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Jinfan Tian, Yanfei Liu, Yue Liu, Keji Chen, Shuzheng Lyu
Diabetes was induced in high-fat diet-fed ApoE-/- mice via administration of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) for five days. Mice were then treated with GBE (200 or 400 mg/kg) by gastric gavage daily for 12 weeks. Mice in the untreated diabetic group received saline instead, and nondiabetic C57BL/6J mice served as controls. Collagen І and ІІІ mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. TNF- α , IL-1 β mRNA levels, and NF- κ B expression were determined to analyze intramyocardial inflammation. Hallmarks of endoplasmic reticulum stress- (ERS-) related apoptosis pathways, including phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), caspase-12, and cleaved caspase-3, were analyzed by Western blotting...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Gallant K L Chan, Winnie W H Hu, Zoey X Zheng, M Huang, Yan X Y Lin, Caroline Y Wang, Amy G W Gong, X Y Yang, Karl W K Tsim, Tina T X Dong
Dementia is a persistent disorder of the mental processes and is strongly related to depression. However, the performance of current antidepression medicine is far from satisfactory. Herbal extract provides an excellent source to identify compounds for possible drug development against depression. Here, HerboChips were employed to search herbal compounds that could bind nerve growth factor (NGF). By screening over 500 types of herbal extracts, the water extract of Ginkgo Folium, the leaf of Ginkgo biloba , showed a strong binding to NGF...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ming Lyu, Ying Cui, Tiechan Zhao, Zhaochen Ning, Jie Ren, Xingpiao Jin, Guanwei Fan, Yan Zhu
Shuxuening injection (SXNI) is a widely prescribed herbal medicine of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB) for cerebral and cardiovascular diseases in China. However, its curative effects on ischemic stroke and heart diseases and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Taking an integrated approach of RNA-seq and network pharmacology analysis, we compared transcriptome profiles of brain and heart ischemia reperfusion injury in C57BL/6J mice to identify common and differential target genes by SXNI. Models for myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 30 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion and cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 90 min ischemia and 24 h reperfusion were employed to identify the common mechanisms of SXNI on both cerebral and myocardial ischemia reperfusion...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Tavga Ahmed Aziz, Saad Abdulrahman Hussain, Taha Othman Mahwi, Zheen Aorahman Ahmed, Heshu Sulaiman Rahman, Abdullah Rasedee
Background and aim: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the major diseases confronting the health care systems. In diabetes mellitus (DM), combined use of oral hypoglycemic medications has been shown to be more effective than metformin (Met) alone in glycemic control. This study determined the effects of Ginkgo biloba (GKB) extract as an adjuvant to Met in patients with uncontrolled T2DM. Subjects and methods: Sixty T2DM patients were recruited in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, and multicenter trial...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Matthew Haworth, Claire M Belcher, Dilek Killi, Rebecca A Dewhirst, Alessandro Materassi, Antonio Raschi, Mauro Centritto
Global warming events have coincided with turnover of plant species at intervals in Earth history. As mean global temperatures rise, the number, frequency and duration of heat-waves will increase. Ginkgo biloba was grown under controlled climatic conditions at two different day/night temperature regimes (25/20 °C and 35/30 °C) to investigate the impact of heat stress. Photosynthetic CO2 -uptake and electron transport were reduced at the higher temperature, while rates of respiration were greater; suggesting that the carbon balance of the leaves was adversely affected...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Félix Forest, Justin Moat, Elisabeth Baloch, Neil A Brummitt, Steve P Bachman, Steffi Ickert-Bond, Peter M Hollingsworth, Aaron Liston, Damon P Little, Sarah Mathews, Hardeep Rai, Catarina Rydin, Dennis W Stevenson, Philip Thomas, Sven Buerki
Driven by limited resources and a sense of urgency, the prioritization of species for conservation has been a persistent concern in conservation science. Gymnosperms (comprising ginkgo, conifers, cycads, and gnetophytes) are one of the most threatened groups of living organisms, with 40% of the species at high risk of extinction, about twice as many as the most recent estimates for all plants (i.e. 21.4%). This high proportion of species facing extinction highlights the urgent action required to secure their future through an objective prioritization approach...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shruti Shukla, Jong Suk Lee, Vivek K Bajpai, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu Han, Myunghee Kim
Meju, a cooked and fermented soy bean based food product, is used as a major ingredient in Korean traditional fermented foods such as Doenjang. We developed a novel type of Meju using single and combined extracts of Allium sativum (garlic clove), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus leaves), and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo leaves) at 1% and 10% concentrations to improve the safety of Meju-based fermented products. Biogenic amines (BAs) in protein-rich fermented food products pose considerable toxical risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adding selected plant extracts in Meju samples during fermentation...
