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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222581/a-comparison-of-the-physiological-demands-imposed-by-competing-in-a-half-marathon-vs-a-marathon
#1
Juan Del Coso, Juan J Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Javier Abián-Vicén, César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces
BACKGROUND: While there is widespread scientific information about the physiological challenges imposed on elite endurance runners during competitions, the information regarding the amateur population is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the physical and physiological load imposed by competing in a real half-marathon vs a marathon race. METHODS: From a larger group of participants, we selected 22 experienced runners who were matched in pairs (11 marathoners and 11 half-marathoners) for age and anthropometric data...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222529/progressive-motor-deficit-is-mediated-by-the-denervation-of-neuromuscular-junctions-and-axonal-degeneration-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-mutant-p301s-tau-protein
#2
Zhuoran Yin, Femke Valkenburg, Betty E Hornix, Ietje Mantingh-Otter, Xingdong Zhou, Muriel Mari, Fulvio Reggiori, Debby Van Dam, Bart J L Eggen, Peter P De Deyn, Erik Boddeke
Tauopathies include a variety of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau, resulting in progressive cognitive decline and motor impairment. The underlying mechanism for motor deficits related to tauopathy is not yet fully understood. Here, we use a novel transgenic tau mouse line, Tau 58/4, with enhanced neuron-specific expression of P301S mutant tau to investigate the motor abnormalities in association with the peripheral nervous system. Using stationary beam, gait, and rotarod tests, motor deficits were found in Tau 58/4 mice already 3 months after birth, which deteriorated during aging...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222403/muscular-effects-of-vitamin-d-in-young-athletes-and-non-athletes-and-in-the-elderly
#3
REVIEW
Nikolaos E Koundourakis, Pavlina D Avgoustinaki, Niki Malliaraki, Andrew N Margioris
Muscles are major targets of vitamin D. Exposure of skeletal muscles to vitamin D induces the expression of multiple myogenic transcription factors enhancing muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. At the same time vitamin D suppresses the expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle mass. Moreover, vitamin D increases the number of type II or fast twitch muscle cells and in particular that of type IIA cells, while its deficiency causes type IIA cell atrophy. Furthermore, vitamin D supplementation in young males with low vitamin D levels increases the percentage of type IIA fibers in muscles, causing an increase in muscular high power output...
October 2016: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220374/lipopolysaccharide-activates-toll-like-receptor-4-and-prevents-cardiac-fibroblast-to-myofibroblast-differentiation
#4
Samir Bolívar, Roxana Santana, Pedro Ayala, Rodolfo Landaeta, Pía Boza, Claudio Humeres, Raúl Vivar, Claudia Muñoz, Viviana Pardo, Samuel Fernandez, Renatto Anfossi, Guillermo Diaz-Araya
Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known ligand of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which is expressed in cardiac fibroblasts (CF). Differentiation of CF to cardiac myofibroblasts (CMF) is induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), increasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. In endothelial cells, an antagonist effect between LPS-induced signaling and canonical TGF-β1 signaling was described; however, it has not been studied whether in CF and CMF the expression of α-SMA induced by TGF-β1 is antagonized by LPS and the mechanism involved...
February 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220081/muscles-susceptibility-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injuries-depends-on-fiber-type-specific-antioxidant-level
#5
Anne-Laure Charles, Anne-Sophie Guilbert, Max Guillot, Samy Talha, Anne Lejay, Alain Meyer, Michel Kindo, Valérie Wolff, Jamal Bouitbir, Joffrey Zoll, Bernard Geny
Muscle injury resulting from ischemia-reperfusion largely aggravates patient prognosis but whether and how muscle phenotype modulates ischemia-reperfusion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction remains to be investigated. We challenged the hypothesis that glycolytic muscles are more prone to ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury than oxidative skeletal muscles. We therefore determined simultaneously the effect of 3 h of ischemia induced by aortic clamping followed by 2 h of reperfusion (IR, n = 11) on both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, as compared to control animals (C, n = 11)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220058/semg-sensor-using-polypyrrole-coated-nonwoven-fabric-sheet-for-practical-control-of-prosthetic-hand
#6
Yinlai Jiang, Masami Togane, Baoliang Lu, Hiroshi Yokoi
One of the greatest challenges of using a myoelectric prosthetic hand in daily life is to conveniently measure stable myoelectric signals. This study proposes a novel surface electromyography (sEMG) sensor using polypyrrole-coated nonwoven fabric sheet as electrodes (PPy electrodes) to allow people with disabilities to control prosthetic limbs. The PPy electrodes are sewn on an elastic band to guarantee close contact with the skin and thus reduce the contact electrical impedance between the electrodes and the skin...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218619/muscular-dystrophy-meets-protein-biochemistry-the-mother-of-invention
#7
Steven D Funk, Jeffrey H Miner
Muscular dystrophies result from a defect in the linkage between the muscle fiber cytoskeleton and the basement membrane (BM). Congenital muscular dystrophy type MDC1A is caused by mutations in laminin α2 that either reduce its expression or impair its ability to polymerize within the muscle fiber BM. Defects in this BM lead to muscle fiber damage from the force of contraction. In this issue of the JCI, McKee and colleagues use a laminin polymerization-competent, designer chimeric BM protein in vivo to restore function of a polymerization-defective laminin, leading to normalized muscle structure and strength in a mouse model of MDC1A...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216317/tropomyosin-isoforms-specify-functionally-distinct-actin-filament-populations-in%C3%A2-vitro
#8
Gergana Gateva, Elena Kremneva, Theresia Reindl, Tommi Kotila, Konstantin Kogan, Laurène Gressin, Peter W Gunning, Dietmar J Manstein, Alphée Michelot, Pekka Lappalainen
Actin filaments assemble into a variety of networks to provide force for diverse cellular processes [1]. Tropomyosins are coiled-coil dimers that form head-to-tail polymers along actin filaments and regulate interactions of other proteins, including actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins and myosins, with actin [2-5]. In mammals, >40 tropomyosin isoforms can be generated through alternative splicing from four tropomyosin genes. Different isoforms display non-redundant functions and partially non-overlapping localization patterns, for example within the stress fiber network [6, 7]...
