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Frederik Schenk, Minna Väliranta, Francesco Muschitiello, Lev Tarasov, Maija Heikkilä, Svante Björck, Jenny Brandefelt, Arne V Johansson, Jens-Ove Näslund, Barbara Wohlfarth
The Younger Dryas (YD) cold reversal interrupts the warming climate of the deglaciation with global climatic impacts. The sudden cooling is typically linked to an abrupt slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in response to meltwater discharges from ice sheets. However, inconsistencies regarding the YD-response of European summer temperatures have cast doubt whether the concept provides a sufficient explanation. Here we present results from a high-resolution global climate simulation together with a new July temperature compilation based on plant indicator species and show that European summers remain warm during the YD...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Yongwoo Lee, Jungmin Han, Bongsik Choi, Jinsu Yoon, Jinhee Park, Yeamin Kim, Jieun Lee, Dae Hwan Kim, Dong Myong Kim, Meehyun Lim, Min-Ho Kang, Sungho Kim, Sung-Jin Choi
Three-dimensional (3D) printers have attracted considerable attention from both industry and academia and especially in recent years due to their ability to overcome the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) processes and to enable large-scale facile integration techniques. With 3D printing technologies, complex structures can be created using only a computer-aided design (CAD) file as a reference; consequently, complex shapes can be manufactured in a single step with little dependence on manufacturer technologies...
April 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Uğur Çetiner, Andriy Anishkin, Sergei Sukharev
Adaptive desensitization and inactivation are common properties of most ion channels and receptors. The mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS, which serves as a low-threshold osmolyte release valve in most bacteria, inactivates not from the open, but from the resting state under moderate tensions. This mechanism enables the channel to respond differently to slow tension ramps versus abruptly applied stimuli. In this work, we present a reconstruction of the energy landscape for MscS transitions based on patch current kinetics recorded under special pressure protocols...
April 23, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Daniele Gabriel-Costa
Heart failure (HF) is a multifactorial disorder and is usually the end stage of many cardiovascular diseases (CVD). HF presents one of the highest morbidity and mortality indices worldwide and high costs to public health organizations. Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most prevalent CVD in the Western world and leads to HF when its management is inadequate. It has a destructive potential for heart cells and abruptly reduces the cardiac output, a clinical condition known as heart dysfunction that might progress to HF...
April 18, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Joo Hyung Park, Sun Hwa Lee, Seong Jong Yun, Seokyong Ryu, Seung Woon Choi, Hye Jin Kim, Tae Kyung Kang, Sung Chan Oh, Suk Jin Cho
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of short-term exposure to air pollutants and meteorological variation on ED visits for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified PSP cases that presented at the ED of our tertiary center between January 2015 and September 2016. We classified the days into three types: no PSP day (0 case/day), sporadic days (1-2 cases/day), and cluster days (PSP, ≥3 cases/day). Association between the daily incidence of PSP with air pollutants and meteorological data were determined using Poisson generalized-linear-model to calculate incidence rate ratio (IRRs) and the use of time-series (lag-1 [the cumulative air pollution level on the previous day of PSP], lag-2 [two days ago], and lag-3 [three days ago])...
April 14, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Dongxue Xu, Shun Zhou, Lina Sun
In this study, we explored the gene expression profiles in Apostichopus japonicus under continuous heat stress (6 h, 48 h and 192 h) by applying RNA-seq technique. A total of 676, 1010 and 1083 differentially expressed genes were detected at three heat stress groups respectively, which suggested complex regulation of various biological processes. Then we focused on the changing of immune system under HS in sea cucumbers. Key immune-associated genes were involved in heat stress response, which were classified into six groups: heat shock proteins, transferrin superfamily members, effector genes, proteases, complement system, and pattern recognition receptors and signaling...
April 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
B W Kooi, J C Poggiale
Two predator-prey model formulations are studied: for the classical Rosenzweig-MacArthur (RM) model and the Mass Balance (MB) chemostat model. When the growth and loss rate of the predator is much smaller than that of the prey these models are slow-fast systems leading mathematically to singular perturbation problem. In contradiction to the RM-model, the resource for the prey are modelled explicitly in the MB-model but this comes with additional parameters. These parameter values are chosen such that the two models become easy to compare...
