto Cars
The objective of this study was to update a 2011 survey, conducted on behalf of the ESCMID Study Group for Antibiotic Policies (ESGAP), studying the availability of old but clinically useful antibiotics in North America, Europe and Australia. This follow-up survey was performed in 2015 in 40 countries among specialists from the pharmaceutical, infectious diseases and microbiology sectors in North America, Europe and Australia in order to assess the availability through usual marketing processes of 36 systemic antibiotics (addition of 3 antibiotics compared with the 2011 survey) selected for their ability to treat infections caused by resistant bacteria and their unique value for specific criteria...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Marco Antonio Vargas, Jorge Britto
Characterization of the scientific and technological infrastructure in health and its interactions with the industrial sector provides key elements for understanding the dynamics of innovation in health. This study conducts an exploratory analysis of the potentialities and limitations associated with scientific and technological capabilities in the health area in Brazil and the different links between the scientific and industrial sectors in health. The analysis points to important growth in internationally indexed research output, especially in certain areas such as pharmaceutics, public health, genetics, morphology, physiology, and microbiology...
November 3, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Helen Brown, Hanns-Christian Mahler, James Mellman, Alejandra Nieto, Daniel Wagner, Matthias Schaar, Roman Mathaes, Juergen Kossinna, Franz Schmitting, Sascha Dreher, Holger Roehl, Markus Hemminger, Klaus Wuchner
The assurance of sterility of a parenteral drug product, prior to any human use, is a regulatory requirement. Hence, all strategies related to container closure integrity (CCI) must demonstrate absence of microbial contamination through leaks as part of the container closure system (CCS) qualification, during manufacturing, for Quality Control purposes and to ensure microbiological integrity (sterility) during storage and shipment up to the end of product shelf life. Current regulatory guidances, which differ between countries and regions, provide limited detail on how to assess CCI...
October 27, 2016: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Aneta M Białkowska
2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a promising bulk chemical with a potentially wide range of applications e.g., in the manufacture of printing inks, perfumes, synthetic rubber, fumigants, antifreeze agents, fuel additives, foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals. Its high heating value and ability to increase the octane number of fuels make 2,3-BD a promising drop-in fuel. It can also be converted to methyl-ethyl ketone (MEK), which is considered an effective liquid fuel additive. After combination with MEK and hydrogenation reaction, 2,3-BD can be converted to octane, which is used to produce high-quality aviation fuel...
December 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Rita Langasco, Barbara Cadeddu, Marilena Formato, Antonio Junior Lepedda, Massimo Cossu, Paolo Giunchedi, Roberto Pronzato, Giovanna Rassu, Renata Manconi, Elisabetta Gavini
The growing interest in the use of recyclable and biodegradable natural materials has become a relevant topic in pharmaceutics. In this work, we suggest the use and valorization of natural horny skeleton of marine sponges (Porifera, Dictyoceratida) as bio-based dressing for topical drug delivery. Biomaterial characterization focusing on morpho-functional traits, swelling behavior, fluid uptake performances, glycosaminoglycans content and composition and microbiological quality assessment was carried out to investigate the collagenic skeleton properties...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Mahboob Nemati, Aliasghar Hamidi, Solmaz Maleki Dizaj, Vahid Javaherzadeh, Farzaneh Lotfipour
Traditional microbiological methods tend to be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Rapid and novel methods in microbiological tests provide more sensitive, precise and reproducible results compared with conventional methods. In microbiology, the most rapid testing methods belong to the field of biotechnology such as PCR, ELISA, ATP bioluminescence and etc. Nevertheless impedance microbiology, biosensors and analytical procedures to determine microbial constituents are of significance. The present review article was conducted using internet databases and related scientific literatures and articles that provide information on developments in the rapid methods in microbiology...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Simona Arena, Giovanni Renzone, Chiara D'Ambrosio, Anna Maria Salzano, Andrea Scaloni
Heating of milk and dairy products is done using various technological processes with the aim of preserving microbiological safety and extending shelf-life. These treatments result in chemical modifications in milk proteins, mainly generated as a result of the Maillard reaction. Recently, different bottom-up proteomic methods have been applied to characterize the nature of these structural changes and the modified amino acids in model protein systems and/or isolated components from thermally-treated milk samples...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ana Santoveña, Irma Charola, Javier Suárez-González, Nuria Teigell-Pérez, Susana García-van Nood, Mabel Soriano, José B Fariña
There is as yet no commercialized preparation for oral administration of flecainide acetate (FA) to children. In such cases, manipulation of commercial tablets is the usual practice in pharmacy services of hospitals and compounding pharmacies, to provide a suitable dosage form for this vulnerable pediatric population group. In this study we have formulated FA as an oral solution, as an alternative to the suspension elaborated from commercial tablets. Due to this sensitivity of young patients, we have used the pure active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the lowest permitted levels of pediatric excipients...
