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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069691/rapid-and-sensitive-determination-of-major-active-ingredients-and-toxic-components-in-ginkgobiloba-leaves-extract-egb-761-by-a-validated-uplc-ms-ms-method
#1
Yao Wang, Yuan Liu, Qi Wu, Xin Yao, Zongqi Cheng
An accurate, precise and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination of flavonoids, terpene lactones, together with ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (EGb 761). This is the first report of the simultaneous analysis of major active ingredients and toxic components in EGb 761 using UPLC-MS-MS. This analysis afforded good linearity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. In addition, the content of those major bioactive components in EGb 761 prepared by different manufacturers of China was determined to establish the effectiveness of the method...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067784/sailuotong-prevents-hydrogen-peroxide-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-induced-injury-in-ea-hy926-cells
#2
Sai Wang Seto, Dennis Chang, Wai Man Ko, Xian Zhou, Hosen Kiat, Alan Bensoussan, Simon M Y Lee, Maggie P M Hoi, Genevieve Z Steiner, Jianxun Liu
Sailuotong (SLT) is a standardised three-herb formulation consisting of Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, and Crocus sativus designed for the management of vascular dementia. While the latest clinical trials have demonstrated beneficial effects of SLT in vascular dementia, the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to assess the ability and mechanisms of SLT to act against hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced oxidative damage in cultured human vascular endothelial cells (EAhy926)...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065956/lead-induced-morphometric-changes-in-the-kidneys-of-albino-rats-ameliorated-by-ginkgo-biloba-extract-egb-761
#3
Zaheer Amjad, Talat Yasmin, Irfan Ashraf, Khalida Perveen, Talat Mirza, Amir Ali Shoro
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of ginkgo biloba extract on lead-induced morphometric changes in the kidneys of albino rats. METHODS: This randomised controlled study was conducted at the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from April 2009 to March 2010, and comprised male Wistar albino rats weighing between 150-180 gm who were randomly divided into three equal groups, A, B and C. These were further split into subgroups 1, 2, 3 and 4 according to the duration of the experiment (one, two, four and six weeks)...
January 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063335/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-study-of-liver-damage-induced-by-ginkgolic-acid-15-1-in-mice
#4
Lei Jiang, Zhi-Hong Si, Ming-Hui Li, He Zhao, Yong-Hong Fu, Yue-Xiao Xing, Wei Hong, Ling-Yu Ruan, Pu-Min Li, Jun-Song Wang
Ginkgolic acid (15:1) is a major toxic component in extracts obtained from Ginkgo biloba (EGb) that has allergic and genotoxic effects. This study is the first to explore the hepatotoxicity of ginkgolic acid (15:1) using a NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance)-based metabolomics approach in combination with biochemistry assays. Mice were orally administered two doses of ginkgolic acid (15:1), and mouse livers and serum were then collected for NMR recordings and biochemical assays. The levels of activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and glutamic aspartate transaminase (AST) observed in the ginkgolic acid (15:1)-treated mice suggested that it had induced severe liver damage...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055331/review-of-ginkgo-biloba-induced-toxicity-from-experimental-studies-to-human-case-reports
#5
Nan Mei, Xiaoqing Guo, Zhen Ren, Daisuke Kobayashi, Keiji Wada, Lei Guo
Ginkgo biloba has been used as a traditional herbal remedy for many thousand years and its leaf extract has been consumed as a botanical dietary supplement for decades. Ginkgo biloba extract is a complex mixture with numerous components, including flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones, and is one of the most widely sold botanical dietary supplements worldwide. Concerns about potential health risks for the general population have been raised because of the widespread human exposure to Ginkgo biloba and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities in rodents...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045676/therapeutic-potential-of-flavonoids-in-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Peng Zhang, Christian Hölscher, Xun Ma
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a catastrophic event that can profoundly affect a patient's life, with far-reaching social and economic effects. A consequential sequence of SCI is the significant neurological or psychological deficit, which obviously contributes to the overall burden of this condition. To date, there is no effective treatment for SCI. Therefore, developing novel therapeutic strategies for SCI is highly prioritized. Flavonoids, one of the most numerous and ubiquitous groups of plant metabolites, are the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine such as Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin) or Ginkgo biloba (Ying Xin)...
