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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347828/change-in-hiv-related-stigma-in-south-africa-between-2004-and-2016-a-cross-sectional-community-study
#1
Maretha J Visser
A critical component of an AIDS-free generation is to reduce HIV-related stigma. Previous research predicted that stigma would decline over time with increased contact with PLWH, understanding of the disease and availability of treatment. The aim of the research was to explore change in stigma over a 12-year period, by comparing data collected from two large cross-sectional samples from South African communities in 2004 (before the roll-out of antiretroviral treatment (ART)) and in 2016. Students recruited respondents according to criteria related to age, gender, race and area of living...
January 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344084/the-strengths-and-difficulties-questionnaire-sdq-in-africa-a-scoping-review-of-its-application-and-validation
#2
REVIEW
Nikhat Hoosen, Eugene Lee Davids, Petrus J de Vries, Maylene Shung-King
Background: Child and adolescent mental health in Africa remains largely neglected. Quick and cost-effective ways for early detection may aid early intervention. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is globally used to screen for mental health problems, but little is known about its use in Africa. We set out to perform a scoping review to examine existing studies that have used the SDQ in Africa. Methods: A comprehensive scoping review methodology was used to identify all peer-reviewed studies ever published that have used the SDQ in Africa...
2018: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341399/activation-of-the-hog1-mapk-by-the-ssk2-ssk22-map3ks-in-absence-of-the-osmosensors-is-not-sufficient-to-trigger-osmostress-adaptation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Araceli Vázquez-Ibarra, Laia Subirana, Laura Ongay-Larios, Laura Kawasaki, Eréndira Rojas-Ortega, Miriam Rodríguez-González, Eulàlia de Nadal, Francesc Posas, Roberto Coria
Yeast cells respond to hyperosmotic stress by activating the HOG pathway, which consists of two branches, Hkr1/Msb2-Sho1 and Sln1, which trigger phosphorylation and nuclear internalisation of the Hog1 MAPK. In the nucleus, Hog1 regulates gene transcription and cell cycle progression, which allows the cell to respond and adapt to hyperosmotic conditions. This study demonstrates that the uncoupling of the known sensors of both branches of the pathway at the level of Ssk1 and Ste11 impairs cell growth in hyperosmotic medium...
January 17, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339318/dietary-patterns-body-mass-index-and-inflammation-pathways-to-depression-and-mental-health-problems-in-adolescents
#4
Wendy H Oddy, Karina L Allen, Georgina S A Trapp, Gina L Ambrosini, Lucinda J Black, Rae-Chi Huang, Peter Rzehak, Kevin C Runions, Feng Pan, Lawrence J Beilin, Trevor A Mori
BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest that dietary patterns may impact mental health outcomes, although biologically plausible pathways are yet to be tested. We aimed to elucidate the longitudinal relationship between dietary patterns, adiposity, inflammation and mental health including depressive symptoms in a population-based cohort of adolescents. METHODS: Data were provided from 843 adolescents participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study at 14 and 17 years (y) of age...
January 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336695/-ghosts-from-the-past-the-re-emergence-of-internalised-religious-stigma-following-diagnosis-of-hiv-among-northern-irish-gay-men
#5
Keith Kerrigan, Gill Green
This paper explores how previous exposure to religious homo-negativity features in the sense making process following HIV diagnosis in a homogenous sample of six gay men living in Northern Ireland. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis was used to identify two key overarching themes: 'Negotiating authenticity in unsafe space' which relates to the experience of negotiating same sex attraction within religious environments and 'Re-emergence of religious shame in diagnosis' which relates to the way in which the men made sense of diagnosis from the position of having been exposed to religious homo-negativity earlier in their lives...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335148/-access-to-language-encounters-and-separations
#6
Didier Houzel
Access to language is part of the extension of a preverbal relationship with one or several partners. This relationship, present from birth, is founded on extremely sophisticated innate competencies. Oral language is both an instrument of encounter with those around us and a means of separating ourselves from others harmlessly, thanks to the symbolic value of words and the process of internalisation which they allow.
January 2018: Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331151/the-impact-of-parental-mental-illness-across-the-full-diagnostic-spectrum-on-externalising-and-internalising-vulnerabilities-in-young-offspring
#7
Kimberlie Dean, Melissa J Green, Kristin R Laurens, Maina Kariuki, Stacy Tzoumakis, Titia Sprague, Rhoshel Lenroot, Vaughan J Carr
BACKGROUND: The intergenerational risk for mental illness is well established within diagnostic categories, but the risk is unlikely to respect diagnostic boundaries and may be reflected more broadly in early life vulnerabilities. We aimed to establish patterns of association between externalising and internalising vulnerabilities in early childhood and parental mental disorder across the full spectrum of diagnoses. METHODS: A cohort of Australian children (n = 69 116) entering the first year of school in 2009 were assessed using the Australian Early Development Census, providing measures of externalising and internalising vulnerability...