September 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Vinicio Carias, Zohreh Nemati Porshokouh, Kristen Stojak Repa, Javier Alonso, Hariharan Srikanth, Jürgen Rühe, Ryan Toomey, Jing Wang
The micromanipulation of biological samples is important for microbiology, pharmaceutical science, and related bioengineering fields. In this work, we report the fabrication and characterization of surface-attached microbeam arrays of 20 μm width and 25 μm height made of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), a thermoresponsive polymer, with embedded spherical or octopod Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Below 32 °C, the microbeams imbibe water and buckle with an amplitude of approximately 20 μm. Turning on an AC-magnetic field induces the microbeam array to expel water due to the heating effect of the nanoparticles (magnetic hyperthermia), leading to a reversible transition from a buckled to nonbuckled state...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guinet Marie Frédéric Roland, Berthoumieu Nicole, Dutot Philippe, Triquet Julien, Ratajczak Mehdi, Thibaudon Michel, Bechaud Philippe, Arliaud Christophe, Miclet Edith, Giordano Florine, Larcon Marjorie, Arthaud Catherine
Environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulations represent an integral part of the microbiological quality control system of sterile pharmaceutical products manufacturing operations. However, guidance documents and manufacturers practices differ regarding recommendation for incubation time and incubation temperature and, consequently, the environmental monitoring and aseptic process simulation incubation strategy should be supported by validation data. To avoid any bias coming from in vitro studies or from single manufacturing in situ site studies, we performed a collaborative study at four manufacturing sites with four samples at the same location...
September 4, 2016: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Marcel Goverde, Julian Willrodt, Alexandra Staerk
Contact plates, dipslides and swabs are used for the microbiological monitoring of surfaces in controlled environments such as pharmaceutical clean rooms. In the present study, three different swab types using two different methods (direct streaking on agar versus elution followed by membrane filtration) were evaluated. In a first study, representative surfaces in pharmaceutical clean rooms were artificially inoculated using three different environmental strains (in vitro study). In a second study, a naturally inoculated floor was swabbed with the same three swab types, again using the two different recovery methods (in situ study)...
August 11, 2016: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
Filipa C Silva, Joana Marto, Ana Salgado, Paula Machado, Alexandra Silva, António J Almeida
Oral mucositis is a common adverse reaction to radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oncology. Its treatment requires oral formulations that enhance therapy compliance, improve administration and ensure drug effectiveness. Solid dosage forms that act by slow dissolution, such as pastilles, are an effective alternative to mouthwashes, for their versatility, ease of administration and extended residence time in the oral cavity. The present work describes the development and stability studies of an innovative formulation of nystatin and lidocaine pastilles for the treatment of oral mucositis...
August 8, 2016: Pharmaceutical Development and Technology
Changting Liu
Microorganisms exhibit high adaptability to extreme environments of outer space via phenotypic and genetic changes. These changes may affect astronauts in the space environment as well as on Earth because mutant microbes will inevitably return with the spacecraft. But the role and significance of these phenotypic changes and the underlying mechanisms are important unresolved questions in the field of space biology. By reviewing, especially the Chinese studies, we propose a space microbial molecular effect theory, that is, the space environment affects the nature of genes and the molecular structure of microorganisms to produce phenotypic changes...