January 1, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045448/molecular-cloning-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-acetyl-coa-c-acetyltransferase-and-mevalonate-kinase-genes-involved-in-terpene-trilactone-biosynthesis-from-ginkgo-biloba
#7
Qiangwen Chen, Jiaping Yan, Xiangxiang Meng, Feng Xu, Weiwei Zhang, Yongling Liao, Jinwang Qu
Ginkgolides and bilobalide, collectively termed terpene trilactones (TTLs), are terpenoids that form the main active substance of Ginkgo biloba. Terpenoids in the mevalonate (MVA) biosynthetic pathway include acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (AACT) and mevalonate kinase (MVK) as core enzymes. In this study, two full-length (cDNAs) encoding AACT (GbAACT, GenBank Accession No. KX904942) and MVK (GbMVK, GenBank Accession No. KX904944) were cloned from G. biloba. The deduced GbAACT and GbMVK proteins contain 404 and 396 amino acids with the corresponding open-reading frame (ORF) sizes of 1215 bp and 1194 bp, respectively...
January 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044943/forgotten-but-not-gone-new-developments-in-the-understanding-and-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia
#8
Jonathan M Meyer
The broad use of atypical antipsychotics was expected to dramatically reduce the prevalence and incidence of tardive dyskinesia (TD), but data show that TD remains an important challenge due the persistent nature of its symptoms and resistance to numerous treatment modalities, including antipsychotic discontinuation. Recent insights on genetic risk factors and new concepts surrounding pathophysiology have spurred interest in the possibility of targeted treatment for TD. As will be reviewed in this article, the number of evidence-based strategies for TD treatment is small: only clonazepam, amantadine, ginkgo biloba extract, and the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitor tetrabenazine have compelling data...
December 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025942/nano-medicine-improving-the-bioavailability-of-small-molecules-for-the-prevention-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
Piera Di Martino, Roberta Censi, Maria Rosa Gigliobianco, Luana Zerrillo, Federico Magnoni, Dimitrios Agas, Wilma Quaglia, Giulio Lupidi
Neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, are a heterogeneous group of brain disorders characterized by the progressive degeneration of the structure and function of the central or peripheral nervous system. It is thought that the number of people affected by these pathologies will increase in future decades, particularly in the more economically developed countries, where the populations are experiencing a demographic shift towards older ages. For many of these pathologies, and in particular for Alzheimer's disease, no effective treatments are available, and the consequent economic and social costs are very high...
December 27, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025058/moderate-doses-of-commercial-preparations-of-ginkgo-biloba-do-not-alter-markers-of-liver-function-but-moderate-alcohol-intake-does-a-new-approach-to-identify-and-quantify-biomarkers-of-adverse-effects-of-dietary-supplements
#10
Harris R Lieberman, Mark D Kellogg, Victor L Fulgoni, Sanjiv Agarwal
: It is difficult to determine if certain dietary supplements are safe for human consumption. Extracts of leaves of Ginkgo biloba trees are dietary supplements used for various purported therapeutic benefits. However, recent studies reported they increased risk of liver cancer in rodents. Therefore, this study assessed the association between ginkgo consumption and liver function using NHANES 2001-2012 data (N = 29,684). Since alcohol is known to adversely affect liver function, association of its consumption with liver function was also assessed...
December 24, 2016: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011695/chaetomium-globosum-cdw7-a-potential-biological-control-strain-and-its-antifungal-metabolites
#11
Shuang-Shuang Zhao, Ying-Ying Zhang, Wei Yan, Ling-Ling Cao, Yu Xiao, Yong-Hao Ye
Screening for endophytic fungi with antifungal activity is an effective strategy for the discovery of novel biopesticides. Our previous work indicated that Chaetomium globosum CDW7, an endophyte from Ginkgo biloba, exhibited strong inhibitory activity against plant pathogenic fungi in vitro In this study, we evaluated the CDW7 strain for its antifungal activities against nine phytopathogenic fungi and its biocontrol potential against rape sclerotinia rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum The fermentation broth of CDW7 could successfully inhibit disease development in S...