April 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Enrique Arriola Manchola, Javier Alaba Loinaz
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome encompassing affective and behavioural symptoms and various subtypes. MCI is a heterogeneous clinical entity with varied causes (degenerative, vascular, psychiatric, non-neurological disorders), and there is wide variation in symptoms and clinical course. There are multiple causes and consequently various treatments can be applied and should be combined with non-pharmacological measures. This article describes both preventive and therapeutic pharmacological interventions: control of vascular risk factors, avoidance of iatrogeny, use of nutraceuticals, CDP-choline, and Ginkgo biloba EGb 761® , and improvement in sense organs...
June 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Zhen-Hua Fu, Shi-Quan Liu, Meng-Bin Qin, Jie-An Huang, Chun-Yan Xu, Wen-Hong Wu, Li-Ye Zhu, Nan Qin, Ming-Yu Lai
Systematic chemotherapy is indispensable for gastric cancer patients with advanced stage disease, but the occurrence of chemoresistance drastically limits treatment effectiveness. There is a tremendous need for identifying the underlying mechanism of chemoresistance. NIK‑ and IKKβ‑binding protein (NIBP) (also known as TRAPPC9, trafficking protein particle complex 9) is a regulator of the cytokine‑induced NF‑κB signaling pathway which has been proven to play pivotal roles in the progression of various malignancies...
March 30, 2018: Oncology Reports
Li Yuan, Zhenning Liu, Xiaoya Song, Judy Jernstedt, Venkatesan Sundaresan
A defining feature of angiosperms is double fertilization involving the female gametophyte central cell and formation of a nutrient-storing tissue called endosperm. The route for the evolutionary origin of endosperm from a gymnosperm ancestor, particularly the molecular steps involved, has remained elusive. Recently, the histidine kinase gene Cytokinin-Independent 1 (CKI1), an activator of cytokinin signaling, was described as a key to specification of the endosperm precursor central cell in Arabidopsis. Here, we have investigated the function and expression of a putative ortholog of CKI1 in the gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba...
March 30, 2018: New Phytologist
Jingbo Zhu, Weibin Cui, Wei Xiao, Yan Ding, Wenzhe Huang, Pengfei Tu, Yonghua Wang
In this study, an effective method was developed for the isolation and enrichment of Ginkgo biloba extract by continuous chromatography system. The adsorption and desorption ratio of flavonoids as main index, the best macroporous resin was screened out from six kinds of resin by static adsorption and desorption tests. At the same time the adsorption and desorption parameters were optimized by dynamic adsorption and desorption tests. Under optimal parameters, five operations consisting of loading, washing, desorbing, regenerating and balancing were integrated across continuous chromatography system for purpose of refining 66 L of crude extract solution...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
Jerome Sarris
This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders...
March 25, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Heung-Bin Lim, Dong-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: A vitamin B6 derivative, 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN), is responsible for food poisoning by Ginkgo biloba seeds. In this study, we investigate the content of pyridoxine and MPN in MPN standard solution and G. biloba seed extract solution upon heat treatment in order to evaluate the reduction of toxic components in G. biloba seed by such treatment. RESULTS: Heat treatment was conducted at 90-150 °C for 0-60 min, and all samples were adjusted to the same concentration of 1 g L-1 ...