July 26, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
G V Tetz, V V Tetz, T M Voroshilova, E I Smirnova, K M Kardava, T A Karamian, N V Zaslavskaia, D S Vikina, M A Zaitseva, K M Artemenko, A S Kaufman
The effectiveness of application of test-system "Choice of antibiotic" was evaluated as a tool for incubation of maximal amount of bacteria from pathological material under acute cystitis. The results of meta-genome analysis established that test-system permits supporting growth of practically all bacteria detected in urine, including ones relating to "uncultivated for the present". The comparison of results of standard detection of sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics and identification of effective pharmaceutical according the results of application of test-system "Choice of antibiotic" as well was implemented It is demonstrated that test- system permits choosing antibiotic during 6-20 hours wiihout isolation of pure strain...
February 2016: Klinicheskaia Laboratornaia Diagnostika
Piotr Jarocki, Marcin Podleśny, Elwira Komoń-Janczara, Jagoda Kucharska, Agnieszka Glibowska, Zdzisław Targoński
BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are anaerobic Gram-positive Actinobacteria, which are natural inhabitants of human and animal gastrointestinal tract. Certain bifidobacteria are frequently used as food additives and probiotic pharmaceuticals, because of their various health-promoting properties. Due to the enormous demand on probiotic bacteria, manufacture of high-quality products containing living microorganisms requires rapid and accurate identification of specific bacteria...
July 22, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Hideharu Shintani
Microbial testing performed in support of pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical production falls into three main categories: detection (qualitative), enumeration (quantitative), and characterization/identification. Traditional microbiological methods are listed in the compendia and discussed by using the conventional growth-based techniques, which are labor intensive and time consuming. In general, such tests require several days of incubation for microbial contamination (bioburden) to be detected, and therefore management seldom is able to take proactive corrective measures...
2016: Biocontrol Science
J Marto, L F Gouveia, L Gonçalves, B G Chiari-Andréo, V Isaac, P Pinto, E Oliveira, A J Almeida, H M Ribeiro
Green coffee oil and modified starch were recently found to have an enhanced protection effect against UV radiation. Therefore, this work aimed to develop an innovative sunscreen formulation based on Pickering emulsions concept, i.e., surfactant-free emulsions stabilized by physical UV filters associated natural oils as a key strategy for prevention against UV-induced skin damage. The Pickering emulsions of different compositions were characterized in terms of pH, mechanical, physical and microbiological stability by a thorough pharmaceutical control...
September 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Sonja Gvozdenac, Vojislava Bursić, Gorica Vuković, Simonida Đurić, Carlos Gonçalves, Dušica Jovičić, Snežana Tanasković
Irrigation is one of the most important uses of surface waters in the agricultural region of Vojvodina province (Serbia). The aim of the study was to assess the quality of water from Stara Tisa meander, based on the levels of pollution with metals, volatile compounds (VOC), pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and pathogenic bacteria, on sunflower, cabbage, cucumber, maize, barley, buckwheat, sorghum, radish, beans, and white mustard. Microbiological analysis was carried out using the dilution method and phytotoxicity assay according to ISTA filter paper method (germination energy (GE), germination (G), root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight)...
September 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Paweł Olczyk, Robert Koprowski, Justyna Kaźmierczak, Lukasz Mencner, Robert Wojtyczka, Jerzy Stojko, Krystyna Olczyk, Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev
The aim of the present study was to visualize the benefits and advantages derived from preparations based on extracts of bee pollen as compared to pharmaceuticals commonly used in the treatment of burns. The bee pollen ointment was applied for the first time in topical burn treatment. Experimental burn wounds were inflicted on two white, domestic pigs. Clinical, histopathological, and microbiological assessment of specimens from burn wounds, inflicted on polish domestic pigs, treated with silver sulfadiazine or bee pollen ointment, was done...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Nelson Durán, Gerson Nakazato, Amedea B Seabra
The antimicrobial impact of biogenic-synthesized silver-based nanoparticles has been the focus of increasing interest. As the antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles is highly dependent on their size and surface, the complete and adequate characterization of the nanoparticle is important. This review discusses the characterization and antimicrobial activity of biogenic synthesized silver nanoparticles and silver chloride nanoparticles. By revising the literature, there is confusion in the characterization of these two silver-based nanoparticles, which consequently affects the conclusion regarding to their antimicrobial activities...
August 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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