January 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327166/loneliness-in-psychosis-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Michelle H Lim, John F M Gleeson, Mario Alvarez-Jimenez, David L Penn
PURPOSE: The aim of the review is to understand the relationships between loneliness and related psychological and social factors in individuals with psychosis. Loneliness is poorly understood in people with psychosis. Given the myriad of social challenges facing individuals with psychosis, these findings can inform psychosocial interventions that specifically target loneliness in this vulnerable group. METHODS: We adhered to the PRISMA guidelines and systematically reviewed empirical studies that measured loneliness either as a main outcome or as an associated variable in individuals with psychosis...
January 11, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317441/chronic-tic-disorders-in-children-with-adhd
#9
William Poh, Jonathan M Payne, Alisha Gulenc, Daryl Efron
OBJECTIVE: To examine in a community-based cohort: (1) the prevalence of chronic tic disorder (CTD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with non-ADHD controls at ages 7 and 10; and (2) the additional psychiatric and functional burden of CTD in children with ADHD. METHODS: Children aged 6-8 years with ADHD (n=179) and controls (n=212) were recruited through 43 Victorian schools using parent and teacher screening surveys (Conners 3 ADHD Index), followed by case confirmation (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV))...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310743/how-do-farm-models-compare-when-estimating-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-dairy-cattle-production
#10
N J Hutchings, Ş Özkan Gülzari, M de Haan, D Sandars
The European Union Effort Sharing Regulation (ESR) will require a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2030 compared with 2005 from the sectors not included in the European Emissions Trading Scheme, including agriculture. This will require the estimation of current and future emissions from agriculture, including dairy cattle production systems. Using a farm-scale model as part of a Tier 3 method for farm to national scales provides a more holistic and informative approach than IPCC (2006) Tier 2 but requires independent quality control...
January 9, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305152/preventing-depression-in-the-offspring-of-parents-with-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
REVIEW
Johanna Loechner, Kornelija Starman, Katharina Galuschka, Jeanette Tamm, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Julian Rubel, Belinda Platt
One major predictor of depression onset is having a depressed parent. This study provides the first systematic review and meta-analysis of preventive interventions for offspring of depressed parents. We searched six literature databases and included randomized controlled trials which concerned the non-depressed offspring (aged 18 or younger) of a depressed parent, who received a preventive intervention designed to reduce the risk of depression or a comparison condition. Primary and secondary outcome measures were the severity and incidence of childhood depression...
November 29, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284713/effects-of-parenting-interventions-for-at-risk-parents-with-infants-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#12
Signe B Rayce, Ida S Rasmussen, Sihu K Klest, Joshua Patras, Maiken Pontoppidan
OBJECTIVES: Infancy is a critical stage of life, and a secure relationship with caring and responsive caregivers is crucial for healthy infant development. Early parenting interventions aim to support families in which infants are at risk of developmental harm. Our objective is to systematically review the effects of parenting interventions on child development and on parent-child relationship for at-risk families with infants aged 0-12 months. DESIGN: This is a systematic review and meta-analyses...
December 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280185/neural-perspectives-on-cognitive-control-development-during-childhood-and-adolescence-should-take-into-account-how-the-obesity-affects-brain-development
#13
Irene Esteban-Cornejo, Francisco B Ortega, Andrés Catena
Cognitive control comprises working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and error monitoring and is closely tied to the development of the prefrontal cortex. The fact that the prefrontal cortex is important for cognitive control has been consistently shown among adults (1). Crone and Steinbeis explored new ways of categorising developmental progressions in cognitive control during childhood and adolescence (1). They revealed that the functional development of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex supports the development of deliberative processes, whereas the medial prefrontal cortex supports the development of internalised decisions (1)...
December 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273860/maternal-depression-symptoms-and-internalising-problems-in-the-offspring-the-role-of-maternal-and-family-factors
#14
Marilyn N Ahun, Angele Consoli, Jean-Baptiste Pingault, Bruno Falissard, Marco Battaglia, Michel Boivin, Richard E Tremblay, Sylvana M Côté
Maternal depression symptoms (MDS) are a robust risk factor for internalising problems (IP) in the offspring. However, the relative importance of MDS and other factors associated with it (i.e. other types of maternal psychopathology, maternal parenting practices, family characteristics) is not well understood. To (a) identify a group of children with high levels of IP between 6 and 12 years using combined maternal and teacher assessments and (b) to quantify the associations between trajectories of MDS during early childhood and children's IP trajectories before and after controlling for family factors associated with MDS...
