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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334286/differences-in-the-photosynthetic-plasticity-of-ferns-and-ginkgo-grown-in-experimentally-controlled-low-o2-co2-atmospheres-may-explain-their-contrasting-ecological-fate-across-the-triassic-jurassic-mass-extinction-boundary
#1
C Yiotis, C Evans-Fitz Gerald, J C McElwain
Background and Aims: Fluctuations in [CO 2 ] have been widely studied as a potential driver of plant evolution; however, the role of a fluctuating [O 2 ]:[CO 2 ] ratio is often overlooked. The present study aimed to investigate the inherent physiological plasticity of early diverging, extant species following acclimation to an atmosphere similar to that across the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction interval (TJB, approx. 200 Mya), a time of major ecological change. Methods: Mature plants from two angiosperm ( Drimys winteri and Chloranthus oldhamii ), two monilophyte ( Osmunda claytoniana and Cyathea australis ) and one gymnosperm ( Ginkgo biloba ) species were grown for 2 months in replicated walk-in Conviron BDW40 chambers running at TJB treatment conditions of 16 % [O 2 ]-1900 ppm [CO 2 ] and ambient conditions of 21 % [O 2 ]-400 ppm [CO 2 ], and their physiological plasticity was assessed using gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence methods...
March 11, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333443/systematic-investigation-of-ginkgo-biloba-leaves-for-treating-cardio-cerebrovascular-diseases-in-an-animal-model
#2
Yinfeng Yang, Yan Li, Jinghui Wang, Ke Sun, Weiyang Tao, Zhenzhong Wang, Wei Xiao, Yanqiu Pan, Shuwei Zhang, Yonghua Wang
Globally, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs) account for the leading cause of death, and thus the development of novel strategies for preventing and treating such diseases is in urgent need. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), used for thousands of years in Asia and other regions, have been proven effective in certain disorders. As a medicinal herb for a long time in TCM, Ginkgo Biloba Leaves (GBLs), have been widely used to treat various diseases including CCVDs. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of medicinal herb in treating these diseases are still unclear...
March 23, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332628/ginkgo-biloba-extract-egb761-attenuates-brain-death-induced-renal-injury-by-inhibiting-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-the-sapk-and-jak-stat-signalings
#3
Yifu Li, Yunyi Xiong, Huanxi Zhang, Jun Li, Dong Wang, Wenfang Chen, Xiaopeng Yuan, Qiao Su, Wenwen Li, Huiting Huang, Zirong Bi, Longshan Liu, Changxi Wang
This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of EGb761, a Ginkgo Biloba extract, against brain death-induced kidney injury. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham, brain-death (BD), BD + EGb b48h (48 hours before BD), BD + EGb 2 h (2 hours after BD), BD + EGb 1 h, and BD + EGb 0.5 h. Six hours after BD, serum sample and kidney tissues were collected for analyses. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine significantly elevated in the BD group than in sham group...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283461/induction-of-mitochondrial-dependent-apoptosis-in-t24-cells-by-a-selenium-se-containing-polysaccharide-from-ginkgo-biloba-l-leaves
#4
Dong Chen, Shaopeng Sun, Dawei Cai, Guangqi Kong
In the present study, a selenium (Se)-containing polysaccharide (Se-GBLP) was isolated and purified from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L. Se-GBLP was further evaluated for its antitumor activity against human bladder cancer T24 cells together with the possible mechanism of action. Our results showed that treatment of T24 cells with Se-GBLP (50, 100 and 200μg/ml) for 48h significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose- dependent manner. This Se-GBLP-induced apoptosis is associated with an increased protein expression of pro-apoptotic Bax, decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP, suggesting that Se-GBLP-induced apoptosis occurs through the mitochondria-dependent pathway...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265050/the-presumed-ginkgophyte-umaltolepis-has-seed-bearing-structures-resembling-those-of-peltaspermales-and-umkomasiales
#5
Fabiany Herrera, Gongle Shi, Niiden Ichinnorov, Masamichi Takahashi, Eugenia V Bugdaeva, Patrick S Herendeen, Peter R Crane
The origins of the five groups of living seed plants, including the single relictual species Ginkgo biloba, are poorly understood, in large part because of very imperfect knowledge of extinct seed plant diversity. Here we describe well-preserved material from the Early Cretaceous of Mongolia of the previously enigmatic Mesozoic seed plant reproductive structure Umaltolepis, which has been presumed to be a ginkgophyte. Abundant new material shows that Umaltolepis is a seed-bearing cupule that was borne on a stalk at the tip of a short shoot...