April 20, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Natália A Gonzaga, Gabriel T do Vale, Juliana M Parente, Rodrigo Yokota, Bruno S De Martinis, Dulce E Casarini, Michele M Castro, Carlos R Tirapelli
We evaluated the possible mechanisms underlying the oxidative stress induced by ethanol withdrawal. With this purpose, we verified the role of AT1 receptors in such response. Male Wistar rats were treated with ethanol 3%-9% (vol./vol.) for 21 days. Ethanol withdrawal was induced by abrupt discontinuation of the treatment. Experiments were performed 48 hours after ethanol discontinuation. Increased plasma levels of angiotensin II were detected after ethanol withdrawal. Losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT1 receptor antagonist, impeded the increase in blood pressure induced by ethanol withdrawal...
April 4, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Noa Malem-Shinitski, Yingzhuo Zhang, Daniel T Gray, Sara N Burke, Anne C Smith, Carol A Barnes, Demba Ba
BACKGROUND: The study of learning in populations of subjects can provide insights into the changes that occur in the brain with aging, drug intervention, and psychiatric disease. NEW METHOD: We introduce a separable two-dimensional (2D) random field (RF) model for analyzing binary response data acquired during the learning of object-reward associations across multiple days. The method can quantify the variability of performance within a day and across days, and can capture abrupt changes in learning...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Elisa Maria Zini, Anna Tagliabue, Claudia Trentani, Cinzia Ferraris, Rosangela Boninsegna, Silvana Quaglini, Giordano Lanzola
Ketogenic Diet (KD) is a high-fat diet used to treat refractory epilepsy in patients, also including children. Because of the inherent differences with a balanced diet, patients starting KD face an abrupt switch of dietary habits. Moreover, KD is associated with several side effects that should be closely monitored. In this paper, we propose an mHealth application for training and empowering patients in managing KD. The application also acts as a bridge connecting patients with the health care staff for coaching and monitoring purposes...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Karam Cho, Changhwan Shin
Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) relays have been studied for use in low-power logic applications because of their conspicuous features of (i) zero off-state leakage and (ii) abrupt on/off switching behavior in principle. In this study, a lateral NEM relay is analytically modeled. Then, the pull-in/out voltages, which work as turn-on/off voltages for the device, are estimated quantitatively using equations that explain the operational principle of the NEM relay. Exemplary design parameters are proposed to ensure the operation of the NEM relay as a logic device, and its transfer characteristics are analyzed...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Peter Schwendt, Róbert Gyepes, Jana Chrappová, Ivan Němec, Přemysl Vaněk
Complex NH4 [VO(O2 )2 (NH3 )] (1) undergoes an order-disorder phase transition at Tc ~258K. This transition is accompanied by change in the space group of the orthorhombic lattice and also by significant structural rearrangements of the constituent molecules, which are pertinent mostly to their NH4 + ions and their ammonia ligands. The low-temperature solid state IR and Raman spectra of 1 were corroborated by solid-state computations that employed Gaussian functions as the basis set. Results of these computations yielded excellent agreement with experimental data...
April 10, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Mantas Šimėnas, Aneta Ciupa, Gediminas Usevičius, Kęstutis Aidas, Daniel Klose, Gunnar Jeschke, Mirosław Mączka, Georg Völkel, Andreas Pöppl, Jūras Banys
We report a continuous-wave (CW) and pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as well as pulse electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) study of Cu2+ doped [(CH3)2NH2][Zn(HCOO)3] hybrid perovskite which exhibits a structural phase transition. The multifrequency (X, Q and W-band) CW EPR measurements allow the temperature evolution of the Cu2+ ion local environment to be studied. The spectrum of the ordered (low-temperature) phase reveals an axially distorted octahedral Cu2+ site confirming the successful replacement of the Zn2+ ions and formation of the CuO6 octahedra...