December 22, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260963/cumulative-trauma-gender-discrimination-and-mental-health-in-women-mediating-role-of-self-esteem
#15
Justyna Kucharska
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that women show symptoms of trauma-related symptoms more often than men. Gender discrimination is also associated with the severity of symptoms in women. AIMS: This study explored the relations among cumulative trauma, gender discrimination and mental health in women with a mediating role of self-esteem and emotion regulation. Two types of gender discrimination were taken into account: discrimination by parents and in the social context...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248854/spatial-bio-accumulation-of-pharmaceuticals-illicit-drugs-plasticisers-perfluorinated-compounds-and-metabolites-in-river-sediment-aquatic-plants-and-benthic-organisms
#16
John L Wilkinson, Peter S Hooda, Julian Swinden, James Barker, Stephen Barton
Organic contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other emerging contaminants (ECs) are known to persist in the aquatic environment and many are indicated as endocrine, epigenetic, or other toxicants. Typically, the study of PPCPs/ECs in the aquatic environment is limited to their occurrence dissolved in river water. In this study, accumulation and spatial distribution of thirteen PPCPs/ECs were assessed in aquatic sediment (n = 23), periphyton (biofilm, n = 8), plants Callitriche sp...
December 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248729/a-novel-3d-heterotypic-spheroid-model-for-studying-extracellular-vesicle-mediated-tumour-and-immune-cell-communication
#17
Lilite Sadovska, Elīna Zandberga, Krizia Sagini, Kaspars Jēkabsons, Una Riekstiņa, Zane Kalniņa, Alicia Llorente, Aija Linē
Cancer-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as important mediators of tumour-host interactions, and they have been shown to exert various functional effects in immune cells. In most of the studies on human immune cells, EVs have been isolated from cancer cell culture medium or patients' body fluids and added to the immune cell cultures. In such a setting, the physiological relevance of the chosen EV concentration is unknown and the EV isolation method and the timing of EV administration may bias the results...
December 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237492/pentosan-polysulfate-binds-to-stro-1-mesenchymal-progenitor-cells-is-internalized-and-modifies-gene-expression-a-novel-approach-of-pre-programing-stem-cells-for-therapeutic-application-requiring-their-chondrogenesis
#18
Jiehua Wu, Susan Shimmon, Sharon Paton, Christopher Daly, Tony Goldschlager, Stan Gronthos, Andrew C W Zannettino, Peter Ghosh
BACKGROUND: The pharmaceutical agent pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is known to induce proliferation and chondrogenesis of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism(s) of action of PPS in mediating these effects remains unresolved. In the present report we address this issue by investigating the binding and uptake of PPS by MPCs and monitoring gene expression and proteoglycan biosynthesis before and after the cells had been exposed to limited concentrations of PPS and then re-established in culture in the absence of the drug (MPC priming)...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234096/transit-and-integration-of-extracellular-mitochondria-in-human-heart-cells
#19
Douglas B Cowan, Rouan Yao, Jerusha K Thedsanamoorthy, David Zurakowski, Pedro J Del Nido, James D McCully
Tissue ischemia adversely affects the function of mitochondria, which results in impairment of oxidative phosphorylation and compromised recovery of the affected organ. The impact of ischemia on mitochondrial function has been extensively studied in the heart because of the morbidity and mortality associated with injury to this organ. As conventional methods to preserve cardiac cell viability and contractile function following ischemia are limited in their efficacy, we developed a unique approach to protect the heart by transplanting respiration-competent mitochondria to the injured region...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226782/patterns-of-source-monitoring-bias-in-incarcerated-youths-with-and-without-conduct-problems
#20
Larisa Morosan, Deborah Badoud, George Salaminios, Stephan Eliez, Martial Van der Linden, Patrick Heller, Martin Debbané
INTRODUCTION: Antisocial individuals present behaviours that violate the social norms and the rights of others. In the present study, we examine whether biases in monitoring the self-generated cognitive material might be linked to antisocial manifestations during adolescence. We further examine the association with psychopathic traits and conduct problems (CPs). METHODS: Sixty-five incarcerated adolescents (IAs; M age = 15.85, SD = 1.30) and 88 community adolescents (CAs; M age = 15...
December 10, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
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