March 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248559/pharmacological-and-nonpharmacological-treatment-for-apathy-in-alzheimer-disease-a-systematic-review-across-modalities
#6
Christos Theleritis, Kostas Siarkos, Everina Katirtzoglou, Antonios Politis
OBJECTIVE: Apathy is one of the most frequent neuropsychiatric symptoms encountered in Alzheimer disease (AD). Early diagnosis and timely treatment of apathy in AD seem to be of great importance, since apathy has been associated with poor disease outcome, reduced daily functioning, and caregiver distress. DESIGN: Within this context, we conducted an extensive electronic search from the databases included in the National Library of Medicine as well as PsychInfo and Google Scholar for studies that have investigated the effect of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments of apathy in AD...
January 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243101/efficacy-and-safety-of-ginkgo-biloba-standardized-extract-in-the-treatment-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
Vida Demarin, Vanja Bašić Kes, Zlatko Trkanjec, Mislav Budišić, Marija Bošnjak Pašić, Petra Črnac, Hrvoje Budinčević
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract in patients diagnosed with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). METHODS: A total of 90 patients (aged 67.1±8.0 years; 59 women) were randomly allocated (1:1:1) to receive G. biloba 120 mg, G. biloba 60 mg, or placebo during a 6-month period. Assessment was made for efficacy indicators, including neuropsychological tests scores (Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric Scale, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination, Mattis Dementia Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impression) and transcranial Doppler ultrasound findings...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241996/ginkgo-biloba-extract-alleviates-oxidative-stress-and-some-neurotransmitters-changes-induced-by-aluminum-chloride-in-rats
#8
Naglaa El-Shahat Mohamed, Ahmed E Abd El-Moneim
In the present study, twenty four adult male albino rats were classified into four groups. The control group received normal diet and water; the second group was treated daily with oral dose of Ginkgo biloba (200 mg/kg body weight [b.wt]) for 3 mo; the third group was treated daily with oral dose of aluminum chloride (10 mg/kg b.wt) for 3 mo; and the fourth group was treated with both Ginkgo biloba and aluminum chloride (200 and 10 mg/kg b.wt, respectively) using a stomach tube for 3 mo. The results showed that administration of AlCl3 to rats induced significant increase (P < 0...
March 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213239/new-urea-modified-paper-substrate-for-enhanced-analytical-performance-of-negative-ion-mode-paper-spray-mass-spectrometry
#9
Jingjing Liu, Yan He, Shuo Chen, Ming Ma, Shouzuo Yao, Bo Chen
Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis in the negative ion mode is adversely affected by ionization suppression caused by electrical discharge and the presence of salts. Paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) also suffers from the above phenomenon, being built on principles similar to those of ESI. Herein, we report the use of a paper substrate modified by 1-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]urea to improve the sensitivity of quantitative PS-MS analysis in the negative ion mode. The obtained results demonstrated that the urea modified paper substrate can effectively bind anions and highly polar compounds in the sample solution, decreasing competitive ionization in the negative ion mode of PS-MS and significantly reducing the signal intensity of Cl(-) adducts...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208828/ginkgolic-acid-c-17-1-derived-from-ginkgo-biloba-leaves-suppresses-constitutive-and-inducible-stat3-activation-through-induction-of-pten-and-shp-1-tyrosine-phosphatase
#10
Seung Ho Baek, Jong Hyun Lee, Chulwon Kim, Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Seung-Hee Ryu, Seok-Geun Lee, Woong Mo Yang, Jae-Young Um, Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Gautam Sethi, Kwang Seok Ahn
Ginkgolic acid C 17:1 (GAC 17:1) extracted from Ginkgo biloba leaves, has been previously reported to exhibit diverse antitumor effect(s) through modulation of several molecular targets in tumor cells, however the detailed mechanism(s) of its actions still remains to be elucidated. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogenic transcription factor that regulates various critical functions involved in progression of diverse hematological malignancies, including multiple myeloma, therefore attenuating STAT3 activation may have a potential in cancer therapy...
February 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204698/the-effects-of-bacillus-coagulans-fermented-and-non-fermented-ginkgo-biloba-on-abdominal-fat-deposition-and-meat-quality-of-peking-duck
#11
Xiaoyan Liu, Guanjun Cao, Jinglong Zhou, Xuan Yao, Binghu Fang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202454/pollinator-mediated-interactions-in-experimental-arrays-vary-with-neighbor-identity
#12
Melissa K Ha, Christopher T Ivey
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Local ecological conditions influence the impact of species interactions on evolution and community structure. We investigated whether pollinator-mediated interactions between coflowering plants vary with plant density, coflowering neighbor identity, and flowering season. METHODS: We conducted a field experiment in which flowering time and floral neighborhood were manipulated in a factorial design. Early- and late-flowering Clarkia unguiculata plants were placed into arrays with C...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185127/egb761-ameliorates-neuronal-apoptosis-and-promotes-angiogenesis-in-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage-via-rsk1-gsk3%C3%AE-pathway
#13
Chao Pan, Na Liu, Ping Zhang, Qian Wu, Hong Deng, Feng Xu, Lifei Lian, Qiming Liang, Yang Hu, Suiqiang Zhu, Zhouping Tang
Neuronal apoptosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) plays an essential role in neurological deterioration. Preclinical studies have shown that EGb761, an extract of Ginkgo biloba, is neuroprotective in some other neurological diseases with apoptosis. This study was conducted to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of EGb761 on neuronal apoptosis in experimental ICH. A model of ICH was induced in C57BL/6 mice by injecting collagenase. EGb761 was administered for 21 days and neurologic behaviors were assessed at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after ICH...
