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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736860/annual-research-review-dna-methylation-as-a-mediator-in-the-association-between-risk-exposure-and-child-and-adolescent-psychopathology
#1
REVIEW
Edward D Barker, Esther Walton, Charlotte A M Cecil
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) is a potential mechanism for propagating the effects of environmental exposures on child and adolescent mental health. In recent years, this field has experienced steady growth. METHODS: We provide a strategic review of the current child and adolescent literature to evaluate evidence for a mediating role of DNAm in the link between environmental risks and psychopathological outcomes, with a focus on internalising and externalising difficulties...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736760/self-harm-and-violent-criminality-among-young-people-who-experienced-trauma-related-hospital-admission-during-childhood-a-danish-national-cohort-study
#2
Roger T Webb, Sussie Antonsen, Matthew J Carr, Louis Appleby, Carsten B Pedersen, Pearl L H Mok
BACKGROUND: Development of a better understanding of subsequent pathways for individuals who experienced trauma during childhood might usefully inform clinicians and public health professionals regarding the causes of self-harm and interpersonal violence. We aimed to examine these risks during late adolescence and early adulthood among people admitted to hospital following injuries or poisonings during their childhood. METHODS: This national cohort study included Danish people born between Jan 1, 1977, and Dec 31, 1997, and was linked to the National Patient Register and Psychiatric Central Research Register to identify all people exposed to hospital admissions for injuries or poisonings due to self-harm, interpersonal violence, or accidents before their 15th birthday...
July 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734964/removing-user-fees-for-health-services-a-multi-epistemological-perspective-on-access-inequities-in-senegal
#3
Philipa Mladovsky, Maymouna Ba
Plan Sésame (PS) is a user fee exemption policy launched in 2006 to provide free access to health services to Senegalese citizens aged 60 and over. Analysis of a large household survey evaluating PS echoes findings of other studies showing that user fee removal can be highly inequitable. 34 semi-structured interviews and 19 focus group discussions with people aged 60 and over were conducted in four regions in Senegal (Dakar, Diourbel, Matam and Tambacounda) over a period of six months during 2012. They were analysed to identify underlying causes of exclusion from/inclusion in PS and triangulated with the household survey...
July 6, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734239/stigma-resistance-and-its-association-with-internalised-stigma-and-psychosocial-outcomes-among-psychiatric-outpatients
#4
Ying Wen Lau, Louisa Picco, Shirlene Pang, Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Pratika Satghare, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
Studies have suggested that stigma resistance plays an important role in the recovery from mental illness. However, there has been limited research in Asian countries that has examined the benefits of stigma resistance among the mentally ill in Asian populations. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of stigma resistance and establish the socio-demographic correlates of stigma resistance, as well as its association with internalised stigma and psychosocial outcomes among a multi-ethnic population of 280 outpatients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenia, depressive disorders and anxiety disorders in Singapore...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734153/the-impact-of-youth-internalising-and-externalising-symptom-severity-on-the-effectiveness-of-brief-personality-targeted-interventions-for-substance-misuse-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#5
Eveline Perrier-Ménard, Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Alain Girard, Patricia J Conrod
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729656/endolysosomal-targeting-of-a-clinical-chlorin-photosensitiser-for-light-triggered-delivery-of-nano-sized-medicines
#6
Elnaz Yaghini, Ruggero Dondi, Kunal M Tewari, Marilena Loizidou, Ian M Eggleston, Alexander J MacRobert
A major problem with many promising nano-sized biotherapeutics including macromolecules is that owing to their size they are subject to cellular uptake via endocytosis, and become entrapped and then degraded within endolysosomes, which can significantly impair their therapeutic efficacy. Photochemical internalisation (PCI) is a technique for inducing cytosolic release of the entrapped agents that harnesses sub-lethal photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a photosensitiser that localises in endolysosomal membranes...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729357/association-between-maternal-childhood-trauma-and-offspring-childhood-psychopathology-mediation-analysis-from-the-alspac-cohort
#7
Dominic T Plant, Fergal W Jones, Carmine M Pariante, Susan Pawlby
BackgroundStudies have shown that a mother's history of child maltreatment is associated with her child's experience of internalising and externalising difficulties.AimsTo characterise the mediating pathways that underpin this association.MethodData on a mother's history of child maltreatment, depression during pregnancy, postnatal depression, maladaptive parenting practices and her child's experience of maltreatment and internalising and externalising difficulties were analysed in an Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) sample of 9397 mother-child dyads followed prospectively from pregnancy to age 13...
