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Donna Moore, Susan Ayers, Nicholas Drey
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and validate a scale to measure perceived stigma for perinatal mental illness in women. BACKGROUND: Stigma is one of the most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment and many women with perinatal mental illness fail to get the treatment they need. However, there is no psychometric scale that measures how women may experience the unique aspects of perinatal mental illness stigma. METHOD: A draft scale of 30 items was developed from a literature review...
July 2017: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Nallely Lopez-Lopez, Ana Gabriela Ramos Martinez, Mariana Haydee Garcia-Hernandez, Rogelio Hernandez-Pando, Julio Enrique Castañeda-Delgado, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Céline Cougoule, Olivier Neyrolles, Bruno Rivas-Santiago, Monica Alejandra Valtierra-Alvarado, Marisela Rubio-Caceres, Jose Antonio Enciso-Moreno, Carmen Judith Serrano
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for the development of tuberculosis (TB), although the associated mechanisms are not known. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between T2D and the basal phenotype of macrophages, and their immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. METHODS: We evaluated the influence of T2D on the response of monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) to Mtb in patients with T2D (n = 10) compared to healthy subjects (n = 9), before and after infection with Mtb clinical isolates bearing different degrees of virulence...
February 19, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Tetsuo Moriguchi, Shuji Takeda, Shinzo Iwashita, Kei Enomoto, Tatsuya Sawamura, Uichi Koshimizu, Toru Kondo
Esophageal cancer-related gene 4 (Ecrg4) encodes a hormone-like peptide that is believed to be involved in a variety of physiological phenomena, including tumour suppression. Recent progress in the study of Ecrg4 has shown that Ecrg4 is a proinflammatory factor and induces the expression of several cytokines and chemokines in macrophages/microglia. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of Ecrg4 signalling, especially the Ecrg4 receptors, remain poorly understood. Here, using retrovirus-mediated expression cloning, we identified lectin-like oxidised low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) as a membrane protein that binds amino acid residues 71-132 of Ecrg4 (Ecrg4(71-132))...
March 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Symon M Kariuki, Amina Abubakar, Martha Kombe, Michael Kazungu, Rachael Odhiambo, Alan Stein, Charles R J C Newton
BACKGROUND: Acute symptomatic seizures and febrile seizures are common in children admitted to hospitals in Africa and may be markers of brain dysfunction. They may be associated with behavioural and emotional problems, but there are no published community-based studies in Africa. METHODS: We screened 7047 children aged 1-6 years (randomly sampled from 50,000 in the community) for seizures (using seven questions) and invited those who screened positive and a proportion of negatives for a clinical assessment...
March 7, 2018: BMC Medicine
Adrian L Lopresti, Peter D Drummond, Antonio M Inarejos-García, Marin Prodanov
BACKGROUND: Saffron has antidepressant and anxiolytic effects in adults with mild-to-moderate depression. However, this is the first study examining its mood-related effects in teenagers. METHODS: In this 8-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, youth aged 12-16 years, with mild-to-moderate anxiety or depressive symptoms were given tablets containing placebo or a saffron extract (affron® , 14 mg b.i.d). The youth and parent versions of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) were used as outcome measures...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Cheryl Da Costa, Robert H Eikelboom, Angela Jacques, De Wet Swanepoel, Andrew J O Whitehouse, Sarra E Jamieson, Christopher G Brennan-Jones
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between early life episodes of otitis media and later behavioural development with adjustment for confounders. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study recruited 2900 pregnant women from King Edward Memorial Hospital (KEMH) in Perth, Western Australia, between 1989 and 1991. PARTICIPANTS: Data from the children born were collected at both the Year 3 and Year 5 follow up...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Lisa Wood, Rory Byrne, Gabriela Enache, Anthony P Morrison
Internalised stigma is problematic for people who experience psychosis therefore psychological interventions are required. This study examine the feasibility and acceptability of a brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) intervention for internalised stigma with psychiatric inpatients experiencing psychosis. A feasibility randomised controlled trial was conducted, comparing CBT with a psychoeducational (PE) control arm. Thirty participants (aged 18-65, with psychosis, and currently admitted to a psychiatric hospital) were randomised to one of two conditions...
