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M Fairclough, B Ellis, H Boutin, A K P Jones, A McMahon, S Alzabin, A Gennari, C Prenant
Positron Emission Tomography is an attractive imaging modality for monitoring the migration of cells to pathological tissue. We evaluated a new method for radiolabelling leukocytes with zirconium-89 ((89)Zr) using chitosan nanoparticles (CN, Z-average size 343 ± 210nm and zeta potential +46 ± 4mV) as the carrier. We propose that cell uptake of (89)Zr-loaded CN occurred in a two-step process; cell membrane interaction with (89)Zr-loaded CN was followed by a slower cell internalisation step.
September 6, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Paraskevas Petrou, Richard Lemke
We examined the link between victimisation and life satisfaction for 85,301 gay and bisexual individuals across 44 European countries. We expected this negative link to be stronger when the internalised homonegativity of the victim was high (e.g. because the victim is more vulnerable) and weaker when victimisation occurs in countries that express intolerance towards homosexuality (e.g. because in such contexts victims expect victimisation more and they attribute it to their external environment). Additionally, we expected internalised homonegativity to relate negatively to life satisfaction...
September 14, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
J Taylor, J Milton, M Willett, J Wingfield, S Mahajan
Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs), predominantly gold (AuNPs), are easily internalised into cells and commonly employed as nanosensors for reporter-based and reporter-free intracellular SERS applications. While AuNPs are generally considered non-toxic to cells, many biological and toxicity studies report that exposure to NPs induces cell stress through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the upregulated transcription of pro-inflammatory genes, which can result in severe genotoxicity and apoptosis...
September 13, 2017: Faraday Discussions
Dong Ye, Mattia Bramini, Delyan R Hristov, Sha Wan, Anna Salvati, Christoffer Åberg, Kenneth A Dawson
Cellular barriers, such as the skin, the lung epithelium or the intestinal epithelium, constitute one of the first obstacles facing nanomedicines or other nanoparticles entering organisms. It is thus important to assess the capacity of nanoparticles to enter and transport across such barriers. In this work, Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells were used as a well-established model for the intestinal barrier, and the uptake, trafficking and translocation of model silica nanoparticles of different sizes were investigated using a combination of imaging, flow cytometry and transport studies...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Ruth E Carmichael, Jeremy M Henley
One of the most interesting features of Arc-dependent synaptic plasticity is how multiple types of synaptic activity can converge to alter Arc transcription and then diverge to induce different plasticity outcomes, ranging from AMPA receptor internalisation that promotes long-term depression (LTD), to actin stabilisation that promotes long-term potentiation (LTP). This diversity suggests that there must be numerous levels of control to ensure the temporal profile, abundance, localisation and function of Arc are appropriately regulated to effect learning and memory in the correct contexts...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Mark J Wall, Sonia A L Corrêa
The activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1) plays a key role in determining synaptic strength through facilitation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) endocytosis. Although there is considerable data on the mechanism by which Arc induction controls synaptic plasticity and learning behaviours, several key mechanistic questions remain. Here we review data on the link between Arc expression and the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway which internalises AMPARs and discuss the significance of Arc binding to the clathrin adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) and to endophilin/dynamin...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
H D Roberts-Dalton, A Cocks, J M Falcon-Perez, E J Sayers, J P Webber, P Watson, A Clayton, A T Jones
Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, are naturally derived nanovesicles generated in and released by numerous cell types. As extracellular entities they have the capacity to interact with neighbouring cells and distant tissues and affect physiological processes as well as being implicated in numerous diseases including tumorigenesis and neurodegeneration. They are also under intense investigation as delivery vectors for biotherapeutics. The ways in which EVs interact with recipient cells to influence cell physiology and deliver a macromolecular payload are at the early stages of exploration...
September 21, 2017: Nanoscale
Diana Boraschi, Paola Italiani, Roberto Palomba, Paolo Decuzzi, Albert Duschl, Bengt Fadeel, S Moein Moghimi
The innate immune system provides the first line of defence against foreign microbes and particulate materials. Engineered nanoparticles can interact with the immune system in many different ways. Nanoparticles may thus elicit inflammation with engagement of neutrophils, macrophages and other effector cells; however, it is important to distinguish between acute and chronic inflammation in order to identify the potential hazards of nanoparticles for human health. Nanoparticles may also interact with and become internalised by dendritic cells, key antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, where a better understanding of these processes could pave the way for improved vaccination strategies...
August 28, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
Mohammad Karamouzian, Rod Knight, Wendy M Davis, Mark Gilbert, Jean Shoveller
Background: Online sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing is increasingly available and has shown promising results across different settings. However, evidence on how stigma associated with STI testing may be experienced by youth in the context of these online services is limited. Methods: A convenience sample of 71 youth (aged 15-24 years) both male and female was engaged through online and offline recruitment strategies in Vancouver, Canada. Through semistructured and exploratory interviews, participants were asked about their perceptions of stigma associated with STI testing in an online testing environment...
September 1, 2017: Sexual Health
Diego García-Gusano, I Robert Istrate, Diego Iribarren
Current national energy sectors are generally unsustainable. Within this context, energy policy-makers face the need to move from economy- to sustainability-oriented schemes. Beyond the integration of the sustainability concept into energy policies through the implementation of techno-economic, environmental and/or social restrictions, other approaches propose the use of externalities -based on life-cycle emissions- to deeply take into account sustainability in the design of the future energy system. In this sense, this work evaluates the consequences of internalising socio-environmental externalities associated with power generation...