July 20, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724927/dual-functionality-nanobioconjugates-targeting-intracellular-bacteria-in-cancer-cells-with-enhanced-antimicrobial-activity
#8
Rohini Singh, Smita Patil, Neetu Singh, Shalini Gupta
Bacterial drug resistance has emerged as a serious global threat mandating the development of novel methodologies that allow facile modulation of antimicrobial action in a controlled fashion. Conjugating antibiotics to nanoparticles helps to meet this goal by increasing the drug's overall avidity, bioavailability and easier internalisation into mammalian cells, targeting bacteria that otherwise escape antibacterial action by host cell-localisation. We used polymyxin B sulfate (PMB) and sushi peptide as model drugs against Gram-negative bacteria and established their enhanced antimicrobial activity on Escherichia coli (E...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720021/ricky-and-lucy-gender-stereotyping-among-young-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-us-deep-south-and-the-implications-for-hiv-risk-in-a-severely-affected-population
#9
Bronwen Lichtenstein, Emma Sophia Kay, Ian Klinger, Matt G Mutchler
HIV disproportionately affects young Black men who have sex with men in the USA, with especially high rates in the Deep South. In this Alabama study, we interviewed 24 pairs of young Black men who have sex with men aged 19-24 and their close friends (n = 48) about sexual scripts, dating men and condom use. Three main themes emerged from the study: the power dynamics of 'top' and 'bottom' sexual positions for condom use; gender stereotyping in the iconic style of the 'I Love Lucy' show of the 1950s; and the sexual dominance of 'trade' men...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715946/sleep-and-psychiatric-symptoms-in-young-child-psychiatric-outpatients
#10
Hanna Huhdanpää, Liisa Klenberg, Hannu Westerinen, Tuija Fontell, Eeva T Aronen
BACKGROUND: Sleep may underlie psychiatric symptoms in young children. However, not many studies have reported on sleep and its associations with symptoms in young child psychiatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the amount and quality of sleep and how sleep associates with psychiatric symptoms in young child psychiatric patients. Furthermore, we evaluated how sleep and daytime somnolence differed in patients and their age- and gender-matched controls. METHOD: The sample consisted of 139 3- to 7-year-old child psychiatric outpatients and 139 age- and gender-matched controls from community...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713015/folate-conjugated-and-ph-responsive-polymeric-micelles-for-target-cell-specific-anticancer-drug-delivery
#11
Jiao Guan, Zun-Qiang Zhou, Mao-Hua Chen, Hui-Yan Li, Da-Nian Tong, Jun Yang, Jing Yao, Zheng-Yun Zhang
In this study, we developed a folate (FA)-conjugated and pH-responsive active targeting micellar system for anti-cancer drug delivery. In this system, FA was attached to the terminal of the hydrophilic segment of poly(lactic acid)-poly(L-lysine) (PLA-PLL), and PLL was modified by a citric acid group. The FA receptor-mediated active targeting and electrostatic interaction between micelles and cell membrane due to a negative-to-positive charge reversal was combined in one micellar anti-cancer drug delivery system to enhance the tumour targeting and cellular internalisation of micelles...
July 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711780/localised-delivery-of-doxorubicin-to-prostate-cancer-cells-through-a-psma-targeted-hyperbranched-polymer-theranostic
#12
Amanda K Pearce, Joshua D Simpson, Nicholas L Fletcher, Zachary H Houston, Adrian V Fuchs, Pamela J Russell, Andrew K Whittaker, Kristofer J Thurecht
The therapeutic potential of hyperbranched polymers targeted to prostate cancer and loaded with doxorubicin was investigated. Polyethylene glycol hyperbranched polymers were synthesised via RAFT polymerisation to feature glutamate urea targeting ligands for PSMA on the periphery. The chemotherapeutic, doxorubicin, was attached to the hyperbranched polymers through hydrazone formation, which allowed controlled release of the drug from the polymers in vitro endosomal conditions, with 90% release of the drug over 36 h...