December 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
Patrick J Murphy, Helena Garrido-Hernansaiz, Fiona Mulcahy, David Hevey
This study investigated the associations between forms of HIV-related optimism, HIV-related stigma, and anxiety and depression among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. HIV health optimism (HHO) and HIV transmission optimism (HTO) were hypothesised to be protective factors for anxiety and depression, while the components of HIV-related stigma (enacted stigma, disclosure concerns, concern with public attitudes, and internalised stigma) were hypothesised to be risk factors...
March 1, 2018: AIDS Care
Antonietta Rosella Farina, Lucia Cappabianca, Luciana Gneo, Pierdomenico Ruggeri, Andrew Reay Mackay
Alternative TrkAIII splicing characterises advanced stage metastatic disease and post-therapeutic relapse in neuroblastoma (NB), and in NB models TrkAIII exhibits oncogenic activity. In this study, we report a novel role for TrkAIII in signaling ER stress to the mitochondria in SH-SY5Y NB cells that results in glycolytic metabolic adaptation. The ER stress-inducing agents DTT, A23187 and thapsigargin activated the ER stress-response in control pcDNA SH-SY5Y and TrkAIII expressing SH-SY5Y cells and in TrkAIII SH-SY5Y cells increased TrkAIII targeting to mitochondria and internalisation into inner-mitochondrial membranes...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Abdullah Alshehri, Anna Grabowska, Snow Stolnik
Design of an efficient delivery system is a generally recognised bottleneck in translation of siRNA technology into clinic. Despite research efforts, cellular processes that determine efficiency of siRNA silencing achieved by different delivery formulations remain unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) of cellular internalisation of a model siRNA-loaded liposome system in a correlation to the engagement of delivered siRNA with its target and consequent silencing by adopting siRNA molecular beacon technology...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
C T H Jonker, R Galmes, T Veenendaal, C Ten Brink, R E N van der Welle, N Liv, J de Rooij, A A Peden, P van der Sluijs, C Margadant, J Klumperman
Recycling endosomes maintain plasma membrane homeostasis and are important for cell polarity, migration, and cytokinesis. Yet, the molecular machineries that drive endocytic recycling remain largely unclear. The CORVET complex is a multi-subunit tether required for fusion between early endosomes. Here we show that the CORVET-specific subunits Vps3 and Vps8 also regulate vesicular transport from early to recycling endosomes. Vps3 and Vps8 localise to Rab4-positive recycling vesicles and co-localise with the CHEVI complex on Rab11-positive recycling endosomes...
February 23, 2018: Nature Communications
Eloise Keeling, Andrew J Lotery, David A Tumbarello, J Arjuna Ratnayaka
Chronic degeneration of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) is a precursor to pathological changes in the outer retina. The RPE monolayer, which lies beneath the neuroretina, daily internalises and digests large volumes of spent photoreceptor outer segments. Impaired cargo handling and processing in the endocytic/phagosome and autophagy pathways lead to the accumulation of lipofuscin and pyridinium bis-retinoid A2E aggregates and chemically modified compounds such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal within RPE...
February 23, 2018: Cells
Shyanika W Rose, Allison M Glasser, Yitong Zhou, Tess Boley Cruz, Amy M Cohn, Brianna A Lienemann, M Justin Byron, Li-Ling Huang, Helen I Meissner, Lourdes Baezconde-Garbanati, Jennifer B Unger
OBJECTIVES: We examine adolescent receipt of tobacco coupons and subsequent tobacco use. METHODS: Data were from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study (2013-2015). We identified correlates of coupon receipt at Wave 1 (youth sample age 12-17 ; n = 13 651) including demographics, additional vulnerability factors that may place youth at risk of tobacco use and correlates of coupon receipt by channel. We examined associations of Wave 1 coupon receipt with Wave 2 tobacco use using weighted multivariable models...
