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Yang Hsia, Jacob B Bale, Shane Gonen, Dan Shi, William Sheffler, Kimberly K Fong, Una Nattermann, Chunfu Xu, Po-Ssu Huang, Rashmi Ravichandran, Sue Yi, Trisha N Davis, Tamir Gonen, Neil P King, David Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Nature
Rajesh Jeniton Fernando, K Ravichandran, Mario Vaz
Data on aerobic fitness and heart rate recovery in children are limited. This study was done to evaluate the relation between them in Indian school going children. Three hundred children of 7 to 10.5 years were recruited and their aerobic fitness was predicted using modified Harvard's step test (VO₂max) and 20 meter shuttle test (VO₂peak). The heart rate was monitored for 12 minutes post modified Harvard's step test. The difference between the maximum and the 1st minute HR was noted as HRR1 and the time taken to reach the resting heart rate was also recorded...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Akhilandeshwari Ravichandran, Jing Lim, Mark Seow Khoon Chong, Feng Wen, Yuchun Liu, Yaesshna T Pillay, Jerry K Y Chan, Swee-Hin Teoh
Application of dynamic mechanical loads on bone and bone explants has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization. To date, published studies have incorporated a range of cyclic strains on 3D scaffolds and platforms to demonstrate the effect of mechanical loading on osteogenesis. However, most of the loading parameters used in these studies do not emulate the in vivo loading conditions. In addition, the scaffolds/platforms are not representative of the native osteoinductive environment of bone tissue and hence may not be entirely accurate to study the in vivo mechanical loading...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Preeti Patel, Avineesh Singh, Vijay Patel, Deepak K Jain, Ravichandran Veerasamy, Harish Rajak
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) can reactivate gene expression and inhibit the growth and survival of cancer cells. The 3D-QSAR and Pharmacophore modeling studies were performed to identify important pharmacophoric features and correlate 3D-chemical structure with biological activity. The pharmacophore hypotheses were developed using e-pharmacophore script and phase module. Pharmacophore hypothesis represents the 3D arrangement of molecular features necessary for activity. A series of 55 compounds with well-assigned HDAC inhibitory activity was used for 3D-QSAR model development...
August 1, 2016: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
Yang Hsia, Jacob B Bale, Shane Gonen, Dan Shi, William Sheffler, Kimberly K Fong, Una Nattermann, Chunfu Xu, Po-Ssu Huang, Rashmi Ravichandran, Sue Yi, Trisha N Davis, Tamir Gonen, Neil P King, David Baker
The icosahedron is the largest of the Platonic solids, and icosahedral protein structures are widely used in biological systems for packaging and transport. There has been considerable interest in repurposing such structures for applications ranging from targeted delivery to multivalent immunogen presentation. The ability to design proteins that self-assemble into precisely specified, highly ordered icosahedral structures would open the door to a new generation of protein containers with properties custom-tailored to specific applications...
July 7, 2016: Nature
Chiara Bertipaglia, Sarah Schneider, Arjen J Jakobi, Abul K Tarafder, Yury S Bykov, Andrea Picco, Wanda Kukulski, Jan Kosinski, Wim Jh Hagen, Arvind C Ravichandran, Matthias Wilmanns, Marko Kaksonen, John Ag Briggs, Carsten Sachse
Selective autophagy is the mechanism by which large cargos are specifically sequestered for degradation. The structural details of cargo and receptor assembly giving rise to autophagic vesicles remain to be elucidated. We utilize the yeast cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, a prototype of selective autophagy, together with a multi-scale analysis approach to study the molecular structure of Cvt vesicles. We report the oligomeric nature of the major Cvt cargo Ape1 with a combined 2.8 Å X-ray and negative stain EM structure, as well as the secondary cargo Ams1 with a 6...
July 2016: EMBO Reports
Donata Iandolo, Akhilandeshwari Ravichandran, Xianjie Liu, Feng Wen, Jerry K Y Chan, Magnus Berggren, Swee-Hin Teoh, Daniel T Simon
Bones have been shown to exhibit piezoelectric properties, generating electrical potential upon mechanical deformation and responding to electrical stimulation with the generation of mechanical stress. Thus, the effects of electrical stimulation on bone tissue engineering have been extensively studied. However, in bone regeneration applications, only few studies have focused on the use of electroactive 3D biodegradable scaffolds at the interphase with stem cells. Here a method is described to combine the bone regeneration capabilities of 3D-printed macroporous medical grade polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with the electrical and electrochemical capabilities of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)...
