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Pharmaceutical microbiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923406/negative-environmental-impacts-of-antibiotic-contaminated-effluents-from-pharmaceutical-industries
#1
Ana Bielen, Ana Šimatović, Josipa Kosić-Vukšić, Ivan Senta, Marijan Ahel, Sanja Babić, Tamara Jurina, Juan José González Plaza, Milena Milaković, Nikolina Udiković-Kolić
Effluents from pharmaceutical industries are recognized as significant contributors to aquatic pollution with antibiotics. Although such pollution has been mostly reported in Asia, knowledge on industrial discharges in other regions of the world, including Europe, and on the effects associated with such exposures is still limited. Thus, we performed chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological analyses of effluents from two Croatian pharmaceutical industries during four seasons. In treated effluents of the company synthesizing macrolide antibiotic azithromycin (AZI), the total concentration of AZI and two macrolide by-products from its synthesis was 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in winter and springtime (up to 10...
September 9, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893690/new-agents-for-the-treatment-of-infections-with-gram-negative-bacteria-restoring-the-miracle-or-false-dawn
#2
REVIEW
Hugh Wright, Robert A Bonomo, David L Paterson
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance in gram-negative resistance has developed without a commensurate response in the successful development of antibiotic agents, though recent progress has been made. AIMS: This review aims to provide a summary of the existing evidence on efficacy, spectrum of activity and the development of resistance of new agents that have been licensed or completed advanced clinical trials that possess activity against resistant gram-negative organisms...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811824/preparation-of-galla-chinensis-oral-solution-as-well-as-its-stability-safety-and-antidiarrheal-activity-evaluation
#3
Yi Yang, Huihui Luo, Xu Song, Li Yu, Juan Xie, Jiajie Yang, Renyong Jia, Juchun Lin, Yuanfeng Zou, Lixia Li, Lizi Yin, Changliang He, Xiaoxia Liang, Guizhou Yue, Zhongqiong Yin
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: As a widely used traditional medicine, Galla Chinensis is rich in tannins. However, there are few detailed studies about pharmaceutical preparations of Galla Chinensis tannin extract (GTE). In the present experiments, for better application and to investigate the possibility that Galla Chinensis tannin extract can be used as an antidiarrheal drug, we prepared Galla Chinensis oral solution (GOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: GOS was prepared with GTE, and its physicochemical and microbiological stability was evaluated...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710617/steroid-bioconversions
#4
Marina V Donova
Steroid modifications by selected wild-type and engineered strains of microorganisms became an effective tool for the production of high-valued steroidal drugs and their precursors for the pharmaceutical industry. Some microorganisms are effective at the performance of sterol side-chain degradation, oxyfunctionalization of steroid core, and redox reactions at different positions of the steroid molecule. A number of bioprocesses using steroid-transforming microbial strains are well established on an industrial level...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708268/screening-protocols-to-monitor-respiratory-status-in-primary-immunodeficiency-disease-findings-from-a-european-survey-and-subclinical-infection-working-group
#5
Stephen Jolles, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Isabella Quinti, Pere Soler-Palacín, Carlo Agostini, Benoit Florkin, Louis-Jean Couderc, Nicholas Brodszki, Alison Jones, Hilary Longhurst, Klaus Warnatz, Filomeen Haerynck, Andrea Matucci, Esther de Vries
Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) who have antibody deficiency develop progressive lung disease due to underlying subclinical infection and inflammation. To understand how these patients are monitored we conducted a retrospective survey based on patient records of 13 PID centres across Europe, regarding the care of 1,061 adult and 178 paediatric patients with PID on IgG replacement. The most common diagnosis was common variable immunodeficiency in adults (75%), and hypogammaglobulinaemia in children (39%)...
July 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672875/light-assisted-advanced-oxidation-processes-for-the-elimination-of-chemical-and-microbiological-pollution-of-wastewaters-in-developed-and-developing-countries
#6
REVIEW
Stefanos Giannakis, Sami Rtimi, Cesar Pulgarin
In this work, the issue of hospital and urban wastewater treatment is studied in two different contexts, in Switzerland and in developing countries (Ivory Coast and Colombia). For this purpose, the treatment of municipal wastewater effluents is studied, simulating the developed countries' context, while cheap and sustainable solutions are proposed for the developing countries, to form a barrier between effluents and receiving water bodies. In order to propose proper methods for each case, the characteristics of the matrices and the targets are described here in detail...