February 22, 2018: Tobacco Control
Conor J Rothwell, Deirdre Desmond
Exposure to cultural bodily ideals featuring thinness and muscularity can have deleterious effects on body satisfaction. The current study explores the effect of exposure to such imagery on body dissatisfaction and the influence of internalisation of cultural and athletic ideals. 188 (97 male) adults (18-25yrs; M = 20.97) were grouped according to a 2 × 2 × 2 mixed between-within subjects design (male/female; high/low physical activity; intervention/control). Participants were exposed to images of idealised physiques or neutral images...
February 22, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Hui Fang, Shuai Shao, Man Jiang, Erle Dang, Shengxian Shen, Jieyu Zhang, Pei Qiao, Caixia Li, Gang Wang
Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterised by the presence of autoantibodies against bullous pemphigoid autoantigens, leading to dermal-epidermal separation with consequent blister formation. However, whether and how the components of blister fluid exacerbate the progression of bullous pemphigoid is unclear. Exosomes are nanometre-sized vesicles released from cells into the body fluid, where they can transmit signals throughout the body. In the present study, we isolated and characterised exosomes from the blister fluids of patients with bullous pemphigoid, evaluated their proinflammatory role, and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Pathology
David B G Oliveira
The small vessel vasculitides granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis are associated with autoantibodies to neutrophil cytoplasm antigens (ANCA), principally proteinase-3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). There is an association between GPA and nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus. The recent finding that S. aureus produces proteins that bind tightly to and block the function of both PR3 and MPO suggests a mechanism for ANCA formation. The bacterial protein-autoantigen conjugate is recognised by B cells with ANCA specificity, internalised, and the bacterial protein processed and presented to T cells with specificity for bacterial peptides...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Xiaoqin Wang, Omar Omar, Forugh Vazirisani, Peter Thomsen, Karin Ekström
Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-derived exosomes have shown regenerative effects, but their role in osteogenesis and the underlying mechanism are yet to be determined. In this study, we examined the time-course secretion of exosomes by hMSCs during the entire process of osteogenic differentiation. Exosomes derived from hMSCs in various stages of osteogenic differentiation committed homotypic cells to differentiate towards osteogenic lineage, but only exosomes from late stages of osteogenic differentiation induced extracellular matrix mineralisation...
2018: PloS One
Laura R Uhlmann, Caroline L Donovan, Melanie J Zimmer-Gembeck, Hayley S Bell, Robin A Ramme
Anecdotal testimony suggests the 'fit' female body ideal is 'healthier' than the thin ideal, because it simultaneously focuses on muscularity. However, statistical investigation into the outcomes associated with fit ideal internalisation is absent. This study used moderation analyses to investigate whether concurrent muscular internalisation mitigated the relationship between thin internalisation and; negative affect, body dissatisfaction, bulimic symptoms, and dieting. Additional analyses investigated whether concurrent thin internalisation amplified the relationship between muscular internalisation, compulsive exercise, and supplement use...
February 8, 2018: Body Image
Brigitte M E Hayes, Mark R Bleackley, Marilyn A Anderson, Nicole L van der Weerden
Antimicrobial peptides are widespread in nature and are produced by many organisms as a first line of defence against pathogens. These peptides have a broad range of biological activities, such as antibacterial or antifungal activities and act with varied mechanisms of action. A large number of the peptides are amphipathic α-helices which act by disrupting plasma membranes and allowing leakage of intracellular contents. However, some peptides have more complex mechanisms of action that require internalisation into the target organisms' cytoplasm...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Suhathai Tosangwarn, Philip Clissett, Holly Blake
BACKGROUND: Thai culture traditionally abhors elders living in care homes due to the belief that this represents a dereliction of filial piety by their children, thus care homes are stigmatized as the domain of poor older adults with no family. This may impact negatively on psychological wellbeing of residents, although little is known about the key factors influencing depressive symptoms. Therefore, this study explores factors associated with depressive symptoms, internalised stigma, self-esteem, social support and coping strategies among older adults residing in care homes in Thailand...
February 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
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