June 2016: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Hendrick Soh, Natarajan Venkatesan, Mysore S Veena, Sandhiya Ravichandran, Alborz Zinabadi, Saroj K Basak, Kislay Parvatiyar, Meera Srivastava, Li-Jung Liang, David W Gjertson, Jorge Z Torres, Neda A Moatamed, Eri S Srivatsan
We and others have shown that the cystatin E/M gene is inactivated in primary human tumors, pointing to its role as a tumor suppressor gene. However, the molecular mechanism of tumor suppression is not yet understood. Using plasmid-directed cystatin E/M gene overexpression, a lentivirus-mediated tetracycline-inducible vector system, and human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) E6 and E7 gene-immortalized normal human epidermal keratinocytes, we demonstrated intracellular and non-cell-autonomous apoptotic growth inhibition of tumor cell lines and that growth inhibition is associated with cytoplasmic retention of NF-κB...
June 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Susan K Finston, Neil S Davey, Elina Davé, Varsha Ravichandran, Sonya R Davey, Raj S Davé
This paper discusses how the United States biopharmaceutical market has been affected by recent changes in patent law resulting from United States legislations (Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act and the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act) and Supreme Court precedents (Mayo Collaborative Services v. Prometheus Laboratories, Inc. and Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics). The authors interviewed eight key opinion leaders from the United States knowledgeable in biopharmaceuticals, including industry veterans, patent counsel, senior scientists and jurists...
May 2016: Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst
Deepak K Jain, Avineesh Singh, Vijay K Patel, Ravichandran Veerasamy, Navneet Aggarwal, Harish Rajak
Anticonvulsant refers to a group of pharmaceuticals used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. The use of current antiepileptic drugs has been questioned due to the non-selectivity of the drugs and the undesirable side effects produced by them. This led to the search for antiepileptic compounds with more selectivity and lower toxicity. Semicarbazones have been developed as versatile anticonvulsant pharmacophore. It has displayed potent anticonvulsant effect in a wide variety of preclinical anticonvulsant models...
April 11, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Chang Sup Lee, Kristen K Penberthy, Karen M Wheeler, Ignacio J Juncadella, Peter Vandenabeele, Jeffrey J Lysiak, Kodi S Ravichandran
Few apoptotic corpses are seen even in tissues with high cellular turnover, leading to the notion that the capacity for engulfment in vivo is vast. Whether corpse clearance can be enhanced in vivo for potential benefit is not known. In a colonic inflammation model, we noted that the expression of the phagocytic receptor Bai1 was progressively downmodulated. Consistent with this, BAI1-deficient mice had more pronounced colitis and lower survival, with many uncleared apoptotic corpses and inflammatory cytokines within the colonic epithelium...
April 19, 2016: Immunity
Harish Rajak, Deepak K Jain, Swati Singh, Avineesh Singh, Vijay K Patel, Ravichandran Veerasamy, Rajesh S Pawar
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder, characterized by seizures accompanied by loss or disturbance of consciousness affecting various physical and mental functions. Current anticonvulsant drugs are effective in controlling seizures in about 70% of cases, but their use is often limited by side effects like ataxia, megaloblastic anemia, hepatic failure. In search for a novel anticovulsant drug with better efficacy and lower toxicity, a series of novel pyrimidine based semicarbazone were designed and evaluated for antiepileptic activity...
March 30, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
C B Medina, K S Ravichandran
The turnover and clearance of cells is an essential process that is part of many physiological and pathological processes. Improper or deficient clearance of apoptotic cells can lead to excessive inflammation and autoimmune disease. The steps involved in cell clearance include: migration of the phagocyte toward the proximity of the dying cells, specific recognition and internalization of the dying cell, and degradation of the corpse. The ability of phagocytes to recognize and react to dying cells to perform efficient and immunologically silent engulfment has been well-characterized in vitro and in vivo...