June 26, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659553/microbial-fouling-in-a-water-treatment-plant-and-its-control-using-biocides
#7
T S Rao, Rajesh Kumar, P Balamurugan, G K Vithal
 Water treatment plants (WTP) are vital in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical process industries. This investigation describes the dense microbial fouling by microbes and organic compounds in a WTP of a heavy water producing industrial unit. On-site observations showed severe algal and bacterial growth in the various units of the WTP which are open to the atmosphere and very dense fungal fouling in the closed vacuum degasser unit. Digital and microscopic images showed that the microbial fouling problem was primarily due to a fungus...
2017: Biocontrol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656375/non-contact-raman-spectroscopy-for-in-line-monitoring-of-glucose-and-ethanol-during-yeast-fermentations
#8
Robert Schalk, Frank Braun, Rudolf Frank, Matthias Rädle, Norbert Gretz, Frank-Jürgen Methner, Thomas Beuermann
The monitoring of microbiological processes using Raman spectroscopy has gained in importance over the past few years. Commercial Raman spectroscopic equipment consists of a laser, spectrometer, and fiberoptic immersion probe in direct contact with the fermentation medium. To avoid possible sterilization problems and biofilm formation on the probe tip, a large-aperture Raman probe was developed. The design of the probe enables non-contact in-line measurements through glass vessels or inspection glasses of bioreactors and chemical reactors...
June 27, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642145/new-and-improved-a-review-of-novel-antibiotics-for-gram-positive-bacteria
#9
REVIEW
M Abbas, M Paul, A Huttner
BACKGROUND: The number of antibiotics in the pipeline targeting Gram-positive pathogens has increased in recent years. AIMS: This narrative review aims to provide a summary of existing evidence on efficacy, microbiological spectrum and safety of novel systemic antibiotics that have either recently been licensed or completed phase III trials, and possess activity predominantly against Gram-positive organisms. SOURCES: A review of the published literature via the MEDLINE database was performed...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598140/biomarker-profiling-of-plasma-samples-for-various-diseases-utilizing-randox-biochip-array-technology
#10
Jennifer Saluk, Debra Hoppensteadt, Danyel Syed, Jeffrey Liles, Schuharazad Abro, Amanda Walborn, Vinod Bansal, Jawed Fareed
RANDOX Biochip Array Technology offers an efficient, cost-effective method of measuring multiple analytes on a large number of samples in biologic fluids. This innovative technology has proven extremely useful in the profiling of markers in a number of different disease states. Biochip arrays have also shown promise in clinical trials, offering rapid evaluation of multiple markers and circulating levels of the analyte with only a small sample. This biochip technology has broad applications in clinical, pharmaceutical, toxicological, immunologic and microbiologic areas...
June 9, 2017: International Angiology: a Journal of the International Union of Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557779/adventures-in-the-environmental-world-and-environmental-microbiology-sampling-of-air-for-pharmaceutical-sterile-compounding
#11
Roberto Ligugnana
Chapter <797> issued by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. is the standard for sterile compounding. It is designed to reduce the number of patient infections due to contaminated pharmaceutical preparation. This regulation applies to all staff who prepare compounded sterile preparations and all places where they are produced, including hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, and physician's offices. This article provides the history of environmental microbiology and provides a discussion on environmental microbiology sampling of air for pharmaceutical sterile compounding...
May 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512003/towards-a-sustainable-biobased-industry-highlighting-the-impact-of-extremophiles
#12
REVIEW
Anna Krüger, Christian Schäfers, Carola Schröder, Garabed Antranikian
The transition of the oil-based economy towards a sustainable economy completely relying on biomass as renewable feedstock requires the concerted action of academia, industry, politics and civil society. An interdisciplinary approach of various fields such as microbiology, molecular biology, chemistry, genetics, chemical engineering and agriculture in addition to cross-sectional technologies such as economy, logistics and digitalization is necessary to meet the future global challenges. The genomic era has contributed significantly to the exploitation of naturés biodiversity also from extreme habitats...
May 13, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493774/urinary-catheter-related-visits-to-the-emergency-department-and-implications-for-community-services
#13
Tiziana Ansell, Danielle Harari
Thousands of patients live with urinary catheters and the potential complications deriving from long-term use. Disjointed community services may result in patients attending the emergency department (ED) to manage catheter complications. AIM: to conduct a service review of catheterised patients attending the ED of a large London hospital; to describe incidence, reasons for attendance and cost to inform future planning for out-of-hospital care. METHOD: a catheter collaborative, consisting of multidisciplinary health professionals and patients, formulated survey questions...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481236/new-applications-of-heparin-and-other-glycosaminoglycans
#14
REVIEW
Marcelo Lima, Timothy Rudd, Edwin Yates
Heparin, the widely used pharmaceutical anticoagulant, has been in clinical use for well over half a century. Its introduction reduced clotting risks substantially and subsequent developments, including the introduction of low-molecular-weight heparin, made possible many major surgical interventions that today make heparin an indispensable drug. There has been a recent burgeoning of interest in heparin and related glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polysaccharides, such as chondroitin sulfates, heparan sulfate, and hyaluronate, as potential agents in various applications...