July 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711596/the-relevance-of-contact-independent-cell-to-cell-transfer-of-tdp-43-and-sod1-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#13
REVIEW
Maya A Hanspal, Christopher M Dobson, Justin J Yerbury, Janet R Kumita
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease involving the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates by proteins including TDP-43 and SOD1, in affected cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Pathology spreads from an initial site of onset to contiguous anatomical regions. There is evidence that for disease-associated proteins, including TDP-43 and SOD1, non-native protein conformers can promote misfolding of the natively folded counterparts, and cell-to-cell transfer of pathological aggregates may underlie the spread of the disease throughout the CNS...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710283/amorphous-protein-aggregates-stimulate-plasminogen-activation-leading-to-release-of-cytotoxic-fragments-that-are-clients-for-extracellular-chaperones
#14
Patrick Constantinescu, Rebecca A Brown, Amy R Wyatt, Marie Ranson, Mark R Wilson
The misfolding of proteins and their accumulation in extracellular tissue compartments as insoluble amyloid or amorphous protein aggregates is a hallmark feature of many debilitating protein deposition diseases such as Alzheimers disease, prion diseases and type II diabetes. The plasminogen activation system (PAS) is best known as an extracellular fibrinolytic system, but was previously reported to also be capable of degrading amyloid fibrils. Here we show that amorphous protein aggregates interact with tPA and plasminogen, via an exposed lysine dependent mechanism, to efficiently generate plasmin...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706221/ccl11-a-novel-mediator-of-inflammatory-bone-resorption
#15
Elin Kindstedt, Cecilia Koskinen Holm, Rima Sulniute, Irene Martinez-Carrasco, Richard Lundmark, Pernilla Lundberg
Normal bone homeostasis, which is regulated by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts is perturbed by inflammation. In chronic inflammatory disease with disturbed bone remodelling, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, patients show increased serum levels of the chemokine eotaxin-1 (CCL11). Herein, we demonstrate an inflammatory driven expression of CCL11 in bone tissue and a novel role of CCL11 in osteoclast migration and resorption. Using an inflammatory bone lesion model and primary cell cultures, we discovered that osteoblasts express CCL11 in vivo and in vitro and that expression increased during inflammatory conditions...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694011/the-relationship-between-salivary-c-reactive-protein-and-cognitive-function-in-children-aged-11-14years-does-psychopathology-have-a-moderating-effect
#16
Alexis E Cullen, Ben M Tappin, Patricia A Zunszain, Hannah Dickson, Ruth E Roberts, Naghmeh Nikkheslat, Mizan Khondoker, Carmine M Pariante, Helen L Fisher, Kristin R Laurens
Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), a non-specific biomarker of systemic bodily inflammation, has been associated with more pronounced cognitive impairments in adults with psychiatric disorders, particularly in the domains of memory and executive function. Whether this association is present in early life (i.e., the time at which the cognitive impairments that characterise these disorders become evident), and is specific to those with emerging psychiatric disorders, has yet to be investigated. To this end, we examined the association between salivary CRP and cognitive function in children aged 11-14years and explored the moderating effect of psychopathology...
July 8, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690201/neurotensin-receptor-1-facilitates-intracellular-and-transepithelial-delivery-of-macromolecules
#17
Joanna L Bird, Rachael Simpson, Driton Vllasaliu, Alan D Goddard
G protein-coupled receptors are expressed on the surface of eukaryotic cells and internalise in response to ligand binding. The actions of the hormone and neurotransmitter neurotensin (NT) are predominantly mediated by specific interactions with one such receptor. Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1), which is upregulated in a variety of cancers, including pancreatic and breast tumours. NTS1 could therefore serve as a target for selective delivery of therapeutics. This study characterised the expression of NTS1 in HEK293 cells, as well as both polarised and non-polarised intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells...
July 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689104/-fitspo-or-loveyourself-the-impact-of-fitspiration-and-self-compassion-instagram-images-on-women-s-body-image-self-compassion-and-mood
#18
Amy Slater, Neesha Varsani, Phillippa C Diedrichs
This study experimentally examined the impact of exposure to fitspiration images and self-compassion quotes on social media on young women's body satisfaction, body appreciation, self-compassion, and negative mood. Female undergraduate students (N=160) were randomly assigned to view either Instagram images of fitspiration, self-compassion quotes, a combination of both, or appearance-neutral images. Results showed no differences between viewing fitspiration images compared to viewing neutral images, except for poorer self-compassion among those who viewed fitspiration images...
July 6, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686999/school-poverty-effects-on-trajectories-of-child-behaviour-do-they-depend-on-gender-and-ethnicity
#19
Emily Midouhas
This study examined English school poverty effects on trajectories of child behaviour across ages 3, 5, 7 and 11, and the moderating roles of ethnicity and gender. School poverty predicted internalising and externalising problems concurrently, and internalising problems longitudinally. In poor schools, girls had a steeper incline in internalising problems, but made greater reductions in externalising problems. Ethnic differences were also found in the association between school poverty and child adjustment...
July 4, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684404/depressive-and-anxious-symptoms-and-the-risk-of-secondary-school-non-completion
#20
Frédéric N Brière, Sophie Pascal, Véronique Dupéré, Natalie Castellanos-Ryan, Francis Allard, Gabrielle Yale-Soulière, Michel Janosz
BackgroundEvidence regarding the association between adolescent internalising symptoms and school non-completion has been limited and inconclusive.AimsTo examine whether depressive and anxious symptoms at secondary school entry predict school non-completion beyond confounders and whether associations differ by baseline academic functioning.MethodWe used logistic regression to examine associations between depressive and anxious symptoms in grade 7 (age 12-14) and school non-completion (age 18-20) in 4962 adolescents...
July 6, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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