June 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
J Premaladha, K S Ravichandran
Dermoscopy is a technique used to capture the images of skin, and these images are useful to analyze the different types of skin diseases. Malignant melanoma is a kind of skin cancer whose severity even leads to death. Earlier detection of melanoma prevents death and the clinicians can treat the patients to increase the chances of survival. Only few machine learning algorithms are developed to detect the melanoma using its features. This paper proposes a Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system which equips efficient algorithms to classify and predict the melanoma...
April 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Geetha Ramachandran, A K Hemanth Kumar, T Kannan, P K Bhavani, S Ramesh Kumar, N Poorana Gangadevi, V V Banurekha, V Sudha, S Venkatesh, N Ravichandran, S Kalpana, G Mathevan, G N Sanjeeva, Dipti Agarwal, Soumya Swaminathan
OBJECTIVES: To compare the pharmacokinetics of rifampicin (RMP), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA) between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children with tuberculosis (TB) and correlate it with TB treatment outcome. METHODS: HIV-uninfected (n = 84) and HIV-infected (n = 77) children with TB receiving standard thrice weekly treatment were recruited from 6 hospitals in India. Semi-intensive pharmacokinetic sampling was performed during intensive phase of TB treatment after directly observed administration of drugs...
May 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ashwin K Ravichandran, Jennifer Cowger
Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) and left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is becoming increasingly utilized in the advanced heart failure (HF) population. Until further developments are made in this continually evolving field, the need for appropriate patient selection is fueled by our knowledge that the less sick do better. Due to the evolution of MCS technology, and the importance of patient selection to outcomes, risk scores and classification schemes have been developed to provide a structure for medical decision making...
December 2015: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Shannon M Lynch, M K Peek, Nandita Mitra, Krithika Ravichandran, Charles Branas, Elaine Spangler, Wenting Zhou, Electra D Paskett, Sarah Gehlert, Cecilia DeGraffinreid, Timothy R Rebbeck, Harold Riethman
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length(LTL) has been associated with age, self-reported race/ethnicity, gender, education, and psychosocial factors, including perceived stress, and depression. However, inconsistencies in associations of LTL with disease and other phenotypes exist across studies. Population characteristics, including race/ethnicity, laboratory methods, and statistical approaches in LTL have not been comprehensively studied and could explain inconsistent LTL associations...
2016: PloS One
Kristen K Penberthy, Kodi S Ravichandran
Phosphatidylserine recognition receptors are a highly diverse set of receptors grouped by their ability to recognize the 'eat-me' signal phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. Most of the phosphatidylserine recognition receptors dampen inflammation by inducing the production of anti-inflammatory mediators during the phagocytosis of apoptotic corpses. However, many phosphatidylserine receptors are also capable of recognizing other ligands, with some receptors being categorized as scavenger receptors. It is now appreciated that these receptors can elicit different downstream events for particular ligands...
January 2016: Immunological Reviews
Ranbir Singh, Ravichandran Shivanna, Agathaggelos Iosifidis, Hans-Jürgen Butt, George Floudas, K S Narayan, Panagiotis E Keivanidis
Perylene diimide (PDI)-based organic photovoltaic devices can potentially deliver high power conversion efficiency values provided the photon energy absorbed is utilized efficiently in charge transfer (CT) reactions instead of being consumed in nonradiative energy transfer (ET) steps. Hitherto, it remains unclear whether ET or CT primarily drives the photoluminescence (PL) quenching of the PDI excimer state in PDI-based blend films. Here, we affirm the key role of the thermally assisted PDI excimer diffusion and subsequent CT reaction in the process of PDI excimer PL deactivation...
November 11, 2015: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
P Ragavan, P M Mohan, R S C Jayaraj, K Ravichandran, S Saravanan
Rhizophoramucronatavar.alokii (Rhizophoraceae), a new variety of Rhizophora from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, is described and illustrated. The new variety is remarkable in having four stamens, laterally folded leaves, a short peduncle, thick leathery petals, and a four-sided ovary with a sessile style. A key for the species of Rhizophora of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is also provided.
2015: PhytoKeys
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