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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474448/early-cessation-of-ceramic-production-for-ancestral-polynesian-society-in-tonga
#1
David V Burley, Sean P Connaughton, Geoffrey Clark
Ancestral Polynesian society is the formative base for development of the Polynesian cultural template and proto-Polynesian linguistic stage. Emerging in western Polynesia ca 2700 cal BP, it is correlated in the archaeological record of Tonga with the Polynesian Plainware ceramic phase presently thought to be of approximately 800 years duration or longer. Here we re-establish the upper boundary for this phase to no more than 2350 cal BP employing a suite of 44 new and existing radiocarbon dates from 13 Polynesian Plainware site occupations across the extent of Tonga...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473172/ceftriaxone-induced-drug-reaction-mimicking-acute-splenic-sequestration-crisis-in-a-child-with-hemoglobin-sc-disease
#2
Nancy L Van Buren, Jed B Gorlin, Robyn C Reed, Jerome L Gottschall, Stephen C Nelson
BACKGROUND: Acute splenic sequestration crisis is a complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) occurring when intrasplenic red blood cell (RBC) sickling prevents blood from leaving the spleen, causing acute splenic enlargement. Although typically seen in young children, it has been reported in older children with hemoglobin (Hb)SC disease, eventually resulting in functional asplenia. Ceftriaxone is a frequently used antibiotic of choice for children with SCD, because of its efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease...
February 22, 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469886/study-on-the-inversion-of-doped-concentration-induced-by-millisecond-pulsed-laser-irradiation-silicon-based-avalanche-photodiode
#3
Dong Yuan, Wang Di, Wei Zhi, Fu Tai Ran
In this paper, an experimental study of silicon-based avalanche photodiode (Si-APD) with millisecond pulse laser irradiation was carried out, and the C-V curve of Si-APD was obtained by using a semiconductor analyzer. Based on the single-side abrupt junction character of n+p, combined with the corresponding theoretical derivation, the doping concentration varying with the axial depth of damaged Si-APD was obtained by inverse computation. The lattice dislocation and junction reduction were the fundamental causes of the reduced doping concentration...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468028/paleoecological-evidence-for-decadal-increase-in-phytoplankton-biomass-off-northwestern-australia-in-response-to-climate-change
#4
Zineng Yuan, Dongyan Liu, John K Keesing, Meixun Zhao, Shixin Guo, Yajun Peng, Hailong Zhang
Ocean warming can modify the phytoplankton biomass on decadal scales. Significant increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall in the northwest of Australia over recent decades are attributed to climate change. Here, we used four biomarker proxies (TEX86 index, long-chain n -alkanes, brassicasterol, and dinosterol) to reconstruct approximately 60-year variations of SST, terrestrial input, and diatom and dinoflagellate biomass in the coastal waters of the remote Kimberley region. The results showed that the most significant increases in SST and terrestrial input occurred since 1997, accompanied by an abrupt increase in diatom and dinoflagellate biomasses...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466755/transformation-of-accessible-chromatin-and-3d-nucleome-underlies-lineage-commitment-of-early-t-cells
#5
Gangqing Hu, Kairong Cui, Difeng Fang, Satoshi Hirose, Xun Wang, Darawalee Wangsa, Wenfei Jin, Thomas Ried, Pentao Liu, Jinfang Zhu, Ellen V Rothenberg, Keji Zhao
How chromatin reorganization coordinates differentiation and lineage commitment from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to mature immune cells has not been well understood. Here, we carried out an integrative analysis of chromatin accessibility, topologically associating domains, AB compartments, and gene expression from HSPCs to CD4+ CD8+ T cells. We found that abrupt genome-wide changes at all three levels of chromatin organization occur during the transition from double-negative stage 2 (DN2) to DN3, accompanying the T lineage commitment...
February 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466675/emerging-drugs-for-alopecia-areata-jak-inhibitors
#6
Matilde Iorizzo, Antonella Tosti
Alopecia Areata is a common form of non-scarring hair loss that usually starts abruptly with a very high psychological impact. Due to the still not completely understood etiopathogenesis, at present there is no treatment that can induce a permanent remission and there is no drug approved for the treatment of this disorder. Areas covered: Leading existing treatment are briefly overviewed and then ongoing research on Janus Kinases Inhibitors is discussed, reviewing trials with oral and topical formulations so as new opportunities for other forms of alopecia, such as cicatricial alopecia...