April 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ryo Yamamoto, Keisuke Ishii, Haruka Muto, Shiyo Ota, Haruna Kawaguchi, Shusaku Hayashi, Nobuaki Mitsuda
AIM: To elucidate the incidence of and risk factors for severe hypertensive disorders (HD) and related maternal complications in uncomplicated twin pregnancies that reached 36 weeks' gestation. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of twin pregnancies delivered after 36 weeks' gestation. Cases of twin-twin transfusion syndrome, twin anemia-polycythemia sequence, malformed fetuses, monoamniotic twins, selective reduction, fetal therapy and HD or fetal death before 35 weeks' gestation were excluded...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Corinne A Lutomski, Nicholas A Lyktey, Elizabeth E Pierson, Zhongchao Zhao, Adam Zlotnick, Martin F Jarrold
For a three-dimensional structure to spontaneously self-assemble from many identical components, the steps on the pathway must be kinetically accessible. Many virus capsids are icosahedral and assembled from hundreds of identical proteins, but how they navigate the assembly process is poorly understood. Capsid assembly is thought to involve stepwise addition of subunits to a growing capsid fragment. Coarse-grained models suggest that the reaction occurs on a downhill energy landscape, so intermediates are expected to be fleeting...
April 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Janos Lückl, Coline L Lemale, Vasilis Kola, Viktor Horst, Uldus Khojasteh, Ana I Oliveira-Ferreira, Sebastian Major, Maren K L Winkler, Eun-Jeung Kang, Karl Schoknecht, Peter Martus, Jed A Hartings, Johannes Woitzik, Jens P Dreier
Spreading depolarizations are characterized by abrupt, near-complete breakdown of the transmembrane ion gradients, neuronal oedema, mitochondrial depolarization, glutamate excitotoxicity and activity loss (depression). Spreading depolarization induces either transient hyperperfusion in normal tissue; or hypoperfusion (inverse coupling = spreading ischaemia) in tissue at risk for progressive injury. The concept of the spreading depolarization continuum is critical since many spreading depolarizations have intermediate characteristics, as opposed to the two extremes of spreading depolarization in either severely ischaemic or normal tissue...
April 16, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Naama Kadmon Harpaz, David Ungarish, Nicholas G Hatsopoulos, Tamar Flash
A complex action can be described as the composition of a set of elementary movements. While both kinematic and dynamic elements have been proposed to compose complex actions, the structure of movement decomposition and its neural representation remain unknown. Here, we examined movement decomposition by modeling the temporal dynamics of neural populations in the primary motor cortex of macaque monkeys performing forelimb reaching movements. Using a hidden Markov model, we found that global transitions in the neural population activity are associated with a consistent segmentation of the behavioral output into acceleration and deceleration epochs with directional selectivity...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Byungjoon Min, Muhua Zheng
Networks in nature rarely function in isolation but instead interact with one another with a form of a network of networks (NoN). A network of networks with interdependency between distinct networks contains instability of abrupt collapse related to the global rule of activation. As a remedy of the collapse instability, here we investigate a model of correlated NoN. We find that the collapse instability can be removed when hubs provide the majority of interconnections and interconnections are convergent between hubs...
2018: PloS One
Tanja Kuiri-Hänninen, Leo Dunkel, Ulla Sankilampi
BACKGROUND: The postnatal gonadotropin surge is sexually dimorphic: FSH levels predominate in girls and LH levels in boys. However, in preterm (PT) girls, both gonadotropin levels are higher than in PT boys. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how gonadal maturation contributes to the sex differences in FSH and LH. DESIGN: Monthly follow-up of 58 full-term (FT, 29 boys) and 67 PT (33 boys) infants from one week (D7) to six months of age (M1-M6). Analyses were also done according to postmenstrual (PM) age in PT infants...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Bohuslav Drahoš, Zdeněk Trávníček
A cross-bridged cyclam derivative containing two 2-pyridylmethyl pendant arms (L = 4,11-bis((pyridin-2-yl)methyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraaza-bicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane) was synthesized by dialkylation of the cross-bridged cyclam with 2-chloromethylpyridine. A series of Fe(ii) complexes with L and different counter-anions of the formulas [Fe(L)][FeCl4]·H2O (1·H2O), [Fe(L)]Cl2·4H2O (2·4H2O), [Fe(L)](BF4)2·0.5CH3CN (3·0.5CH3CN) and [Fe(L)](BPh4)2·CH3OH (4·CH3OH) was prepared and thoroughly characterized. In all the cases, the [Fe(L)]2+ cation adopts a cis-V configuration with a distorted octahedral geometry, and with the FeN6 donor set...
April 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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