August 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jingyi Liang, Don Kulasiri, Sandhya Samarasinghe
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ signalling has been observed as an early event prior to the presence of clinical symptoms and is believed to be a crucial factor contributing to AD pathogenesis. Amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) disturb the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated postsynaptic Ca2+ signalling in response to presynaptic stimulation by increasing the availability of extracellular glutamate as well as directly disturbing the NMDARs. The abnormal Ca2+ response can further lead to impairments in long-term potentiation (LTP), an important process in memory formation...
2017: PloS One
Jordana K Bayer, Ruth Beatson, Lesley Bretherton, Harriet Hiscock, Melissa Wake, Tamsyn Gilbertson, Cathrine Mihalopoulos, Luke A Prendergast, Ronald M Rapee
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a population-delivered parenting programme assists in preventing internalising problems at school entry for preschool children at-risk with temperamental inhibition. METHODS: Design: a randomised controlled trial was used. SETTING: the setting was 307 preschool services across eight socioeconomically diverse government areas in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: a total of 545 parents of inhibited 4-year-old children: 498 retained at 1-year follow up...
August 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Daniel Aggio, Benjamin Gardner, Justin Roberts, James Johnstone, Brendon Stubbs, Genevieve Williams, Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez, Lee Smith
Time spent outdoors is associated with higher levels of physical activity. To date, correlates of independent outdoor play have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify potential demographic, behavioural, environmental and social correlates of children's independent outdoor play. Data were from the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7 years. Parents reported whether their children played out unsupervised (yes/no) as well as the above mentioned correlates of unsupervised outdoor play...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
Christian Young, Camilla Hanson, Jonathan C Craig, Kathleen Clapham, Anna Williamson
BACKGROUND: Indigenous children living in high income countries have a consistently high prevalence of mental health problems. We aimed to identify psychosocial risk and protective factors for mental health in this setting. METHODS: A systematic review of studies published between 1996 and 2016 that quantitatively evaluated the association between psychosocial variables and mental health among Indigenous children living in high income countries was conducted. Psychosocial variables were grouped into commonly occurring domains...
August 23, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
Jason Wh Wen, Rudolf Winklbauer
During amphibian gastrulation, presumptive endoderm is internalised as part of vegetal rotation, a large-scale movement that encompasses the whole vegetal half of the embryo. It has been considered a gastrulation process unique to amphibians, but we show that at the cell level, endoderm internalisation exhibits characteristics reminiscent of bottle cell formation and ingression, known mechanisms of germ layer internalisation. During ingression proper, cells leave a single-layered epithelium. In vegetal rotation, the process occurs in a multilayered cell mass; we refer to it as ingression-type cell migration...
August 10, 2017: ELife
Yvette N Lamb
Intravenous inotuzumab ozogamicin (Besponsa(®); Pfizer) is an anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody-calicheamicin conjugate that binds to CD22-expressing tumour cells. Upon binding, the complex is internalised and the cytotoxic calicheamicin derivative is released inside the cell, inducing double-strand DNA breakage and subsequent cell death. In June 2017, the EMA granted inotuzumab ozogamicin approval as monotherapy for the treatment of adults with relapsed or refractory CD22-positive B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)...
August 17, 2017: Drugs
Elisa Lázaro-Ibáñez, Maarit Neuvonen, Maarit Takatalo, Uma Thanigai Arasu, Cristian Capasso, Vincenzo Cerullo, Johng S Rhim, Kirsi Rilla, Marjo Yliperttula, Pia R-M Siljander
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, mediate intercellular signalling which has a profound role in cancer progression and in the development of metastasis. Internalisation of EVs can prompt functional changes in the recipient cells, the nature of which depends on the molecular composition and the cargo of the EVs. We hypothesised that the metastatic stage of cancerous parent cells would determine the uptake efficacy and the subsequent functional effects of the respective cancer cell-derived EVs...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Marta I Mulawa, Lusajo J Kajula, Suzanne Maman
Male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Tanzania is widespread. Theory and empirical evidence suggest peer networks may play an important role in shaping IPV perpetration, although research on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. Grounded in social learning theory, social influence theory, and the theory of gender and power, the purpose of this study was to examine whether and how peer networks influence men's perpetration of IPV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted in-depth interviews (n = 40) with a sub-sample of 20 men enrolled in the control condition of an ongoing cluster-randomised controlled trial...
August 16, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Mayada A Daibes, Reema R Safadi, Tarek Athamneh, Iman F Anees, Rose E Constantino
Infertility is a health problem encompassing physical, psychological and social consequences that may threaten women's quality of life. Few studies have been conducted in Jordan examining rural women's experiences of infertility. This study aimed to explore responses to infertility and its consequences in the Jordanian rural sociocultural context. Using a descriptive qualitative design, data were collected between April and September 2016 from a fertility clinic in a military hospital in Northern Jordan. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 purposively selected Jordanian women...
August 16, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Rebecca Anderson, Jessica Walburn, Myfanwy Morgan
This study explored experiences of stigma in 25 adults with xeroderma pigmentosum. Analysis of semi-structured interviews revealed the changing nature of stigma over the lifetime. Bullying occurred in childhood, whereas adults were questioned about both their photoprotection and skin damage, often resulting in internalised feelings of stigma. Resilience and rejection of feelings of stigma increased with age and experiences of stigma differed across cultures. Findings indicate a need to develop social skills training to help people reject feelings of stigma...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
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