March 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Rebecca S Kalinger, Ian P Pulsifer, Owen Rowland
Acyl-ACP thioesterase enzymes, which cleave fatty acyl thioester bonds to release free fatty acids, contribute to much of the fatty acid diversity in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a family of four single hot-dog fold domain, plastid-localized acyl-lipid thioesterases (AtALT1-4) generate medium-chain (C6-C14) fatty and β-keto fatty acids as secondary metabolites. These volatile products may serve to attract insect pollinators or deter predatory insects. Homologs of AtALT1-4 are present in all plant taxa, but are nearly all uncharacterized...
March 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Tingfu Liang, Takuya Miyakawa, Jinwei Yang, Tsutomu Ishikawa, Masaru Tanokura
Ginkgo biloba L. has been used as a herbal medicine in the traditional treatment of insufficient blood flow, memory deficits, and cerebral insufficiency. The terpene trilactone components, the bioactive agents of Ginkgo biloba L., have also been reported to exhibit useful functionality such as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Therefore, in the present research, we attempted to analyze quantitatively the terpene trilactone components in Ginkgo biloba leaf extract, with quantitative1 H NMR (qNMR) and obtained almost identical results to data reported using HPLC...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Nahide Ekici Günay, Sabahattin Muhtaroğlu, Abdulkadir Bedirli
BACKGROUND: Free radical damage is known to occur during liver regeneration. The Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 has antioxidant properties due to its ability to scavenge free radicals. FK506 has been widely used as an immunosuppressant that stimulates hepatocyte proliferation following partial hepatectomy. AIMS: To explore whether EGb761 enhances liver regeneration after hepatectomy in rats, we investigated the effects of EGb761 alone and in combination with FK506 on the liver regenerative process...
March 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
Karla Soares-Weiser, John Rathbone, Yusuke Ogawa, Kiyomi Shinohara, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with chronic mental illnesses. Its use, however, is associated with adverse effects, including movement disorders such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) - a problem often seen as repetitive involuntary movements around the mouth and face. This review, one in a series examining the treatment of TD, covers miscellaneous treatments not covered elsewhere. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether drugs, hormone-, dietary-, or herb-supplements not covered in other Cochrane reviews on TD treatments, surgical interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and mind-body therapies were effective and safe for people with antipsychotic-induced TD...
March 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Wen Zhang, Jun-Ke Song, Rong Yan, Li Li, Zhi-Yong Xiao, Wen-Xia Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Guan-Hua Du
Diterpene ginkgolides meglumine injection (DGMI) is a therapeutic extract of Ginkgo biloba L, which has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke in China. Ginkgolides A, B and C are the main components of DGMI. This study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of DGMI components against ischemic stroke in vivo and in vitro. Acute cerebral ischemic injury was induced in rats by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 1.5 h followed by 24 h reperfusion. The rats were treated with DGMI (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, iv) at the onset of reperfusion and 12 h after reperfusion...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Wei Fu, Xingyuan He, Sheng Xu, Wei Chen, Yan Li, Bo Li, Lili Su, Qin Ping
Ground-level ozone (O3 ) pollution has been widely concerned in the world, particularly in the cities of Asia, including China. Elevated O3 concentrations have potentially influenced growth and nutrient cycling of trees in urban forest. The decomposition characteristics of urban tree litters under O3 exposure are still poorly known. Ginkgo biloba is commonly planted in the cities of northern China and is one of the main tree species in the urban forest of Shenyang, where concentrations of ground-level O3 are very high in summer...
2018: PeerJ
Jun He, Xinchi Feng, Kai Wang, Changxiao Liu, Feng Qiu
BACKGROUND: Quality control of Chinese medicine (CM) is an effective measure to ensure the safety and efficacy of CM in clinical practice, which is also a key factor to restrict the modernization process of CM. Various chemical components exist in CM and the determination of several chemical components is the main approach for quality control of vast majority of CM in the present. However, many components determined lack not only specificity, but also biological activities. This is bound to greatly reduce the actual value of quality standard of CM...
February 28, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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