February 21, 2018: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466362/the-influence-of-speed-and-size-on-avian-terrestrial-locomotor-biomechanics-predicting-locomotion-in-extinct-theropod-dinosaurs
#7
P J Bishop, D F Graham, L P Lamas, J R Hutchinson, J Rubenson, J A Hancock, R S Wilson, S A Hocknull, R S Barrett, D G Lloyd, C J Clemente
How extinct, non-avian theropod dinosaurs moved is a subject of considerable interest and controversy. A better understanding of non-avian theropod locomotion can be achieved by better understanding terrestrial locomotor biomechanics in their modern descendants, birds. Despite much research on the subject, avian terrestrial locomotion remains little explored in regards to how kinematic and kinetic factors vary together with speed and body size. Here, terrestrial locomotion was investigated in twelve species of ground-dwelling bird, spanning a 1,780-fold range in body mass, across almost their entire speed range...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463680/the-actin-filament-twist-changes-abruptly-at-boundaries-between-bare-and-cofilin-decorated-segments
#8
Andrew Huehn, Wenxiang Cao, W Austin Elam, Xueqi Liu, Enrique M De La Cruz, Charles V Sindelar
Cofilin/ADF proteins are actin-remodeling proteins, essential for actin disassembly in various cellular processes, including cell division, intracellular transport, and motility. Cofilins bind actin filaments cooperatively and sever them preferentially at boundaries between bare and cofilin-decorated (cofilactin) segments. The cooperative binding to actin has been proposed to originate from conformational changes that propagate allosterically from clusters of bound cofilin to bare actin segments. Estimates of the lengths over which these cooperative conformational changes propagate vary dramatically, ranging from 2 to >100 subunits...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463389/trauma-in-pregnancy
#9
REVIEW
Christopher Kevin Huls, Corey Detlefs
Trauma is the leading non-obstetric cause of death during pregnancy and approximately 6-8% of all pregnancies are complicated by injury, both accidental and intentional. The initial evaluation and management of the injured pregnant patient often requires a multidisciplinary, collaborative team to provide the optimal outcome for both mother and fetus. It is important to recognize that even minor mechanisms of injury may result in poor outcomes for both fetus and mother. Injured pregnant patients meeting admission criteria experience a progressive increase in the number of complications as well as the number of patients that require delivery...
February 2018: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462552/revealing-abrupt-and-spontaneous-ruptures-of-protein-native-structure-under-pico-newton-compressive-stress-force-manipulation
#10
S Roy Chowdhury, Jin Cao, Yufan He, H Peter Lu
Manipulating protein conformations for exploring protein structure-function relationship has shown a great promise. Although protein conformational changes under pulling force manipulation have been extensively studied, protein conformation changes under a compressive force have not been explored quantitatively. The latter is even more biologically significant and relevant in revealing the protein functions in living cells, associated with protein crowdedness, distribution fluctuations, and cell osmotic stress...
February 20, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456269/effect-of-settled-diatom-aggregates-on-benthic-nitrogen-cycling
#11
Ugo Marzocchi, Bo Thamdrup, Peter Stief, Ronnie N Glud
The marine sediment hosts a mosaic of microhabitats. Recently it has been demonstrated that the settlement of phycodetrital aggregates can induce local changes in the benthic O2 distribution due to confined enrichment of organic material and alteration of the diffusional transport. Here, we show how this microscale O2 shift substantially affects benthic nitrogen cycling. In sediment incubations, the settlement of diatom-aggregates markedly enhanced benthic O2 and NO3- consumption and stimulated NO2- and NH4+ production...
January 2018: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455153/the-recovery-of-estuarine-quality-and-the-perceived-increase-of-cultural-ecosystem-services-by-beach-users-a-case-study-from-northern-spain
#12
Sarai Pouso, María C Uyarra, Ángel Borja
In Europe, the quality of coastal bathing waters improved considerably in the last decades, mainly due to the more demanding legislation and the adoption of water sanitation plans. In the Nerbioi estuary (North Spain), the Wastewater Treatment Plan implemented between 1990 and 2001 resulted on an abrupt decrease in microbial concentration; thus, complying with bathing waters legislation and allowing recreational activities again in the three beaches of the estuary. However, little is known about how improvements in bathing waters influences the provision of cultural ecosystem services and human well-being...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454263/homeless-youth-barriers-and-facilitators-for-service-referrals
#13
Emma B Black, Izabela E Fedyszyn, Helen Mildred, Rhianna Perkin, Richard Lough, Peter Brann, Cheryl Ritter
Young people who are homeless and experiencing mental health issues are reluctant to use relevant services for numerous reasons. Youth are also at risk of disengaging from services at times of referral to additional or alternative services. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators for inter-service referrals for homeless youth with mental health issues who have already engaged with a service. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with homeless youth (n = 10), homelessness support workers (n = 10), and mental health clinicians (n = 10)...