May 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461085/wound-healing-effects-of-collagen-laminin-dermal-matrix-impregnated-with-resveratrol-loaded-hyaluronic-acid-dppc-microparticles-in-diabetic-rats
#15
Evren H Gokce, Sakine Tuncay Tanrıverdi, Ipek Eroglu, Nicolas Tsapis, Goksel Gokce, Isıl Tekmen, Elias Fattal, Ozgen Ozer
An alternative formulation for the treatment of diabetic foot wounds that heal slowly is a requirement in pharmaceutical field. The aim of this study was to develop a dermal matrix consisting of skin proteins and lipids with an antioxidant that will enhance healing and balance the oxidative stress in the diabetic wound area due to the high levels of glucose. Thus a novel three dimensional collagen-laminin porous dermal matrix was developed by lyophilization. Resveratrol-loaded hyaluronic acid and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine microparticles were combined with this dermal matrix...
October 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444620/environmental-pollution-with-antimicrobial-agents-from-bulk-drug-manufacturing-industries-in-hyderabad-south-india-is-associated-with-dissemination-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-and-carbapenemase-producing-pathogens
#16
Christoph Lübbert, Christian Baars, Anil Dayakar, Norman Lippmann, Arne C Rodloff, Martina Kinzig, Fritz Sörgel
PURPOSE: High antibiotic and antifungal concentrations in wastewater from anti-infective drug production may exert selection pressure for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. We investigated the environmental presence of active pharmaceutical ingredients and their association with MDR Gram-negative bacteria in Hyderabad, South India, a major production area for the global bulk drug market. METHODS: From Nov 19 to 28, 2016, water samples were collected from the direct environment of bulk drug manufacturing facilities, the vicinity of two sewage treatment plants, the Musi River, and habitats in Hyderabad and nearby villages...
August 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436829/modelling-the-effect-of-combined-antimicrobials-a-base-model-for-multiple-hurdles
#17
M Anastasiadi, R J W Lambert
Combining antimicrobials to reduce microbial growth and to combat the potential impact of antimicrobial resistance is an important subject both in foods and in pharmaceutics. Modelling of combined treatments designed to reduce or eliminate microbial contamination in foods (microbiological predictive modelling) has become commonplace. Two main reference models are used to analyse mixtures: the Bliss Independence and the Loewe reference models (LRM). By using optical density to analyse the growth of Aeromonas hydrophila, Cronobacter sakazakii and Escherichia coli in combined NaCl/NaCl (a mock combination experiment) and combined NaCl/KCl experiments, previous models for combined antimicrobials in foods, based on the Bliss approach, were shown to be inconsistent and that models based on the LRM more applicable...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381707/frontier-of-pharmaceutical-microbiology-to-combat-multidrug-resistant-bacterial-pathogens
#18
Yuji Morita, Kunihiko Nishino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286025/preparations-based-on-minerals-extracts-of-calicotome-villosa-roots-and-bovine-butyrate-matter-evaluation-in-vitro-of-their-antifungal-activity
#19
B Barhouchi, S Aouadi, A Abdi
OBJECTIVE: The use of preparations based on minerals extracts of Calicotome villosa and butter is born from the misuse of drugs without specific microbiological analyzes. Seventeen different preparations were performed. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were determined on five bacteria and two fungi strains respectively. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C. villosa ashes are obtained by incineration of roots plant at 498°C for 4hours. They are analyzed to determine the shape of the particles and the mineral constituents by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques respectively...
March 10, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188052/-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-invasive-infection-the-first-reported-case-in-morocco
#20
A Maleb, E Sebbar, M Frikh, S Boubker, A Moussaoui, A El Mekkaoui, W Khannoussi, G Kharrasse, B Belefquih, A Lemnouer, Z Ismaili, M Elouennass
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a cosmopolitan yeast, widely used in agro-alimentary and pharmaceutical industry. Its impact in human pathology is rare, but maybe still underestimated compared to the real situation. This yeast is currently considered as an emerging and opportunistic pathogen. Risk factors are immunosuppression and intravascular device carrying. Fungemias are the most frequent clinical forms. We report the first case of S. cerevisiae invasive infection described in Morocco, and to propose a review of the literature cases of S...
February 7, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
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