February 9, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181206/ginkgo-biloba-special-extract-li-1370-improves-dual-task-walking-in-patients-with-mci-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-exploratory-study
#14
Yves J Gschwind, Stephanie A Bridenbaugh, Sarah Reinhard, Urs Granacher, Andreas U Monsch, Reto W Kressig
BACKGROUND: In patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), gait instability, particularly in dual-task situations, has been associated with impaired executive function and an increased fall risk. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) could be an effective mean to improve gait stability. AIMS: This study investigated the effect of GBE on spatio-temporal gait parameters of MCI patients while walking under single and dual-task conditions. METHODS: Fifty patients aged 50-85 years with MCI and associated dual-task-related gait impairment participated in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, exploratory phase IV drug trial...
February 8, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177134/the-influence-of-combination-use-of-cyp450-inducers-on-the-pharmacokinetics-of-voriconazole-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
T-Y Li, W Liu, K Chen, S-Y Liang, F Liu
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal agent and is extensively metabolized via cytochrome P450 (CYP450); therefore, special precautions need to be taken when co-administered with a known CYP450 inducer, which may lead to treatment failure. The influence of some CYP450 inducers on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole has been described in previous studies, but a systematic review was lacking. In this study, we carried out a systematic review to assess the influence of CYP450 inducers on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of voriconazole...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144968/adverse-event-due-to-a-likely-interaction-between-sodium-aescinate-and-ginkgo-biloba-extract-a-case-report
#16
H Ji, G Zhang, F Yue, X Zhou
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is potentially lethal. When sodium aescinate is given to surgical inpatients to treat postoperative inflammation and oedema, adverse drug reactions and drug-drug interactions must be closely monitored. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a case of a 58-year-old man with phalangeal fractures who suffered from acute kidney injury that was most likely induced by the drug interaction between sodium aescinate and ginkgo biloba extract due to the protein-binding and metabolic characteristics of these drugs...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143625/potential-benefits-of-phytochemicals-against-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Emma L Wightman
Our current therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer's disease are predominantly derived from the alkaloid class of plant phytochemicals. These drugs, such as galantamine and rivastigmine, attenuate the decline in the cholinergic system but, as the alkaloids occupy the most dangerous end of the phytochemical spectrum (indeed they function as feeding deterrents and poisons to other organisms within the plant itself), they are often associated with unpleasant side effects. In addition, these cholinesterase inhibiting alkaloids target only one system in a disorder, which is typified by multifactorial deficits...
February 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142119/ginkgolide-a-ameliorates-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-diseases-on-high-fat-diet-mice
#18
Hyeon-Soo Jeong, Kang-Hoon Kim, In-Seung Lee, Ji Young Park, Yumi Kim, Ki-Suk Kim, Hyeung-Jin Jang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common diseases worldwide and has continuously increased. NAFLD refers to a spectrum of diseases ranging from fatty liver to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and even to hepatocyte carcinoma. Excessive fatty acid enters the cell and the mitochondria undergo stress and unremoved ROS can trigger a form of cell apoptosis known as 'lipoapoptosis'. NASH arises from damaged liver hepatocytes due to lipotoxicity. NASH not only involves lipid accumulation and apoptosis but also inflammation...
April 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139297/exceptionally-high-percentage-of-ipp-synthesis-by-ginkgo-biloba-isph-is-mainly-due-to-phe-residue-in-the-active-site
#19
Bok-Kyu Shin, Mihyang Kim, Jaehong Han
(E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate (HMBPP) reductase (IspH, HDR or LytB) is an Fe/S enzyme catalyzing the reductive dehydroxylation of HMBPP to isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) in the last step of methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. The MEP pathway is known to produce 4-6:1 ratio of IPP and DMAPP mixture by the last enzyme, IspH. Plant IspH in plastids follows same catalytic mechanism as others, but GbIspH (Ginkgo biloba IspH) was reported to produce a mixture of IPP and DMAPP in a ratio of 16:1...
April 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137522/herbal-medicines-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Dennis Anheyer, Romy Lauche, Dania Schumann, Gustav Dobos, Holger Cramer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to identify evidence in herbal therapy in the treatment of ADHD concerning effectiveness and drug tolerability. METHOD: For this Medline/PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Central) were searched from their inception to 15 July 2016. Only randomized controlled trails (RCT) with children (0-18years) suffering from ADHD were included in this review. RESULTS: Nine RCTs with 464 patients comparing herbal pharmaceuticals to placebo or active control were included...
February 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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