February 14, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214291/segmental-distribution-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-within-single-muscle-fibers
#9
Ming Zhang, Maree Gould
Despite many studies looking at the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms across a transverse section of muscle, knowledge of MHC distribution along the longitudinal axis of a single skeletal muscle fiber has been relatively overlooked. Immunocytochemistry was performed on serial sections of rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle to identify MHC types I, IIA, IIX, IIY and IIB. Sixteen fascicles which contained a total of 362 fibers were randomly and systematically sampled from the 3 EDL muscles...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213440/muscle-yap-is-a-regulator-of-neuromuscular-junction-formation-and-regeneration
#10
Kai Zhao, Chengyong Shen, Yisheng Lu, Zhihui Huang, Lei Li, Christopher D Rand, Jinxiu Pan, Xiang-Dong Sun, Zhibing Tan, Hongsheng Wang, Guanglin Xing, Yu Cao, Guoqing Hu, Jiliang Zhou, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Yes-associated protein (Yap) is a major effector of the Hippo pathway that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation during development and restricts tissue growth in adult animals. However, its role in synapse formation remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized Yap's role in the formation of neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In HSA-Yap(-/-) mice where Yap was mutated specifically in muscle cells, AChR clusters were smaller and were distributed in a broader region in the middle of muscle fibers, suggesting that muscle Yap is necessary for the size and location of AChR clusters...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211794/test-retest-reliability-of-muscle-fiber-conduction-velocity-and-fractal-dimension-of-surface-emg-during-isometric-contractions
#11
Matteo Beretta-Piccoli, Giuseppe D'Antona, Cristian Zampella, Marco Barbero, Ron Clijsen, Corrado Cescon
The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV) and fractal dimension (FD) obtained from multichannel surface electromyographic (sEMG) recordings. Forty healthy recreationally active subjects (20 men and 20 women) performed two elbow flexions on two trials with a 1-week interval. The first was a 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of 120 s, and the second at 60% MVC held until exhaustion. sEMG signals were detected from the biceps brachii, using bi-dimensional arrays...
February 17, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209802/doublet-stimulation-increases-ca-2-binding-to-troponin-c-to-ensure-rapid-force-development-in-skeletal-muscle
#12
Anthony J Bakker, Tanya R Cully, Catherine D Wingate, Christopher J Barclay, Bradley S Launikonis
Fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers are often exposed to motor neuron double discharges (≥200 Hz), which markedly increase both the rate of contraction and the magnitude of the resulting force responses. However, the mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood, likely because of technical limitations in previous studies. In this study, we measured cytosolic Ca(2+) during doublet activation using the low-affinity indicator Mag-Fluo-4 at high temporal resolution and modeled the effects of doublet stimulation on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release, binding of Ca(2+) to cytosolic buffers, and force enhancement in fast-twitch fibers...
February 16, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209124/rna-seq-and-metabolomic-analyses-of-akt1-mediated-muscle-growth-reveals-regulation-of-regenerative-pathways-and-changes-in-the-muscle-secretome
#13
Chia-Ling Wu, Yoshinori Satomi, Kenneth Walsh
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is a major regulator of systemic metabolism as it serves as the major site for glucose disposal and the main reservoir for amino acids. With aging, cachexia, starvation, and myositis, there is a preferential loss of fast glycolytic muscle fibers. We previously reported a mouse model in which a constitutively-active Akt transgene is induced to express in a subset of muscle groups leading to the hypertrophy of type IIb myofibers with an accompanying increase in strength...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207742/narciclasine-attenuates-diet-induced-obesity-by-promoting-oxidative-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#14
Sofi G Julien, Sun-Yee Kim, Reinhard Brunmeir, Joanna R Sinnakannu, Xiaojia Ge, Hongyu Li, Wei Ma, Jadegoud Yaligar, Bhanu Prakash Kn, Sendhil S Velan, Pia V Röder, Qiongyi Zhang, Choon Kiat Sim, Jingyi Wu, Marta Garcia-Miralles, Mahmoud A Pouladi, Wei Xie, Craig McFarlane, Weiping Han, Feng Xu
Obesity develops when caloric intake exceeds metabolic needs. Promoting energy expenditure represents an attractive approach in the prevention of this fast-spreading epidemic. Here, we report a novel pharmacological strategy in which a natural compound, narciclasine (ncls), attenuates diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice by promoting energy expenditure. Moreover, ncls promotes fat clearance from peripheral metabolic tissues, improves blood metabolic parameters in DIO mice, and protects these mice from the loss of voluntary physical activity...