February 10, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450231/free-will-in-addictive-behaviors-a-matter-of-definition
#14
REVIEW
W Miles Cox, Eric Klinger, Javad Salehi Fadardi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449828/understanding-spreading-depression-from-headache-to-sudden-unexpected-death
#15
REVIEW
Olga Cozzolino, Maria Marchese, Francesco Trovato, Enrico Pracucci, Gian Michele Ratto, Maria Gabriella Buzzi, Federico Sicca, Filippo M Santorelli
Spreading depression (SD) is a neurophysiological phenomenon characterized by abrupt changes in intracellular ion gradients and sustained depolarization of neurons. It leads to loss of electrical activity, changes in the synaptic architecture, and an altered vascular response. Although SD is often described as a unique phenomenon with homogeneous characteristics, it may be strongly affected by the particular triggering event and by genetic background. Furthermore, SD may contribute differently to the pathogenesis of widely heterogeneous clinical conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449799/markov-switching-model-for-quick-detection-of-event-related-desynchronization-in-eeg
#16
Giuseppe Lisi, Diletta Rivela, Asuka Takai, Jun Morimoto
Quick detection of motor intentions is critical in order to minimize the time required to activate a neuroprosthesis. We propose a Markov Switching Model (MSM) to achieve quick detection of an event related desynchronization (ERD) elicited by motor imagery (MI) and recorded by electroencephalography (EEG). Conventional brain computer interfaces (BCI) rely on sliding window classifiers in order to perform online continuous classification of the rest vs. MI classes. Based on this approach, the detection of abrupt changes in the sensorimotor power suffers from an intrinsic delay caused by the necessity of computing an estimate of variance across several tenths of a second...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449510/winter-color-polymorphisms-identify-global-hot-spots-for-evolutionary-rescue-from-climate-change
#17
L Scott Mills, Eugenia V Bragina, Alexander V Kumar, Marketa Zimova, Diana J R Lafferty, Jennifer Feltner, Brandon M Davis, Klaus Hackländer, Paulo C Alves, Jeffrey M Good, José Melo-Ferreira, Andreas Dietz, Alexei V Abramov, Natalia Lopatina, Kairsten Fay
Maintenance of biodiversity in a rapidly changing climate will depend on the efficacy of evolutionary rescue, whereby population declines due to abrupt environmental change are reversed by shifts in genetically driven adaptive traits. However, a lack of traits known to be under direct selection by anthropogenic climate change has limited the incorporation of evolutionary processes into global conservation efforts. In 21 vertebrate species, some individuals undergo a seasonal color molt from summer brown to winter white as camouflage against snow, while other individuals remain brown...
February 15, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448727/nh%C3%A2-oh-oriented-and-ph-dependent-growth-of-zno-nanostructures-via-microwave-assisted-growth-method
#18
Abu Ul Hassan Sarwar Rana, Seung-Bo Chang, Hyun-Seok Kim
We proffer NH4OH-oriented and pH-dependent growth of ZnO nanostructures via a microwaveassisted growth method. The fabrication of ZnO nanorods (ZNRs), nanoflowers (ZNFs), nanostars (ZNSs), and nanotetrapods (ZNTs) is presented. NH4OH was used as a mineralizer to change the solution pH for nanostructure growth, where temperature and other variables were fixed. Because of an efficient heat transfer and facile growth of nanostructures, a domestic microwave oven was used to facilitate the nanostructure growth in the span of just 10-15 min...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447245/adverse-obstetric-outcomes-during-delivery-hospitalizations-complicated-by-suicidal-behavior-among-us-pregnant-women
#19
Qiu-Yue Zhong, Bizu Gelaye, Jordan W Smoller, Paul Avillach, Tianxi Cai, Michelle A Williams
OBJECTIVE: The effects of suicidal behavior on obstetric outcomes remain dangerously unquantified. We sought to report on the risk of adverse obstetric outcomes for US women with suicidal behavior at the time of delivery. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of delivery hospitalizations from 2007-2012 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. From the same hospitalization record, International Classification of Diseases codes were used to identify suicidal behavior and adverse obstetric outcomes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445581/eruptive-nevi-after-burn-injury
#20
Ali Tareen, Kristine Pallesen, Tine Vestergaard
Eruptive melanocytic nevi (EMN) is an unusual phenomenon characterized by the abrupt development of multiple melanocytic nevi over weeks to months in association with an underlying trigger. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, however, they have been associated with a variety of conditions. EMN is relatively uncommon and might be underreported due to the absence of close monitoring, insufficient recognition, and the presumed benign course of the condition. We describe the first case report of acral EMN associated with a burn wound on a 2-year-old child...
January 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
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