December 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999539/an-overview-of-systematic-reviews-of-ginkgo-biloba-extracts-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#12
REVIEW
Hong-Feng Zhang, Li-Bo Huang, Yan-Biao Zhong, Qi-Hui Zhou, Hui-Lin Wang, Guo-Qing Zheng, Yan Lin
Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBEs) have been recommended to improve cognitive function and to prevent cognitive decline, but earlier evidence was inconclusive. Here, we evaluated all systematic reviews of GBEs for prevention of cognitive decline, and intervention of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Six databases from their inception to September 2015 were searched. Ten systematic reviews were identified, including reviews about Alzheimer's disease (n = 3), about vascular dementia (n = 1), about both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia (n = 2), about Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia and mixed dementia (n = 3), and a review about MCI (n = 1)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979609/tinnitus-therapy-using-tailor-made-notched-music-delivered-via-a-smartphone-application-and-ginko-combined-treatment-a-pilot-study
#13
So Young Kim, Mun Young Chang, Min Hong, Sun-Gil Yoo, Dongik Oh, Moo Kyun Park
OBJECTIVE: Notched music therapy has been suggested to be effective for relieving tinnitus. We have developed a smartphone application using tailor-made notched music for tinnitus patients. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of this smartphone application on reducing tinnitus. In addition, we investigated the predictive factors for tinnitus treatment outcome using this smartphone application. METHODS: A total of 26 patients who were chronically distressed by tinnitus with a ≥18 Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) score were recruited from March 2013 to March 2015 (National Clinical Trial (NCT) Identifier Number 01663467)...
December 12, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976243/seasonal-variations-of-the-contents-of-genistein-and-6-hka-in-ginkgo-biloba-l-leaves-from-different-regions-of-china
#14
K Kuchta, J B Yao, X Du, H H Jin, L Fang, H Min, H X Qiao, R W Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976242/neuroprotective-activity-in-vivo-and-hplc-determination-of-6-hydroxykynurenic-acid-6-hka-an-active-constituent-of-ginkgo-biloba-l-leaves-extract
#15
K Kuchta, H X Qiao, R W Wang, H B Huang, Z M Jin, Y Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976241/the-neuroprotective-activity-of-a-proanthocyanidin-enriched-ginkgo-biloba-l-leaves-extract-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#16
K Kuchta, H X Qiao, H B Huang, L Fang, Y Chen, R W Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974731/egb-761-protects-cardiac-microvascular-endothelial-cells-against-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-and-exerts-inhibitory-effect-on-atm-pathway
#17
Chao Zhang, Deng-Feng Wang, Zhuang Zhang, Dong Han, Kan Yang
Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) has been widely clinically used to reduce myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI). Microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) may be a proper cellular model in vitro for the effect and mechanism study against MIRI. However, the effect of EGb 761 on MVECs resisting hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury is little reported. In this study, H/R-injuried MVECs were treated with EGb 761, then cell viability, apoptosis, ROS production, SOD activity, caspase-3 activity, and the protein level of ATM, γ-H2AX, p53, Bax were measured...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940086/effects-of-ginkgo-biloba-on-dementia-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#18
REVIEW
Qiuju Yuan, Chong-Wen Wang, Jun Shi, Zhi-Xiu Lin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cumulative evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) in the treatment of dementia. DESIGN: Overview of systematic reviews. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were searched in June 2016. Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of GbE on different outcomes in people with dementia or cognitive impairment were included...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917801/effects-of-ginkgo-biloba-extract-on-brain-oxidative-condition-after-cisplatin-exposure
#19
Duygu Aydin, Emine G G Peker, Meryem D Karakurt, Ayşe Gurel, Mustafa Ayyildiz, Şule C Cevher, Erdal Agar, Senol Dane
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on oxidative events of brain in cisplatin-administrated rats. METHODS: Rats were divided into four experimental groups: 1) control (n=6); 2) cisplatin (8 mg/kg, intraperitoneally one dose, n=6); 3) EGb 761 (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 15 days, n=6); and 4) cisplatin + EGb 761 (n=6). After drug administration, rats were sacrificed and brain tissues were removed...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915195/hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-a-unique-and-effective-method-for-ms-fragmentation-behavior-elucidation-of-ginkgolides-and-its-application-to-systematic-research-in-ginkgo-biloba
#20
Xingliang Niu, Jun Luo, Deran Xu, Hongyan Zou, Lingyi Kong
Ginkgolides, the main active constituents of Ginkgo biloba, possess significant selectively inhibition on platelet-activating factor and pancreatic lipase and attract wide attention in pharmacological research area. In our study, an effective hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange method was developed by exchanging the α-Hs of lactone groups in ginkgolides with Ds, which was very useful for the elucidation of the fragmentation patterns of ginkgolides in Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS), especially in accurately distinguishing the type and position of substituent in framework of ginkgolides...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
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