February 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203223/impaired-axonal-regeneration-in-diabetes-perspective-on-the-underlying-mechanism-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-experimental-studies
#15
REVIEW
Kazunori Sango, Hiroki Mizukami, Hidenori Horie, Soroku Yagihashi
Axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury is impaired in diabetes, but its precise mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on altered axonal regeneration in animal models of diabetes and cultured nerve tissues exposed to hyperglycemia. Impaired nerve regeneration in animal diabetes can be attributed to dysfunction of neurons and Schwann cells, unfavorable stromal environment supportive of regenerating axons, and alterations of target tissues receptive to reinnervation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202999/-changes-of-productions-of-energy-metabolism-in-masseter-of-rats-induced-by-occlusal-interference
#16
X X Xu, Y Cao, K Y Fu, Q F Xie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of occlusal interference on the energy metabolism of masticatory muscle by studying the changes of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inosine monophosphate (IMP), phosphocreatine, creatine, lactate and pH level in masseter muscles of rats after occlusal interference. METHODS: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into experimental group (n=40) and control group (n=10). In experimental group, 0...
February 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202739/anti-hmgcr-autoantibodies-in-juvenile-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies-identify-a-rare-but-clinically-important-subset-of-patients
#17
Sarah L Tansley, Zoe E Betteridge, Stefania Simou, Thomas S Jacques, Clarissa Pilkington, Mark Wood, Kishore Warrier, Lucy R Wedderburn, Neil J McHugh
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish the prevalence and clinical associations of anti-HMG-CoA-reductase (anti-HMGCR) in a large UK cohort with juvenile myositis. METHODS: There were 381 patients investigated for anti-HMGCR using ELISA. RESULTS: Anti-HMGCR autoantibodies were detected in 4 patients (1%). These children had no or minimal rash and significant muscle disease. Muscle biopsies were considered distinctive, with widespread variation in fiber size, necrotic fibers, and chronic inflammatory cell infiltrates; all had prolonged elevation of creatine kinase and all ultimately received biologic therapies...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202702/congenital-myopathy-associated-with-the-triadin-knockout-syndrome
#18
Andrew G Engel, Keeley R Redhage, David J Tester, Michael J Ackerman, Duygu Selcen
OBJECTIVE: Triadin is a component of the calcium release complex of cardiac and skeletal muscle. Our objective was to analyze the skeletal muscle phenotype of the triadin knockout syndrome. METHODS: We performed clinical evaluation, analyzed morphologic features by light and electron microscopy, and immunolocalized triadin in skeletal muscle. RESULTS: A 6-year-old boy with lifelong muscle weakness had a triadin knockout syndrome caused by compound heterozygous null mutations in triadin...
February 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202686/simvastatin-pre-treatment-improves-survival-and-mitochondrial-function-in-a-three-day-fluid-resuscitated-rat-model-of-sepsis
#19
Jerome Morel, Iain Hargreaves, David Brealey, Viruna Neergheen, Janne T Backman, Sandro Lindig, Marcus Bläss, Michael Bauer, Daniel F McAuley, Mervyn Singer
Statins may offer protective effects in sepsis through anti-inflammatory, mitochondrial protection and other actions. We thus evaluated the effects of simvastatin on survival, organ and mitochondrial function, tissue and plasma ubiquinone levels and liver transcriptomics in a 3-day rat model of sepsis. Comparisons of rat plasma simvastatin and ubiquinone levels were made against levels sampled in blood from patients with acute lung injury (ALI) enrolled into a trial of statin therapy. Animals received simvastatin by gavage either pre- or post-induction of faecal peritonitis...
February 15, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202082/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-and-myostatin-pathways-key-mediator-of-human-sarcopenia
#20
Manuel Scimeca, Eleonora Piccirilli, Francesca Mastrangeli, Cecilia Rao, Maurizio Feola, Augusto Orlandi, Elena Gasbarra, Elena Bonanno, Umberto Tarantino
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are the most frequent musculoskeletal disorders affecting older people. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the balance between BMPs and myostatin pathways regulates the age-related muscle degeneration in OP and OA patients. To this end, we investigated the relationship among the expression of BMP-2/4-7, myostatin and phosphorylated Smads1-5-8 and the muscle quality, evaluated in term of fibers atrophy and satellite cells activity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
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